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No.  xn. 

The  Ejected  of  1662 


Cumberland  &  Westmorland 

Sherratt  &  Hughes 

Publishers  to  the  Victoria  University  of  Manchester 

Manchester:  34  Cross  Street 

London:    33  Soho  Square,    W. 

Agents  for  the  United  States 

Longmans,  Green  &  Co. 

443-449  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York 


The   Ejected  of  1662 


Cumberland  &  Westmorland 

Their  Predecessors  and  Successors 





VOL.    I. 



At   the   University   Press 



(  ^ 



University  of  Manchester  Publications 
No.  LXII. 



Abbreviations    Explained 

Principal  Authorities  Consulted 

Chapter  I.     Brief  Summary  of  the  Period 
,,       II.     The  Area  in  Question 
,,     III.     The   Men  and  Their   Story 










I .  The  Carlisle  Group  :  — 

1.  Carlisle  (St.  Mary's  and  St.  Cuthbert's) 

2.  Stanwix    ... 

3.  Crosby-on-Eden 

4.  Wetheral   and  Warwick 

5.  Kirkandrews-on-Eden 

6.  Beaumont  with  Grinsdale 

7.  Burgh-by-sands 

8.  Great  Orton        

9.  Dalston 

II.  The  Brampton  Group:  — 


Castle   Carrock 



Nether  Denton 





10.  Hay  ton 

11.  Stapleton 

12.  Scaleby 

13.  Bewcastle 

14.  Kirkandrews-on 

15.  Arthuret 

16.  Kirklinton 

17.  RoclifEe 




vi  Contents 


III,  The  Lazonbt  Group:  — 

1 .  Lazonby             ...          ...          ■  ■  •                      ••  ■          •  •  •  318 

2.  Hesket-in-the-Forest                327 

3.  Kirkoswald        331 

4.  Renwick             ...          ...          •••          •■•          •••          •••  347 

5.  Addingham       ...          ...           ..          ...          .••          ••■  349 

6.  Great  Salkeld              358 

7.  Melmerby          ..           ...         ...         ...         ...         ••■  383 

8.  Ousby.                387 

9.  Kirkland            391 

10.  Alston                 399 

11.  Ainstable           402 

12.  Croglin               •        ..  406 

IV.  The  Penrith  Group:  — 

1.  Penrith                ...  417 

2.  Edenhall              439 

3.  Newton  Reigny              ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  450 

4.  Greystoke             ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  454 

5.  Skelton ...  479 

6.  Hutton-in-the-Forest                  486 

7.  Castle   Sowerby               492 

8.  Sebergham           499 

9.  Raugbton   Head             502 

10.  Dacre       507 

11.  Watermillock      510 

12.  Matterdale            518 

V.  The  Wigton  Group:  — 

1.  Wigton 520 

2.  Westward  526 

3.  Thursby 531 

4.  Caldbeck 547 

5.  Uldale      554 

6.  Ireby        559 

7.  Bolton      564 

8.  AUhallows  571 

9.  Torpenhow  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  574 

10.   Plumbland  ...  533 

VI.  The  Holm  Cui.tram  Group:  — 

1.  Holm  Cultram 59I 

2.  Kirkbride  ...  ...  ...  ...  595 

Contents  vii 


3.  Bowness 600 

4.  Kirkbampton      ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ••■  606 

5.  Aikton      609 

6.  Bromfield             638 

7.  Aspatria              ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  643 

VII.  The  Keswick  Group:  — 

1.  Crosthwaite          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  647 

2.  Thornthwaite      659 

3.  Threlkeld             667 

4.  Bassenthwaite     ...          .  .          ...          ...          ...          ...  671 

5.  Embleton             ... 677 

VIII.  The  Cockermouth  Group  : — 

1.  Cockermouth       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  681 

2.  Bridekirk  707 

3.  Isel  723 

4.  Dearham  728 

5.  Gilcrux 731 

6.  Cross  Canonby   ..  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  735 

7.  Lorton      738 

8.  Loweswater  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  742 

9.  Brigham  746 

10.  Camerton  758 

11.  Dean         761 

12.  Lamplugh  770 

IX.  The  St.  Bees  Group.  — 

1.  St.   Bees  779 

2.  Workington         786 

3.  Harrington  ...  ..  ...  ...  ...  ...  791 

4.  Distington  799 

5.  Moresby    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  805 

6.  Arlecdon  808 

7.  Whitehaven  ...  810 

8.  Ennerdale ...  ...  815 

9.  Cleator     ... ...  ...  816 

10.  Egremont  820 

11.  Haile        831 

12.  Beckermet  and  Calderbridge    ...  ...  ...  ..  833 

13.  Ponsonby  835 

14.  Gosforth 836 

15.  Drigg       841 




16.  Irton        


17.  Eskdale  and  Wasdale    ... 


,  18.  Muncaster 


19,  Waberthwaite     ... 


20.  Corney     


21.  Bootle       


22.  Whitbeck              


23.  Whicliam              


24.  Millom     



I.  The  Kendal  Groui 

1.  Kendal     ... 

2.  Crosthwaite 

3.  Heversham 

4.  Beetham 

5.  Burton 

6.  Old  Button 

7.  Firbank 

8.  Killington 

9.  Kirkby    Lonsdale 










II.  The  Windermere  Group:  — 

1.  Windermere 

2.  Troutbeck  

3.  Ambleside 

4.  Grasmere 

III.  The  Kirkby  Stephen  Grout 

1.  Kirkby  Stephen 

2.  Crosby   Garrett 

3.  Ravenstonedale 

4.  Great  Asby 

5.  Great  Musgrave 

6.  Brough     ... 

7.  Warcop    ... 



IV.  The  Appleby  Group:  — 

1.  Appleby  (a.  St.  Lawrence;  b.  St.  Michael  or  Bon- 

gate)   1129 

2.  Ormside 1143 

3.  Long  Marton      ...  ...         ...  ...  ...  ...    1147 

Contents  ix 


4.  Dufton 1153 

5.  Newbiggin           ...          ...          ...          •••          ••■          •••  1157 

6.  Milburn               1160 

7.  Kirkby  Thore 1164 

8.  Temple   Sowerby            1173 

9.  Bolton      1175 

10.  Morland               1177 

V.  The  Shap  Group: — 

1.  Shap 1189 

2.  Crosby  Ravensworth     ...          ...          ...          •■■          ...  1196 

3.  Orton       1200 

4.  Bampton             1211 

5.  Askham    ... 1217 

6.  Barton 1224 

7.  Patterdale           1229 

8.  Martindale           1232 

9.  Lowther               1234 

10.  Clifton     1239 

11.  Cliburn 1242 

12.  Brougham           1246 

Chapter  IV.     Their  Works  do  Fot.LOw  Them 1251 


I.     The  Commonwealth  Survey  for  1649      1299 

II.     The   Commonwealth   Survey  for   1656-7  1300 

III.  Ministerial  Augmentations  for  1655 — 1658       ...  ...  1313 

IV.  Collections  for  the  Piedmontese  Sufferers  1655-6         ...  1326 
V.     Conventicle  Returns  for  1669       ...  1329 

VI.     Presentments  for  Nonconformity,  &c.,  1662,  1670,  &c.  1.330 

VII.  Indulgence  Licenses  for  1672       ...  ...  ...  ...  1365 

VIII.  Tithe  and  other  Disputes  1373 

IX.     Dates  of  Parish  Registers  and  Transcripts        ...  ...  1379 

Corrigenda  et  Addenda       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1385 

Bibliography  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...         ...  1409 

Index  1425 


Five  years  ago,  when,  as  a  research  student  of 
Manchester  University,  I  took  in  hand  the  subject  of 
this  worli,  it  promised  no  considerable  fruit.  About 
thirty  names  in  Calamy's  list  of  Ejected  Ministers 
constituted  a  working  basis.  They  were  little  more 
than  names,  and  probably  a  dozen  pages  would  have 
represented  all  the  information  which  then  seemed  to  be 
available.  As  may  be  surmised  from  this,  the  first  idea 
was  to  restrict  enquiry  to  the  thirty  names  referred  to; 
in  other  words  to  test  Calamy  for  this  particular  area; 
but  it  soon  became  clear  that  a  restriction  of  that  kind 
would  have  very  serious  disadvantages,  and  that  it  was 
in  every  way  desirable  to  link  with  the  Ejections  of  the 
Restoration  and  the  Uniformity  Act  the  Sequestrations 
of  the  Commonwealth  Period.  That  was  equivalent  to 
testing  Walker,  whose  book  was  issued  as  a  rejoinder 
to  Calamy's.  The  idea  was  to  fill  in  the  blank  in  the 
various  Incumbent  lists  from  about  1640  to  1662,  with 
a  view  to  seeing  what  men  were  displaced  under  the  two 
regimes,  a  blank  which  is  a  very  serious  one,  and  which 
County  Histories  almost  invariably  ignore.  It  became 
evident,  however,  that,  if  this  principle  were  strictly 
adhered  to,  a  large  amount  of  most  valuable  information 
would  have  to  be  ruled  out;  and  the  idea  was  again 
enlarged.  The  ultimate  aim,  therefore,  has  been  to 
give  a  list  of  Incumbents  for  the  17th  Century.  Nor 
have  I  hesitated  to  give  a  very  liberal  interpretation  to 
the  phrase  "17th  Century,"  overlapping  often  on  both 
sides,  particularly  in  cases  where  the  information  added 
has  not  appeared  in  print.  It  is,  therefore,  very 
necessary  that  the  reader  should  remember  that,  while 
every  care  has  been  taken  to  carry  out  faithfully  the 
enlarged  idea,  make  the  list  in  each  case  as  accurate  and 



complete  as  possible  for  the  period,  the  main  strength 
has  been  devoted  to  the  years  covered  by  the 
Sequestrations  and  Ejections.  County  Histories  are 
fairly  reliable  guides  for  periods  preceding  and 
succeeding  the  one  with  which  I  am  specially  concerned. 
What  promised  to  be  a  comparatively  barren  subject 
has  produced  the  present  considerable  work ;  and  I  have 
most  reluctantly  had  to  refuse  admission  to  further 
material,  or  the  work  would  have  been  even  more 
seriously  large  than  it  is.  The  truth  is  that  to  enquiries 
of  this  kind  there  appears  to  be  no  finality,  and  the 
earnest  student  never  needs  to  despair  of  any  subject, 
however  unpromising  it  may  appear. 

The  particular  attention  of  the  reader  is  called  to  the 
Appendices  and  other  matters  at  the  end  of  the  book. 
Much  of  the  information  given  there  is  of  the  utmost 
importance.  It  supplements  and  occasionally  modifies 
the  text  and  should  be  read  in  conjunction  with  it.  It 
came  to  hand  too  late  to  be  embodied  in  the  work  proper ; 
but  I  felt  that  the  reader  should  be  put  in  possession  of  it, 
though  it  involved  some  sacrifice  of  literary  order  and 

The  book  is  not  meant  to  be  an  apologetic  for  any 
particular  type  of  religious  life.  I  have  had  no  brief 
except  for  historic  facts,  and  I  have  given  to  such  facts 
the  only  interpretation  which  seemed  permissible.  If  I 
have  presented  a  more  favourable  view  of  the  policy  of 
the  Commonwealth  Rulers  in  reference  to  the  Royalist 
Clergy  than  is  entertained  in  some  quarters,  it  is  because 
no  other  view  seemed  open,  so  far,  at  least,  as  this  area 
is  concerned.  Possibly  the  part  of  the  book  which  will 
excite  most  diversity  of  opinion  is  that  which  deals  with 
the  problem  of  Presbyterianism ;  but  here  again  the 
position  assumed  seemed  to  be  the  only  defensible  one. 
The  book  does  not  pretend  to  be  above  criticism.  The 
enormous  mass  of  detail  which  it  contains  makes 
absolute  accuracy  almost  impossible;  and  all  that  I 
claim  is  that  the  best  open  to  me  amidst  the  exactions  of 
a  busy  Pastorate  has  been  put  into  it. 

Preface  xiii 

One  thing,  at  least,  it  is  hoped  the  work  will  do,  viz., 
deliver  writers  on  the  Ecclesiastical  History  of  this  area 
from  the  spell  of  Walker  and  Todd,  under  which  they 
have  hitherto  been.  Without  challenge  of  any  kind,  the 
statements  of  those  two  authors  have  been  taken  on  trust 
by  most  writers  ;  but,  while  both  of  them  gleaned 
diligently  in  the  byways  of  historic  research,  they  are 
quite  unreliable  in  relation  to  matters  of  this  kind. 
Both  have  written  what  is  grotesquely  coloured  and  even 
untrue.  The  writers  have  their  value,  but  the  value  is 
of  a  general  rather  than  specific  character.  As  Dr. 
Todd  himself  puts  it,  their  facts  must  not  be  "pressed 
too  close  at  the  heeles." 

At  least  the  work  can  claim  uniqueness.  I  do  not 
know  of  any  similar  attempt  for  any  other  area ;  and  I 
am  not  surprised;  the  labour  has  been  Herculean,  and, 
while  I  in  no  way  regret  it,  I  am  not  sorry  to  be  able 
to  write  "  finis." 

It  remains  for  me  to  acknowledge  my  indebtedness 
to  those  who  have  given  me  assistance.  The  Clergy, 
with  scarcely  an  exception,  during  three  Summer 
holidays  extended  to  me  the  warmest  welcome  and  the 
most  generous  hospitality.  The  exp>erience  will  remain 
with  me  as  one  of  the  happiest  memories  of  life.  The 
custodians  of  the  Carlisle  and  Chester  Diocesan  Registries 
along  with  Mr.  W.  H.  Satterthwaite,  M.A.,  of  Lancaster, 
who  has  charge  of  the  Transcripts  connected  with 
the  western  portion  of  the  ancient  Archdeaconry  of 
Richmond,  offered  me  every  facility  for  my  work. 
To  the  Bishop  of  Chester,  in  particular,  am  I  greatly 
indebted  for  securing  easy  access  to  the  documents 
belonging  to  that  part  of  his  See  with  which  I 
was  concerned.  To  his  Grace,  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  I  am  grateful  for  permission  to  print  the 
extracts  from  the  Lambeth  MSS.  which  appear  in  the 
work;  also  to  the  Librarians  of  the  Manchester  Free 
Library,  the  John  Rylands  Library,  the  Preston  Free 
Library,  the  Jackson  Library  (Carlisle),  Dr.  Williams's 
Library,   the  Congregational   Library   (Memorial   Hall, 

xiv  Preface 

London),  the  Bodleian,  the  Lambeth  Library,  the  Sion 
College  Library,  the  Authorities  of  the  British  Museum, 
and  the  Record  Office,  the  Town  Clerks  of  Carlisle  and 
Kendal  respectively,  the  Secretary  and  Trustees  of  the 
Presbyterian  Fund,  and  the  Secretary  and  Trustees  of 
the  Congregational  Fund  Board.  Professor  Tout, 
M.A.,  and  Principal  Gordon,  M.A.,  have  taken  real 
interest  in  the  work  from  the  beginning,  and  helped  me 
with  many  valuable  suggestions.  The  latter,  in  par- 
ticular, has  laid  me  under  great  obligation  by  his  most 
generous  assistance  in  many  directions.  In  addition  to 
much  else,  the  comprehensive  Index,  which  is  not  the 
least  valuable  part  of  the  book,  is  almost  entirely  his  work. 
Professor  Firth,  M.A.,  Litt.D.  of  Oxford  also,  who 
has  seen  much  of  the  MS.,  has  assisted  not  a  little  by 
his   kindly  encouragement. 

If  the  book  in  any  way  stimulates  pursuit  of 
knowledge ;  suggests  sources  of  information  for  those 
who  desire  to  write  Parish  Histories ;  and  quickens 
interest  in  the  great  religious  problems  of  the  17th 
Century  my  labour  will  have  been  to  good  purpose. 


The  Manse, 

Bairstow  Street, 

December,  191 1. 


Cal.  S.P.  Dom. 

S.P.  Dom. 



Al.  Ox. 

Ath.  Cant. 

Cant.  Grad. 

Nicolson  and  Burn. 




Non.  Mem. 


Neal's  Hist.  Pur. 
Trans.  (O.S.). 

Trans.   (N.S.). 

Rel.  Bax. 
W.  Ath. 
Hist.  Eng.  Ch. 

MS.  Min.  Bk.  Cock.  Ch. 

Bodl.  MSS. 
Lewis's  Hist. 



C.S.   (O.S.). 

C.S.  (N.S.). 




Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Domestic  Series. 

State  Papers,  Domestic  Series. 

Lords  Journal. 

Commons  Journal. 

Foster's  Alunmi  Oxoni&nses. 

Cooper's  Athenae  Cantabrigienses. 

Cantabrigienses   Craduati. 

History  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland. 

History  of  Cumberland. 

History  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland. 

Calamy's  Account  of  the  Ejected  Ministers. 

Palmer's  Nonconformist's    Memorials. 

Bishop  Nicolson's  Miscellany  Accounts  of  the 
Diocese  of  Carlisle,   1703-4. 

History  of  the  Puritajis  (1737  Edition). 

Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  West- 
morland Archaeological  Society,  Old 

Transactions  of  the  C.  and  W.  Archaeological 
Society,  New  Series. 

Reliquiae  Baxterianae. 

Sufferings  of  the  Clergy. 

Wood's  Athenae. 

Shaw's  History  of  the  English  Church  during 
the  Civil  Wars  and  under  the  Common- 
wealth (1640—1660). 

HS.  Minute  Book  of  the  Cockermouth  Con- 
gregational Church. 

Historical  MSS.  Commission. 

MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  Library. 

History  of  the  Congregational  Church,  Cock- 

History  of  the  Rebellion  (1839  Edition), 

Historical  Memorials. 

Chetham  Society  Publications,  Old  Series. 

Chetham  Society  Publications,  New  Series. 

History  of  the  Presbyterians  in  England. 

M'Crie's  Annals  of  English  Presbytery, 

Letters  and  Journals. 

xvi  Abbreviations 

Hist.  Eng.  Cong.  Dale's  History  of  English  Congregationalism. 

Macphail.  The  Presbyterian  Church  :  Its  Doctrine,  Wor- 
ship and  Polity. 

Eng.   U.   Hist.  Gordon's  Heads  of  English  Unitarian  History. 

Lamb.   MSS.  MSS.  in  the  Lambeth  Library. 

Brit.   Mus.  British   Museum. 

Add.  MSS.  Brit  Mus.  Additional  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum. 

The  following  also  may  assist  the  reader  in  relation  to  the  extracts 
from  original  documents ;  and  it  may  be  well,  further,  to  point  out  that 
to  avoid  needless  repetition  the  documents  themselves  are  frequently 
abbreviated.  The  reader,  however,  who  is  so  disposed,  can  easily  fill  in 
the  blanks,  by  comparing  those  of  the  same  MS.  together.  Invariably  a 
complete  one  is  given  somewhere.  Take  Lamb.  MS.  996  for  example — 
an  unabbreviated  extract  appears  under  Ireby,  p.  560  : — 

yy  =  they. 
yt  =  that, 
or  =  our 

pducing  =  producing.     Almost  invariably  contractions  take  place  in  com- 
binations of  a  vowel  with  "r." 
pish  =  parish, 
pills  =  perils. 
pnt  =  present. 
wn  =  when.  > 

yrf ore  =  therefore 
Lp  and  Lorp  =  Lordship, 
possions  =  possessions, 
exaied  =  examined, 
accoted  =  accounted, 
povicon  =  provision. 

memorandum  memorandum.     Latin  endings  are  frequently  cut  off. 
yrly  =  yearly. 
sd  =  said 
sevall  =  several 
pfitts= profits 
pliamt = parliament 
pticulers  =  particulars. 


I.  Paeish  Registers, 

About  130  of  these  have  been  examined  and  they  have 
supplied  information  of  the  utmost  value.  It  is  not 
suggested  that  the  examination  has  been  minute  and 
complete  for  each  document.  That  would  have  been  a 
very  serious  task,  as  the  area  is  large,  and  many  of  the 
places  are  remote  from  any  railway  station.  On  an 
average  two  hours  each  sufficed,  the  search  being  restricted 
to  the  period  with  which  this  work  is  concerned.  A 
sentence  or  two  descriptive  of  their  condition  appears 
under  each  heading. 

II.  Manuscripts. 

1.  Plundered  Ministers  MSS. 

There  are  over  60  of  these  in  the  Lambeth  Library, 
varying  considerably  in  size.  Dr.  Shaw  ("  English 
Church,"  &c.,  vol.  ii.)  describes  them.  They  have  all 
been  carefully  examined,  and  whatever  related  to  our 
area  has  been  transferred  to  this  work.  With  reference 
to  MS.  1021  Dr.  Shaw  writes  :  "  missing  for  a  long  time." 
This  document  has  been  quite  recently  found  by  the 
present  Librarian  after  being  lost  for  80  years.  With  the 
exception  of  the  Librarian  and  the  Archbishop,  I  was  the 
only  person  who  had  seen  it  at  the  time.  It  is  a  very 
bulky  volume,  would  seem  to  be  five  or  six  volumes  in  one, 
is  in  a  dilapidated  condition  and  without  covers.  It  is  a 
rough  Note  Book  of  the  Trustees'  Meetings,  and  covers  the 
years  January  1654,  to  September  1657.  The  notes  are 
considerably  better  written  and  fuller  than  is  usually  the 
case,  and  the  volume  is  of  real  value. 

In  the  Record  Office  are  about  10  volumes  dealing  with 
the  same  matters,  which  also  have  been  inspected  in  so 
far  as  they  relate  to  our  area. 

In  Sion  College  is  one  MS.  but  it  contains  nothing  with 
which  we  are  particularly  concerned. 

xviii  Authorities 

Three  MSS.  in  tlie  British  Museum  (Add.  MSS.,  15669, 
15670,  15671)  have  been  carefully  inspected  with  rich 
results;  and  similarly  the  nine  volumes  in  the  Bodleian, 
appearing  as  the  Bodl.  MSS.  322—329.  MS.  330  is  now 
Eawl.  D.  711.  It  is  a  mere  fragment  containing  names 
of  Ministers  who  subscribed  the  Engagement  of  1649. 
Nos.  328  and  329  have  nothing  relating  to  our  area. 
There  are  in  the  Lambeth  Library  also  several  volumes 
of  Surveys  which  have  been  examined. 

2.  State  P a/per s. 
These  are  in  the  Record  Office.  Almost  invariably  I  have 
gone  to  the  originals  an,d  copied  accordingly,  not  being 
content  with  the  summaries  given  in  Calendars,  which, 
while  good  as  guides,  often  omit  interesting  and  necessary 
details.  The  student  will  be  well  advised  to  do  this  as  far 
as  possible.  To  these  may  be  added  the  Institution  and 
Composition  Books  together  with  the  Exchequer  Deposi- 
tions and  Exchequer  Bills  and  Answers  (Legal  Search 
Room).  The  latter  in  particular  are  extremely  valuable 
and  being  arranged  in  Counties  are  easily  used. 

3.  The  Rawlinson  MSS. 

A  large  collection  in  the  Bodleian,  which  has  only  been 
indifferently  worked  by  writers  on  Nonconformist  History, 
and  yet  in  it,  especially  the  Letter  series,  are  immense 
materials  of  the  utmost  value  for  the  purpose. 

4.  The  Birch  MSS. 
These,  which  now  include  the  Ayscough  MSS,  are  in  the 
British  Museum.  They  are  a  large  and  most  valuable 
collection,  the  Letter  series  especially  being  rich.  They 
have  been  more  largely  used  by  writers  on  Nonconformist 
History  than  the  Rawlinson  MSS.,  but  there  is  still  much 
that  has  never  appeared  in  print. 

5.  The  Walker  31 SS. 
These  are  in  the  same  Library.    Walker's  own  notes  are 
of  little  use  because  they  have  been  largely  embodied  m 

Authorities  xix 

his  "Sufferings  of  the  Clergy,"  whilst  his  writing  is 
execrable.  But  besides  copies  of  some  rare  pamphlets  and 
other  materials  the  MSS.  contain  the  original  contribu- 
tions of  Walker's  correspondents  in  various  parts  of  the 
country.  These  give  interesting  views  from  behind,  which 
often  considerably  modify  the  front  view. 

6.  House  of  Lords  MSS. 
In  the  Library  of  the  House  of  Lords.  Among  other 
documents  are  the  original  Petitions  of  the  Clergy,  who 
sought  restoration  to  their  livings  in  1660.  A  list  is  given 
in  the  7th  Eeport  of  the  Hist.  MSS.  Com.,  Pt.  I,  pp.  104, 
108.  Those  relating  to  our  area  have  been  copied  and 

7.  The  Machell  and  Nicolson  MSS. 
The  first  are  the  work  of  Thomas  Machell,  Rector  of 
Kirkby  Thore.  There  are  several  volumes  of  miscel- 
laneous matters  relating  to  the  two  Counties,  and  occa- 
sionally they  supply  items  of  interest.  They  are  in  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  Library,  Carlisle.  The  Nicolson  MSS, 
the  work  of  Bishop  Nicolson,  are  in  the  same  place,  and 
are  mainly  extracts  from  the  Episcopal  Register.  They 
were  largely  used  by  Nicolson  and  Burn  in  their  work, 
and  so  have  yielded  little  independent  assistance  for  this. 

8.  The  Kendal  Indictment  and  Order  Books. 
These  are  in  the  custody  of  the  Town  Clerk  of  that  town, 
who  gave  every  facility  for  consulting  them. 

9.  The  Carlisle  Chamberlain's  Accounts. 
These  are  in  the  custody  of  the  Town  Clerk,  who  readily 
placed  them  at  my  disposal. 

10.  The  Evans  and  Baxter  MSS. 

Both  are  in  Dr.  Williams's  Library,  London.  The 
former  are  largely  used  in  James's  "  Presbyterian  Chapels 
and  Charities."  The  latter,  the  Letter  series,  in  particular, 
gave  a  few  results. 

XX  Authorities 

11.  The  Minutes  and  Cash  Boohs  of  the  Presbyterian 

A  large  and  well  kept  collection  in  Dr.  Williams's 
Library,  dating  from  1690  and  continuing  with  scarcely 
a  break  to  tbe  present  time, 

12.  The  Minutes  of  the  Congregational  Fund  Board. 

Tliese  are  in  tbe  Muniment  Room  of  the  Memorial 
Hall,  London.  They  are  not  near  so  rich,  full,  and  well 
kept  as  those  of  the  Presbyterian  Fund.  They  begin 
with  December  1695,  and  the  first  volume  ends  with 
1699.  Volume  II.  is  from  1700—1704,  and  Vol.  III. 
1738 — 1747.  There  appears  therefore  to  be  a  considerable 
gap  in  them.  Taken  along  with  the  Minutes  of  the  Pres- 
byterian Fund  they  are  invaluable  for  purposes  of  Non- 
conformist History;  and  it  is  surprising  that  so  little  use 
has  been  made  of  them. 

13.  The  Jackson  MSS. 

These  were  the  work  of  the  late  Wm.  Jackson,  F.S.A., 
who  bequeathed  them  with  many  of  his  rare  books  to  the 
Carlisle  Library  where  they  form  the  Jacksoniana  Biblio- 
theca.  The  MSS.  contain  Will  extracts.  Pedigrees  and 
other  interesting  material  which  he  collected  in  his 
life  time.  A  catalogue  of  this  Library  has  recently  been 

14.  Transcripts,  etc. 

Those  kept  at  Carlisle  and  Lancaster  have  been  examined, 
so  also  has  the  Carlisle  Episcopal  Register.  At  Chester 
the  Act  and  Visitation  Books  have  been  similarly  treated. 

15.  The  Larkham  MSS. 

These  include :  — 

(a)  The  Cockermouth  Church  Book.  This  was  the  work 
of  George  Larkham  until  his  death,  a  few  additions  being 
made  by  later  hands.  It  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
Deacons  of  the  Cockermouth  Congregational  Church. 

(6)  The  Diary  of  Thomas  Larkham  from  1647.  This  is 
a  most  remarkable  document  and  is  about  the  same  size 
as  the  Cockermouth  Church  Book.  There  appear  to  be  in 
it  at  least  five  different  handwritings :  — 

Authorities  xxi 

1.  That  of  the  original  owner  who  seems  to  have  been 
an  apothecary.  The  writing  here  is  beautiful  and  the 
entries  are  such  as  would  concern  his  business.  The  date 
in  this  writing  goes  back  at  least  to  1697. 

2.  Near  the  end  of  the  book  are  several  pages  occupied 
with  Christenings,  Burials  and  Receipts  in  "  or  [our]  prish 
church  of  East  Greenwch,  by  G.  L.  then  elected  Clarke," 
beginning  with  December  1615.  The  writing  is  small 
and  neat,  but  distinctly  different  from  the  other. 

3.  Thomas  Larkham  was  sometime  Minister  of  East 
Greenwich,  and  probably  the  book  came  into  his  possession 
through  this  connection.  He  used  it  as  a  Diary  and  Book 
of  Accounts  and  the  earliest  date  is  1647.  These  items 
appear  in  the  various  spaces  which  the  other  writers  had 
left;  but  Larkham  was  not  satisfied  with  that,  he  has 
written  on  the  top  of  the  other,  actually  using  their  words 
and  letters  wherever  possible  for  his  own  purpose.  The 
result  is  that  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  pick  out  his 

4.  From  Thomas  Larkham  the  book  appears  to  have 
passed  on  to  his  son  George,  the  Cockermouth  Minister, 
who  fills  in  remaining  spaces  and  adds  copies  of  letters 
which  Mr.  Lewis  has  printed. 

5.  The  next  writer  is  Larkham  Bowes,  George  Lark- 
ham's  grandson,  whose  entries  are  few. 

The  MS.  is  owned  by  H.  M.  Fawcett,  Esq.,  of  Whitley 
Bay,  a  descendant  of  Larkham,  who  kindly  lent  it  me  for 
some  time.  It  is  very  doubtful  if  a  complete  transcript 
can  ever  be  made  owing  to  the  superimposition  of 
Larkham's  writing  upon  the  original;  and  the  task  of 
making  a  fairly  readable  one  is  very  serious.  I  have, 
however,  proceeded  some  way  through  it.  The  MS.  is 
soiled  and  worn  in  places ;  and  was  rebound  by  the  owner 
a  short  time  ago. 

16.  The  Bradshaigh  MS. 

This  is  a  most  valuable  document  throwing  vivid  light 
upon  the  sufferings  of  Nonconformists  during  the  period 

xxii  Authorities 

of  the  Stuart  reigns.  It  is  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Farrer, 
who  permitted  me  to  make  considerable  extracts  from  it. 
It  relates  mainly  to  Lancashire,  but  has  several  times 
served  to  illustrate  points. 

III.     Printed  Books. 

Among  County  Histories  that  of  Nicolson  and  Burn, 
published  in  1777,  stands  easily  first.  Though  some  areas 
are  treated  very  indifferently,  especially  the  West 
Cumbrian  side,  it  has  served  as  a  working  basis  and  been 
found  exceedingly  useful.  Hutchinson's  History  in  two 
volumes,  published  in  1794,  is  restricted  to  Cumberland. 
In  relation  to  the  inquiries  with  which  this  work  is  con- 
cerned, it  adds  little  new  and  simply  copies.  Jefferson's 
book  is  incomplete.  Published  during  the  years  1838  to 
1842,  the  author  has  given  only  three  volumes  :  "Allerdale 
above  Derwent,"  "  History  of  Carlisle,"  and  "  History  of 
Leath  Ward."  It  is  disappointing  because  it  promises  in 
the  Preface  to  supply  the  lack  of  the  other  Historians  in 
regard  to  the  Incumbents  of  the  various  Parishes,  and  yet 
it  merely  copies.  Whellan's  "  History  of  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland,"  published  in  1860,  contains  nothing  fresh 
but  inaccuracies,  of  which  there  is  an  abundance.  Very 
early  I  came  to  see  that  it  was  quite  unreliable.  The 
"  Victoria  County  History  "  has  not  proceeded  sufficiently 
far  to  be  of  service ;  but  the  Chapter  on  the  Ecclesiastical 
History  of  Cumberland  is  not  assuring.  There  is  a  great 
opportunity  for  a  thoroughly  good,  up  to  date  History  for 
these  two  Counties,  which  will  do  for  them  what  Baines 
has  done  for  Lancashire.  The  two  Histories  by  Chancellor 
Ferguson,  published  by  Elliot  Stock,  are  true  to  their 
name,  "  Popular  " ;  but  both,  along  with  the  "  Diocesan 
History  of  Carlisle  "  by  the  same  writer,  have  been  useful 
for  their  panoramic  views.  The  area  is  not  rich  in  purely 
Local  Histories,  but  those  in  existence  have  been  consulted. 
The  Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland 
ArchiEological  Society,  numbering  some  sixteen  volumes, 
Old  Series,  and  ten.  New  Series,  have  been  carefully 
examined.     The  articles  are  sometimes  written  more  for 

Authorities  xxiii 

popular  consumptiou  than  with  a  view  to  the  needs  of  the 
student;  but  they  invariably  indicate  valuable  sources  of 

Baxter's  "  Reliquiae "  is  indispensable  to  the  student 
who  would  know  the  spirit  and  tendencies  of  the  time. 
Wood's  "Athenae,  Oxon,"  Brook's  "  Lives  of  the  Puritans,'' 
Marsden's  "  History  of  the  Puritans,"  and  in  particular 
Neal's  "  History  of  the  Puritans "  have  been  frequent 

Calamy's  "  Account  of  the  Worthy  Ministers  who 
were  Ejected,  &c.,"  has  been  in  constant  requisition. 
I  have  had  by  me  the  First  Edition,  published  in  1702,  a 
very  unpretentious  little  work  of  one  volume,  only  about 
half  of  which  is  occupied  with  the  "Account."  In  most 
cases  the  information  is  very  meagre,  little  more  than 
names  being  given.  The  Second  Edition,  published  in 
1713,  the  Continuation  making  Vols.  III.  and  lY.,  being 
added  in  1727,  is  the  one  used  throughout  this  work. 
Palmer  undertook  to  "  abridge,  correct,  methodize  "  and 
make  additions,  and  an  Edition  called  the  "  Second 
Edition  "  appeared  in  1775.  The  work  was  reissued  in 
1802-O  and  again  it  is  called  a  "  Second  Edition."  It 
differs  somewhat  from  the  1775  Edition.  If  there  was  a 
First  Edition  I  have  not  seen  it;  but  the  others  are  in  my 
possession.  Palmer,  however,  has  not  done  his  work  well; 
and  I  greatly  prefer  the  original  Calamy. 

Walker's  "  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy  "  has  had  its  place 
side  by  side  with  Calamy.  Criticisms  of  this  book  appear 
in  the  work  and  the  original  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  are  an 
interesting  commentary  upon  it.  Hanbury's  "  Historical 
Memorials,"  Wilson's  "Dissenting  Churches,"  and  Hunter's 
"Life  of  Oliver  Heywood"  have  yielded  considerable  help. 
Dr.  Shaw's  "History  of  the  English  Church,  &c.,"  has  been 
of  the  greatest  assistance,  not  only  in  its  careful  discussion 
of  17th  Century  religious  problems  ,  but  as  a  guide  to  the 
MS.  collections  open  to  students  of  that  period. 

Presbyterian  Historians,  like  Dr.  Drysdale,  Dr.  M'Crie, 
and  the  Eev.  W.  M.  Macphail,  M.A.,  have  been  carefully 

xxiv  Authorities 

lead,  even  as  have  Congregational  Historians  like  Dr. 
Dale,  Dr.  Stoughton,  Dr.  Dexter,  and  Dr.  Brown. 

Tlie  Calendars  of  State  Papers,  several  Reports  of  the 
Historical  MSS.  Commission,  the  Journals  of  the  House  of 
Lords  and  the  House  of  Commons  have  been  consulted; 
but,  as  previously  intimated,  in  almost  all  cases  I  have 
gone  behind  Calendars  and  Reports  to  original  documents. 

Very  large  use  has  been  made  of  Foster's  monumental 
work,  "Alumni  Oxonienses."  A  considerable  proportion 
of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  men  went  to  Oxford  for 
their  training,  to  Queen's  College  in  particular.  Cooper's 
"Athenae  Cantabrigienses "  has  occasionally  given  assist- 
ance, but,  breaking  off  near  the  end  of  the  16th  Century,  it 
rarely  touches  the  period  with  which  we  are  concerned. 
The  "  Cantabrigienses  Graduati "  begins  with  1659  and  so 
there  is  a  gap  at  the  point  where  assistance  is  most  needed. 

Gough's  copy  of  the  "  Graduati  "  in  the  Bodleian  is  the 
one  that  has  been  used.  Scott's  "  Fasti,"  "  Catalogue  of 
Edinburgh  Graduates "  (Bannatyne  Ckib),  Baillie  s 
Letters,  &c.,  have  all  yielded  their  quotas. 

For  the  general  history,  Gardiner's  "  History  of  the 
Commonwealth"  and  "The  Cambridge  Modern  History," 
not  forgetting  Hume,  Clarendon,  Macaulay,  and  Green, 
are  the  books  upon  which  I  have  mainly  relied. 

Large  use  has  been  made  of  the  Tracts  of  the  Period  as 
catalogued  in  the  Thomason  Tracts;  and  as  treasured  in 
the  Jackson  Library,  Carlisle,  British  Museum,  and 
Bodleian.     Notices  of  these  appear  in  the  work. 

A  rich  storehouse  of  material  will  be  found  in  the 
Quaker  literature  of  the  time,  even  when  the  student  is 
not  dealing  directly  with  the  Quaker  movement.  Fox's 
"  Journal,"  Story's  "  Life,"  Besse's  "  Sufferings  of  the 
Quakers,"  Sewell's  "  History  of  the  Quakers,"  Smith's 
"  Bibliotheca  Anti-Quakeriana,"  "  The  First  Publishers  of 
the  Truth,"  Ferguson's  "  Early  Friends,"  with  many 
other  minor  works  have  been  in  constant  requisition. 
With  reference  to  Besse  and  others  one  has  sometimes 
been  a  little  disquieted  by  serious  date  errors,  but  in  other 
respects  we  may  take  them  as  generally  trustworthy. 


Brief  Summary  of  the  Period. 

On  the  29tli  of  May,  1660,  Charles  II.  entered  London 
to  take  possession  of  his  father's  throne.  It  was  the 
King's  birthday,  his  thirtieth,  a  very  happy  coincidence, 
and  the  welcome  extended  to  him  lacked  nothing  in  the 
way  of  cordiality  and  warmth.  Indeed,  his  journej^  from 
Dover,  where  he  landed  on  the  25th,  was  a  triumphal 
march.  Pepys,  one  of  the  Royal  party,  writes  about  his 
reception  in  the  following  terms: — "Infinite  the  crowd 
of  people  and  the  horsemen,  citizens  and  noblemen  of 
all  sorts.  The  Mayor  of  the  town  came  and  gave  him  his 
white  staff e,  the  badge  of  his  place,  which  the  King  did 
give  him  again.  The  Mayor  also  presented  him  from  the 
town  a  very  rich  Bible,  which  he  took  and  said  it  was 
the  thing  that  he  loved  above  all  things  in  the  world.  A 
canopy  was  provided  for  him  to  stand  under,  which  he 
did,  and  talked  awhile  with  General  Monk  and  others, 
and  so  into  a  stately  coach  there  set  for  him,  and  so  away 
through  the  towne  towards  Canterbury,  without  making 
any  stay  at  Dover.  The  shouting  and  joy  expressed  by 
all  is  past  imagination.^"  John  Evelyn,  another  Diarist 
of  that  period,  thus  refers  to  his  entrance  into  London 
on  the  29th:— "With  a  triumph  of  above  20,000  horse 
and  foote,  brandishing  their  swords  and  shouting  with 
inexpressible  joy;  the  wayes  strew'd  with  flowers,  the 
bells  ringing,  the  streetes  hung  with  tapistry,  fountaines 
running  with  wine;  the  Aiaior,  Aldermen  and  all  the 
Companies  in  their  liveries,  chaines  of  gold  and  banners; 
Lords  and  Nobles  clad  in  cloth  of  silver,  gold  and  velvet; 
the  windows  and  balconies  well  set  with  ladies ;  trumpets, 
music,  and  myriads  of  people  flocking,  even  so  far  as  from 

1.  Diary,  edited  by  Lord  Braybrooke  (1890  Ed.),  p.  37. 

2  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Eochester,  so  as  they  were  seven  houres  in  passing  the 
Citty,  even  from  2  in  the  afternoone  till  9  at  night.  I 
stood  in  the  Strand  and  beheld  it,  and  bless'd  God.  And 
all  this  was  don  without  one  drop  of  bloud  shed,  and 
by  that  very  army  which  rebell'd  against  him ;  but  it 
was  the  Lord's  doing,  for  such  a  Eestauration  was  never 
mention'd  in  any  history  antient  or  modern,  since  the 
returne  of  the  Jews  from  the  Babylonish  captivity;  nor 
so  joyfull  a  day  and  so  bright  ever  seene  in  this  Nation, 
this  hapning  when  to  expect  or  effect  it  was  past  all  human 
policy."  1  Addresses  of  welcome  poured  in  from  religious 
bodies  all  over  the  country;  grave  and  reverend  divines 
quite  lost  their  heads  over  the  matter,  and  indulged  in 
language  of  adulation  about  the  restored  Monarch  which 
comported  little  with  the  dignity  of  their  sacred  calling. 
Manchester  was  particularly  forward.  Henry  Newcome 
says  that,  as  early  as  May  6th,  he  prayed  for  the  Xing 
"  by  periphrasis  " ;  and  that  the  Saturday  after  (May  12) 
"  they  resolved  to  proclaim  the  king  in  Manchester,  and 
we  went  first  into  the  church,  and  sung  a  Psalm,  and  after 
I  went  into  the  pulpit,  and  prayed  about  half  an  hour, 
wherein  the  Lord  did  affect  all  the  people,  the  change 
was  so  great."  2  This,  he  informs  us,  was  followed  on 
May  24th  by  "  a  public  day  of  thanksgiving  appointed 
by  authority,"  on  which  day  he  preached  on  2,  Sam.  19.  14. 

Preston,  another  Lancashire  town,  was  equally  forward 
and  equally  enthusiastic.  The  King  was  proclaimed  on 
May  11th,  1660,  and  on  the  24th  of  that  month,  William 
Cole,  Minister,  preached  the  sermon.  George  Larkham 
also,  the  Ejected  Minister  of  Cockermouth,  under  date 
May  21st,  says  : — "  Eex  Carolusthe  Second  was  proclaimed 
at  Cockermouth,  with  the  great  triumphing  of  many  wicked 
men."  ^ 

"  Over  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland,"  says  Masson, 
"  flew  the  news  of  the  King's  triumphal  entry  into  his 
Capital,  and  everywhere  with  the  same  delirium  of  joy. 

1.  Diary,  edited  by  William  Bray,  p.  265  (The  "  Chandos  Library"). 

2.  Autobiography,  vol.  xxvi,  p.  120.     C.  S.   (0.  S.). 

3.  Lewis's  Hist.,  p.  146. 

The   Restoration  3 

"In  Edinburgh,  Dublin  and  all  considerable  towns  there 
were  proclamations  and  reproclamations,  with  peals  of 
bell-ringing,  bonfires  and  shouting  mobs,  public  feasts 
and  wine  running  from  the  spouts  for  the  general  benefit, 
drinkings  of  his  Majesty's  health  and  of  Monk's,  and 
burnings  of  Oliver  in  effigy,  by  himself  or  with  a  twin 
effigy  of  the  Devil.  For  months  and  months  the  delirium 
was  to  continue  and  even  to  grow;  nor  through  the  whole 
reign  of  Charles  was  there  ever  to  be  an  end  or  even  much 
visible  abatement  of  that  mood  of  popular  adoration 
of  the  monarch,  with  hatred  to  the  memory  of  Oliver 
and  all  his  belongings,  which  ran  through  the  Island 
like  a  sudden  epidemic  in  the  first  year  of  the  Restora- 
tion." 1 

Barely  nine  years  previously,  after  the  disaster  at 
Worcester,  Cromwell's  "  crowning  mercy,"  Charles  had 
escaped  to  the  continent  with  the  utmost  difficulty;  and 
by  a  strange  irony  of  fate,  the  very  country,  which  had 
so  often  opened  its  gates  to  religious  refugees  from 
England,  offered  as^'lum  for  some  while  to  the  exiled 
Monarch.  The  perils  of  his  flight  and  his  narrow 
escapes  from  capture  appear  always  to  have  been  vividly 
in  his  memory;  and,  during  the  return  voyage,  he 
recited  some  of  his  more  striking  experiences  to  his 
sympathizers.  Pepys,  one  of  the  most  impressionable 
of  men,  declares  how  it  made  him  "  ready  to  weep  to 
hear  the  stories  that  he  told  of  his  difficulties  that  he  had 
passed  through,  as  his  travelling  four  days  and  three 
nights  on  foot,  every  step  up  to  his  knees  in  dirt,  with 
nothing  but  a  green  coat  and  pair  of  country  breeches  on, 
and  a  pair  of  country  shoes  that  made  him  so  soro  all  over 
his  feet,  that  he  could  scarce  stirr."  ^  Yet  when  he  came 
back  Charles  found  the  country  so  intoxicated  with  joy 
that  he  laughingly  remarked  that  it  was  his  own  fault 
that  he  had  not  come  back  sooner.  "  I  find  nobody,"  said 
he,  "  who  does  not  tell  me  he  has  always  longed  for  my 

1.  Life  of  John  Milton,  vol.  vi,  p.  11. 

2,  Diary,  p.   35. 

4  The   Ejected    of    1662 

What  had  led  to  this  swift  and  sweeping  change?  It 
is  usual  to  speak  of  it  as  the  "  E-estoration,"  meaning  by 
the  term  the  return  of  the  King  to  his  father's  throne; 
but,  roughly  speaking,  it  may  also  be  regarded  as  a 
return  to  the  old  order  of  things,  which  had  been 
disturbed  by  the  advent  of  Cromwell  and  the  Common- 
wealth. Only  roughly,  and  indeed,  very  roughly  so.  It 
is  never  possible  for  either  an  individual  or  a  nation  to 
get  quite  back  to  a  status  quo  ante;  and  it  is  certain 
that  the  throne  which  Charles  II.  ascended  was  very 
different  from  that  which  Charles  I.  left  for  the  scaffold. 
To  speak  of  the  Puritan  Kevolution  as  a  failure  is  to 
indicate  ignorance  of  the  real  tendencies  of  things :  the 
failure  was  only  seeming.  Cromwell,  Hampden,  Pym  and 
others  of  their  type,  had  not  lived  in  vain ;  the  Revolution 
and  Restoration  were  distinct  stages  in  the  political  and 
religious  progress  of  the  nation.  The  popular  conception 
may,  however,  for  the  moment  be  admitted;  and  the 
question  arises  as  to  the  cause  of  this  sudden  revulsion  of 
feeling,  this  wild  enthusiasm  for  the  Kingship  and  the 
man,  whose  father  had  been  executed  eleven  years 
previously,  and  who  himself  had  escaped  with  life  only 
after  the  most  perilous  adventures.  The  answer  is  not 

In  the  first  place,  Charles  was  the  son  of  his  father, 
who  in  the  public  eye  had  always  been  much  of  a  martyr. 
The  execution  of  the  King  had  never  been  popular. 
Whether  in  the  interests  of  the  nation  it  was  right  or 
wrong,  necessary  or  otherwise,  is  a  question  which  has 
always  divided  men ;  and  much  may  be  urged  on  either 
side.  To  maintain  that  a  King,  merely  because  he  is  a 
King,  is  not  to  be  held  amenable  to  law  in  all  its  forms, 
sanctions  and  penalties  would  surely  be  a  most  dangerous 
doctrine  to  proclaim.  In  the  ultimate  it  is  the  doctrine 
of  "  the  Divine  Right "  of  Kings  to  "  govern  wrong," 
against  which  the  17th  Century  waged  its  supreme 
conflicts.  But,  whatever  vicM^  be  taken  of  this  purely 
academic  question,  the  execution  of  the  King  had  never 
caught  on  with  the  public.     When  his  head  fell  in  front 

Cromwell's   Rule  5 

of  Whitehall  the  callous  executioner  exclaimed :  — 
"  Behold  the  head  of  a  traitor " ;  but  the  great  crowd 
groaned  with  horror  and  pity.  The  faults  of  the  unhappy 
Monjirch  were  forgotten  in  his  tragic  death;  his  pious 
devotions  impressed  the  awe  stricken  onlookers  with  his 
religious  character;  he  became  enshrined  in  their  thought 
as  a  martyr  for  his  country  and  his  Church;  and  his 
name  was  ever  held  in  sacred  memory  by  his  followers. 
The  opponents  of  Monarchy  risked  much  by  that  act;  the 
monner  of  his  father's  death  was  the  son's  most  valuable 

Then  the  nation  was  still  Royalist  at  heart.  It  had 
indeed  been  strange  if  it  had  been  otherwise.  Behind  it 
were  centuries  of  training  in  this  respect;  long  lines  of 
Kings  and  Queens ;  and  nations  cannot  cast  off  old  habits, 
and  completely  transform  their  character  and  life  in  the 
space  of  a  few  months,  any  more  than  individuals.  At 
any  rate  we  cannot.  We  are  essentially  a  conservative 
people;  we  move  slowly.  Our  Revolutions  are  Evohitions, 
frequently  requiring  long  years  to  mature;  and  it  was 
because  the  Commonwealth  with  its  swiftly  changing 
scenes,  its  drastic  legislation,  and  sudden  overthrow  of 
policies  and  institutions  hoary  with  age,  was  in  sheer 
conflict  with  this  great  law,  which  has  been  operative  in 
all  our  history,  that  its  own  overthrow  was  so  easily  accom- 

Further,  Cromwell's  rule,  from  its  very  nature,  readily 
exposed  itself  to  criticism.  It  was  a  "tyranny"  in  the 
old  Greek  sense  of  the  word ;  a  "  usurpation,"  as  many  are 
still  fond  of  calling  it,  violating  constitutional  usage  and 
law  at  almost  every  point;  and,  while  people  condoned 
frequent  breaches  of  Constitutionalism  in  their  Kings, 
they  were  not  prepared  to  do  so  in  the  case  of  Cromwell, 
whom  they  regarded  as  a  private  individual,  raised  by 
force  of  circumstances  to  a  position  of  absolute  power  in 
their  midst.  His  "  tyranny  "  was  in  many  respects  most 
beneficent ;  it  aimed  at  the  repression  of  vice,  the  purifica- 
tion of  religion  and  the  establishment  of  freedom.  In  his 
speech  to  the  House  of  Commons,  on  May  8th,  1657,  in 

6  The   Ejected   of    1662 

which   he   finally   declined   the   title   of   King,   Cromwell 

says  :  — 

I  have  the  best  I  can,  resolved  the  whole  Business  in  my  thoughts  : 
and  I  have  said  so  much  already  in  testimony  to  the  whole,  I  think 
I  shall  not  need  to  repeat  what  I  have  said.  I  think  it  is  an  "  Act  of  " 
Government  which,  in  the  aims  of  it,  seeks  the  Settling  of  the  nation 
on  a  good  foot,  in  relation  to  Civil  Eights  and  Liberties,  which  are 
the  Eights  of  the  nation.  And  I  hope  I  shall  never  be  found  one  of 
them  that  go  about  to  rob  the  nation  of  those  Eights;  but  "always" 
to  serve  it  what  I  can  to  the  attaining  of  them.  It  has  also  been 
exceedingly  well  provided  there  for  the  safety  and  security  of  honest 
men  in  that  great  natural  and  religious  liberty,  which  is  Liberty  of 
Conscience.  These  are  the  Great  Fundamentals ;  and  I  must  bear  my 
testimony  to  them ;  as  I  have  done  and  shall  do  still,  so  long  as  God 
lets  me  live  in  this  world  :  That  the  intentions  and  the  things  are 
very  honourable  and  honest  and  the  product  worthy  of  a  Parliament.' 

No  serious  student  will  question  that  statement  as  an  honest 
description  of  the  aims  and  ideals  of  that  distinguished  man. 
The  charges  of  simulation  and  hypocrisy,  once  so  freely 
levelled  at  him,  are  now  laid  aside  by  reputable  writers. 
Whatever  view  may  be  taken  of  Cromwell,  there  is  no 
disposition  to  deny  that  he  meant  well,  and  that  his  policy 
made  for  national  righteousness.  Even  good  E-ichard 
Baxter,  who  was  no  friend  of  the  Protector,  whose  judg- 
ments respecting  his  character  and  actions  often  impress 
us  as  singularly  unworthy,  and  who  permitted  himself  to 
indulge  in  language  about  him  common  in  the  lips  of  the 
roystering  Cavalier  of  the  day,  bears  frequent  testimony 
to  the  beneficence  of  his  rule.  Referring  to  Cromwell's 
"  Triers  "  he  says  :  — 

Though  their  authority  was  null  .  .  .  yet  to  give  them  their  due, 
they  did  abundance  of  good  to  the  Church  :  They  saved  many  a 
Congregation  from  ignorant,  ungodly  drunken  Teachers ;  that  sort  of 
men  that  intended  no  more  in  the  Ministry  than  to  say  a  sermon  as 
Eeaders  say  their  Common  Prayers,  and  so  patch  up  a  few  good  words 
together  to  talk  the  People  asleep  with  on  Sunday;  and  the  rest  of 
the  week  go  wilh  them  to  the  Alehouse,  and  harden  them  in  sin  :  And 

1.   Cromwell's  Letters,  etc.,  by  Carlyle  (Chapman  &  Hall),  vol.  v,  pp. 
69,  70. 

National   Chaos  7 

that  sort  of  Ministers  that  either  preacht  against  a  holy  life  or  preacht 
as  Men  that  never  were  acquainted  with  it;  all  those  that  used  the 
ministry  but  as  a  Common  Trade  to  live  by,  and  were  never  likely  to 
convert  a  s^oul ;  all  these  they  usually  rejected ,  and  in  their  stead 
admitted  of  any  that  were  serious  preachers,  and  lived  a  godly  Life  of 
what  tollerable  Opinion  soever  they  were.  So  that  though  they  were 
many  of  them  somewhat  partial  for  the  Independents,  Separatist, 
Fifth-Monarchy-men  and  Anabaptists,  and  against  the  Prelatists  and 
Arminians,  yet  so  great  was  the  benefit  above  the  hurt,  which  they 
brought  to  the  Church,  that  many  thousands  of  Souls  blest  God  for 
the  faithful  Ministers  whom  they  let  in,  and  grieved  when  the 
Prelatists  afterwards  cast  them  out  again.' 

Nor  was  it  alone  in  the  domain  of  religion  that  the  reform- 
ing spirit  of  the  Cromwellian  regime  made  its  presence 
and  power  felt,  it  was  the  same  in  every  department  of 
national  life ;  and,  as  might  be  expected,  one  chief  result 
was  the  deep  and  persistent  hatred  of  all  the  forces  of 
vested  interest,  privilege,  monopoly,  and  vice.  Some 
time,  therefore,  before  his  death,  there  were  distinct  signs 
of  considerable  national  unrest,  and  Cromwell  went  about 
haunted  with  the  feeling  that  his  life  was  in  constant 
jeopardy.  What  would  have  happened  if  he  had  lived 
another  dozen  years,  or  if  his  successor  had  been  as  strong 
and  capable  as  himself,  it  is  not  easy  to  say;  but  the 
moment  Richard  Cromwell  stepped  into  the  vacancy, 
which  his  father's  death  had  created,  the  return  of  the 
Monarchy  was  assured.  The  event  produced  chaos 
everywhere.  The  leaderless  Army,  Avhich  had  fought 
for  the  liberties  of  England,  became  a  serious  menace 
to  law  and  order.  Invincible  on  scores  of  battlefields 
it  was  rent  asunder  by  the  ambitions  and  intrigues  of  its 
officers.  It  was  not  so  much  before,  as  after,  Cromwell's 
death  that  events  ripened  quickly  in  favour  of  Royalist 
interests ;  the  confusion  and  anarchy  followed,  rather  than 
preceded  it;  and,  sick  at  heart  because  of  the  uncertainty 
and  hopelessness  of  the  position,  the  nation  turned  to  the 
King  for  salvation. 

Everything,  therefore,  tends  to  emphasize  the  greatness 
of  the  man,  who  for  a  decade  had  ruled  the  destinies  of 

1.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.  72. 

8  The   Ejected   of   1662 

England  with  a  strength  and  justness  which  compelled 
the  respect,  or  fear,  of  men  everywhere,  and  whose  death 
left  open  the  way  for  Charles  II.  to  ascend  the  throne. 
The  fall  of  the  Commonwealth  was  not  evidence  of  Crom- 
well's weakness,  but  rather  of  his  strength :  when  the 
great  guiding  genius  was  gone  the  debacle  immediately 

The  position  to  which  the  King  was  invited,  and  to 
which  he  came  with  such  lightness  of  heart,  was  no 
sinecure.  Had  he  been  as  strong  as  he  was  weak,  as  wise 
as  he  was  foolish,  as  serious  as  he  was  flippant,  and  as 
energetic  as  he  was  indolent,  he  might  well  have  taken 
the  way  to  it  with  considerable  hesitancy  and  fear.  The 
stupendous  tasks  which  awaited  him  called  for  the  highest 
statesmanship  and  the  most  consecrated  purpose.  The 
religious  difficulty  was  the  main  one;  and  the  religious 
difficulty  is  always  the  greatest  which  a  State  is  called 
upon  to  meet.  That  was  the  rock  upon  which  his  father 
before,  and  his  brother  after  him,  made  shipwreck. 

On  the  4th  of  April,  1660,  Charles  signed  his  famous 
Declaration  at  Breda,  which,  among  other  things,  con- 
tained the  following :  — 

And  because  the  passion  and  uncharitableness  of  the  times  have 
produced  several  opinions  in  religion,  by  which  men  are  engaged  in 
parties  and  animosities  against  each  other ;  which,  when  they  shall 
hereafter  unite  in  a  freedom  of  conversation,  will  be  composed,  or 
better  understood ;  we  do  declare  a  liberty  to  tender  consciences ;  and 
that  no  man  shall  be  disquieted,  or  called  in  question,  for  differences 
of  opinion  in  matters  of  religion  which  do  not  disturb  the  peace  of  the 
kingdom;  and  that  we  shall  be  ready  to  consent  to  such  an  act  of 
parliament,  as,  upon  mature  deliberation,  shall  be  offered  to  us  for 
the  full  granting  that  indulgence/ 

That  passage  suggests  where  the  King's  main  difficulties 
lay.  There  were  many  religious  consciences,  and  some  of 
them  were  "  tender  "  in  the  extreme.  That  few  discor- 
dant voices   were   heard   among   the   shouts   of   welcome, 

1.   Clarendon,  vol.  vii,  p.  506. 

Roman   Catholicism  9 

which  attended  the  King  during  his  triumphal  progress 
from  Dover  to  London,  does  not  argue  a  nation  united 
religiously;  on  the  contrary  it  was  sharply  divided.  We 
have  the  singular  paradox  of  a  people  deeply  devoted  to 
the  Monarchical  principle  in  politics,  while  in  religion 
Individualism  was  largely  dominant.  It  was  pre- 
eminently the  birth  period  of  the  Sects. 

It  will  assist  to  a  better  understanding  of  the  situation, 
as  well  as  prevent  much  confusion  afterwards,  if  we  look 
briefly  at  the  main  religious  divisions,  and  endeavour  to 
ascertain  the  ideas  which  the  various  denominational 
names  in  use  connoted.  It  should  be  noted  that  the 
emphasis  is  upon  the  word  "  main  "  :  for  it  is  quite  unne- 
cessary for  the  purpose  of  this  work  to  deal  with  the  minor 
religious  Sects,  many  of  which  barely  survived  the  Century 
in  which  they  were  born ;  mere  sporadic  movements 
affecting  the  general  volume  of  religious  life  only  to  a 
very  limited  extent. 

Take  first  the  Roman  Catholics,  whose  religious  position 
is  well  known.  Representatives  of  the  faith  of  pre- 
Reformation  times,  since  the  days  of  Mary  they  had  been 
more  or  less  under  a  cloud.  If,  as  is  frequently  alleged, 
the  Stuart  Kings  sympathized  with  them  it  was  only 
secretly.  Repressive  legislation  was  aimed  directly  at 
them ;  and  often,  when  tolerant  and  liberalising  enact- 
ments were  passed,  they  were  excluded  from  their  benefits. 
The  cruel  reign  of  the  great  Catholic  Queen  of  England 
had  burnt  itself  into  the  memory  of  the  nation  beyond  the 
possibility  of  obliteration.  It  became  fiercely  Protestant; 
and  to  be  known  as'a  "  papista  "  was  quite  sufficient  to  put 
a  person  outside  the  protection  of  the  law.  Doubtless 
many  Roman  Catholics  aggravated  the  situation  by  their 
various  "plots,"  aiming  in  them  at  the  re-establishment  of 
their  religion  by  force;  and  wandering  Jesuit  Priests 
assisted  to  keep  alive  and  strengthen  the  popular  suspicion 
and  alarm.  Hence  their  lot  was  almost  invariably  one  of 
considerable  hardship.  Even  Cromwell's  "  tolerant  in- 
stincts," which  led  him  to  give  relief  even  to  Jews,  could 
not  protect  Roman  Catholics  against  a  legislation  which 

lo  The   Ejected   of   1662 

bore  heavily  upon  them.^  Their  numbers  were  not  large, 
and  in  the  Civil  War  they  were  generally  on  the  Royalist 
side ;  hence  they  welcomed  Charles's  return  in  the  belief 
that  it  would  be  followed  by  easier  conditions  for  them- 

Next  we  have  the  Episcopal  party.  Possessors  of  the 
disinherited  Roman  Catholic  Church,  they  had  in  turn 
been  disinherited  when  Presbyterianism  was  established, 
and  during  the  Cromwellian  rule.  The  two  main  principles 
of  Episcopacy,  at  least,  so  far  as  this  country  is  concerned, 
were  then,  as  they  are  now,  rule  by  Bishops  and  alliance 
with  the  State.  Nor  was  this  religious  body  nearly  so 
homogeneous  as  the  older  one  which  it  had  replaced. 
Within  the  Church  was  a  powerful  section  which  deplored 
the  abuses  of  the  Church,  sought  the  purification  of  its 
life,  the  simplification  of  its  ritual,  and  a  considerable 
restriction  of  Episcopal  rule.  "  Puritan  "  was  the  name 
given  to  this  party,  and  it  drew  to  itself  the  more  cultured 
and  spiritually  minded  of  both  Clergy  and  laity  within 
the  Church.  It  is  necessary  to  be  quite  clear  as  to  the 
significance  of  this  term  :  for  few  religious  names  have 
been  more  misunderstood,  and,  in  consequence,  the 
religious  history  of  the  country  has  often  been  greatly 
confused.  Writers  have  frequently  identified  it  with 
"  Separatism,"  the  name  given  to  the  Brownists,  who 
subsequently  came  to  be  known  as  "  Independents  "  or 
"  Congregationalists  " ;  but  the  Puritans  were  not  always 
Separatists,  though  the  Separatists  were  always  Puritans. 
Others  again  have  made  it  synonymous  with  "  Presby- 
terian " ;  but  it  is  a  very  much  larger  and  more  compre- 
hensive term  than  either.  The  truth  is  that  "  Puritan  " 
included  the  reform  party  in  the  Episcopal  Church,  the 
Presbyterians,  the  Independents,  and,  with  the  exception 
of  Roman  Catholics,  the  general  body  of  Nonconformists. 
The  Episcopal  party,  both  Puritan  and  other,  were 
Royalists  almost  to  a  man  :   they  furnished  the  Cavaliers 

1.  Gardiner's  History  of  the  Commonweallh  and  Protectorate,  vol.  iv, 
p.  18. 

Episcopalianism  1 1 

of  the  war,  and  they  never  ceased  to  endeavour  after  the 
King's  return.  They  were  firm  in  the  conviction  that  his 
restoration  would  be  rich  in  results  for  themselves ;  in  par- 
ticular, that  it  would  mean  the  reinstatement  of  their 
Church  in  its  former  position  of  power;  and  in  this  their 
faith  was  not  ill  founded.  With  Charles  II.  Episcopacy 
came  back.  The  House  of  Lords,  abolished  in  1649, 
resumed  its  place  in  the  Constitution;  the  Bishops,  who 
had  fallen  from  power  with  the  abolition  of  Episcopacy  in 
1646,^  returned  to  their  seats  of  authority;  and  the  Clergy 
who  had  been  sequestered  during  the  "  usurpation," 
reappeared  in  considerable  numbers  to  demand  restitution 
of  their  former  rights.  The  State  Papers  have  a  very 
significant  story  to  tell  in  this  respect.  Clergy  and  laity 
alike  clamoured  for  recognition  and  reward,  because  of 
something  done  or  suffered,  either  by  themselves  or  by 
some  relative. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  Independents, 
who  were  particularly  rich  in  names.  In  the  early  days 
of  Elizabeth  they  were  "  Brownists,"  followers,  that  is, 
of  Eobert  Browne,  a  Clergyman,  who  from  the  simple 
study  of  the  Sacred  Scriptures,  was  led  to  the  main 
Congregational  positions;  "  Barrowists,"  a  little  later, 
from  Henry  Barrowe,  who  with  John  Penry  and  John 
Greenwood,  was  executed  for  his  principles  in  the  early 
summer  of  1593 ;  "  »Separatists,"  about  the  same  time 
and  later,  because  they  held  the  twin  doctrines  of 
separation  from  a  corrupt  Church  and  separation  from  a 
worldly  State ;  and  people  of  the  "  Congregational  way," 
because  they  maintained  the  competence  of  each  Congre- 
gation of  Christians  to  rule  itself  in  all  spiritual  things. 
The  Independent  or  Congregational  position  is  clearly 
and  fully  stated  in  the  Savoy  Declaration  of  October  12th, 

1.  The  Journal  of  the  House  of  Commons  under  date  November  24, 
1646,  says  : — "  Whereas  amongst  other  Things  in  the  late  Ordinance  of  9 
Octobris,  1646,  for  the  abolishing  of  Archbishops  and  Bishops  within 
the  Kingdom  of  England,  and  Dominion  of  Wales,  and  for  settling  of 
their  Lands  and  Possessions  upon  Trustees  for  the  use  of  the  Common- 
wealth," etc.     (Vol.  iv,  p.  728.) 

12  The   Ejected   of  1662 

1658,  which  may  well  be  called  the  "  Charter  of  Congre- 
gationalism." It  is  a  truly  remarkable  document, 
especially  for  the  age  in  which  it  was  produced,  and 
represents  with  almost  perfect  accuracy  the  Congrega- 
tional position  of  to  day.  The  work  of  some  two 
hundred  delegates,  the  majority  being  laymen,  represent- 
ing a  hundred  and  twenty  Churches,  it  took  only  eleven 
days  to  complete,  "  part  of  which  also  was  spent  by 
some  of  us  in  prayer,  others  in  consulting,  and  in  the  end 
all  agreeing."  ^  Among  those  present  were  Thomas  Jollie 
of  Altham,  subsequently  Wymondhouses,  Lancashire; 
and  George  Larkham  of  Cockermouth.  Jollie  "  preacht 
before  them  [the  Assembly]  with  acceptance  and  found 
much  of  God's  presence  in  the  meeting  and  of  His  grace 
in  the  management  of  matters  from  first  to  last."  ^ 
George  Larkham,  of  whom  "  the  Church  did  make 
choice  to  go  there  as  their  Messenger,"  began  his  journey 
Sept.  the  20th,  1658.3 

The  Declaration  was  not  issued  as  a  creed  for  the 
binding  of  others;  it  was,  as  its  name  indicates, 
simply  declaratory  of  the  things  most  surely  believed 
by  those,  who  were  of  the  Congregational  way. 
"  Such  a  transaction,"  write  the  authors  in  their  Preface, 
"  is  to  be  looked  upon  but  as  a  meet  or  fit  medium  or 
means  whereby  to  express  that  their  '  common  faith  and 
salvation ' ;  and  in  no  way  to  be  made  use  of  as  an 
imposition  upon  any.  Whatever  is  of  force  or  constraint 
in  matters  of  this  nature,  causeth  them  to  degenerate 
from  the  name  and  nature  of  Confessions ;  and  turns  them, 
from  being  Confessions  of  Faith,  into  exactions  and 
impositions  of  faith."  *  The  following  paragraphs  deal 
with  the  question  of  polity:  — 

To  each  of  these  churches  thus  gathered  according  unto  his  mind 
declared  in  his  Word  He  hath  given  all  that  power  and  authority 
which  is  any  way  needful  for  their  carrying  on  that  order  in  worship 
and  discipline   which   he   hath  instituted    for   them   to  observe,   with 

1.  Hanbury,  vol.  iii,  p.  522. 

2.  Jolly's  Note  Book.     C.S.  (N.S.),  vol.  xxxiii,  p.  129. 

3.  MS.  Min.  Bk.,  Cock.  Ch. 

4.  Hanbury,  vol.  iii,  p.  517. 

Independency  i 3 

commands  and  rules  for  the  due  and  right  exerting  and  executing  of 
that  power. 

These  particular  churches  thus  appointed  by  the  authority  of 
Christ,  and  intrusted  with  Power  from  Him  for  the  ends  before 
expressed,  are  each  of  them  as  unto  those  ends  the  seat  of  that  power 
which  he  is  pleased  to  communicate  to  his  saints  or  subjects  in  this 
world,  so  that  as  such  they  receive  it  immediately  from  Himself. 

As  all  churches  and  all  the  members  of  them,  are  bound  to  pray 
continually  for  the  good,  or  prosperity,  of  all  the  churches  of  Christ 
in  all  places,  and  upon  all  occasions  to  further  it, — every  one,  within 
the  bounds  of  their  places  and  callings,  in  the  exercise  of  their  gifts 
and  graces, — so  the  churches  themselves,  when  planted  by  the  provi- 
dence of  God  so  as  they  may  have  opportunity  and  advantage  for  it, 
ought  to  hold  communion  amongst  themselves  for  their  peace,  increase 
of  love  and  mutual  edification. 

In  cases  of  difficulties  or  differences,  either  in  point  of  doctrine  or 
in  administrations,  wherein  either  the  churches  in  general  are  con- 
cerned or  any  one  church,  in  their  (or  her)  peace,  union  and  edificaticm ; 
or  any  member  or  members  of  any  church  are  injured  in  or  by  any 
proceeding  in  censures  not  agreeable  to  truth  and  order ;  it  is 
according  to  the  mind  of  Christ  that  many  churches  holding  com- 
munion together  do  by  their  messengers  meet  in  a  synod  or  council,  to 
consider  and  give  their  advice  in  or  about  that  matter  in  difference,  to 
be  reported  to  all  the  churches  concerned ;  howbeit,  these  synods  so 
assembled  are  not  intrusted  with  any  church-power  properly  so  called, 
or  with  any  jurisdiction  over  the  churches  themselves,  to  exercise  any 
censures  either  over  any  churches  or  persons,  or  to  impose  their 
determinations  on  the  churches  or  officers. 

Besides  these  occasional  synods  or  councils,  there  are  not  instituted 
by  Christ  any  stated  synods  in  a  fixed  combination  of  churches  or  their 
officers,  in  lesser  or  greater  assemblies ;  nor  are  there  any  synods 
appointed  by  Christ  in  a  way  of  subordination  to  one  another.' 

One  thin^  is  made  clear  by  those  passages,  viz.,  that, 
while  the  authors  of  the  Savoy  Declaration  never  wavered 
in  their  insistence  uipon  the  perfectly  autonomous 
character  of  each  Church,  they  saw  nothing  inconsistent 
therein  with  the  principle  of  association  for  mutual 
counsel,  advice  and  help.  The  rigid  Independency, 
therefore,  of  later  years,  which  was  entirely  self-centred, 
and  from  which  modem  Congregationalism  is  emancipating 
itself,  was  a  serious  departure  from  the  Independency  of 

1.  Hanbury,  vol.  iii,  pp.  545,  548. 

14  The   Ejected   of  1662 

tlie  Commonwealtli.  It  is  surely  a  little  significant  in 
this  direction  that  the  preference  of  the  men  of  those  days 
was  for  the  term  "  Congregational "  rather  than 
"  Independent."  The  Savoy  Declaration  was  "  A 
Declaration  of  the  Eaith  and  Order  owned  and  practised 
in  the  Congregational  Churches  in  England."  ^ 

Some  further  reason  for  this  preference  may  be  found 
in  the  fact  that  the  term  "  Independent "  was  used  less 
precisely  than  the  other.  "  Historically,"  says  Dr.  Dale, 
"  the  two  terms  have  been  used  interchangeably.  For  the 
last  two  hundred  years  most  '  Independents  '  have  been 
Congregationalists — or,  at  least,  the  Churches  describing 
themselves  as  '  Independent '  Churches  have  preserved  the 
traditions  of  the  Congregational  polity.  But  under  the 
Commonwealth  and  the  Protectorate  many  Congrega- 
tionalists objected  to  be  described  as  Independents;  and 
there  were  many  Independents  who  were  not  Congrega- 
tionalists. In  a  word  the  '  Independents,'  sometimes 
called  '  political  Independents,'  were  agreed  on  the  one 
point  that  every  separate  congregation  should  be  free  from 
all  external  ecclesiastical  control,  and  that  the  power  of 
the  civil  magistrate  should  be  altogether  withdrawn 
from  the  province  of  religion  or  should  be  subjected  to 
limitations  that  would  leave  '  tolerated '  congregations  a 
very  large  freedom ;  the  '  Congregationalists '  were  not 
only  agreed  in  asserting  the  independence  of  every 
separate  congregation  but  held  a  very  definite  theory  on 
the  manner  in  which  every  separate  congregation 
claiming  to  be  a  Christian  Church  ought  to  be  organised."  2 
Dr.  Dale  is  correct  as  to  the  fact  of  difference,  but  he  is  a 
little  too  dogmatic  in  his  analysis  of  the  difference.  The 
truth  is  that,  like  some  other  religious  names,  "  Inde- 
pendent "  was  used  with  considerable  laxity ;  and  within 
it  were  included  many  Congregationalists,  not  a  few 
Anabaptists,  and  others  of  the  minor  Sects. 

It  will,  of  course,  be  quite  obvious  that  the  Independent 
or  Congregational  position  was  entirely  at  variance  with 

1.   Hanbury  vol.  iii,  p.  517. 

'2.   Hist.  Eng.  Cong.,  pp.  375,  376. 

Presby  terianism  1 5 

any  form  of  Episcopacy;  and,  though  considerable  differ- 
ences obtained  among  the  men  who  followed  this  "  way," 
both  in  reference  to  doctrine  and  polity,  the  relation  of 
the  Church  to  the  State,  and  the  Monarchy,  generally 
they  were  averse  to  the  King's  return.  Cromwell,  who 
himself  belonged  to  the  Independents,  found  in  them 
his  chief  strength  and  support.  His  famous  Ironsides 
were  drawn  largely  from  that  source;  and,  after  Dunbar 
and  Worcester,  he  and  the  Independents  became  supreme. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  deal  with  the  Anabaptists;  and 
the  other  minor  Sects  may  be  dismissed ;  while  an  account 
of  the  Quaker  movement  is  reserved  for  the  succeeding 

One  further  name,  Presbyterian,  calls  for  attention ; 
and  it  has  been  reserved  for  the  end  because  it  deserves 
much  fuller  treatment  than  has  been  devoted  to  the  others. 
It  will  help  us  considerably  if  we  can  get  an  accurate  idea 
of  the  real  intent  and  content  of  the  name.  Unfortu- 
nately, however,  even  Presbyterian  writers  themselves  are 
much  less  explicit  in  relation  to  the  matter  than  ought  to 
be  the  case.  Dr.  Drysdale  gives  the  following  as  "  the 
three  leading  features"  of  Presbyterianism  :  — 

1.  The  parity  of  preaching  Pastors  or  Presbyters,  who  are  all  the 
presiding  Bishops  of  the  Church,  with  no  higher  order  over  them  by 
divine  right.  Bishops  and  Presbyters  it  holds  to  be  of  the  same 
order ;  and  no  one  can  preside  over  them  by  any  other  tenure  than  as 
Primus  inter  pares,  or  first  among  equals.  In  this  body  or  Council  of 
Presbyter-bishops  is  lodged  by  apostolic  institution  the  right  and 
power  to  obtain  other  Presbyter-bishops. 

2-  Church  Government  and  administration  to  be  in  the  hands  of  a 
body,  or  council,  or  senate  of  elders  and  office-bearers.  We  never 
read  but  of  bishops  or  elders,  and  deacons  in  every  Church  (the 
bishops  or  elders  always  in  the  plural  as  well  as  the  deacons) ;  election 
to  office  being  in  the  hands  of  the  people,  but  Cliurch  rule  for 
doctrinal,  disciplinary,  and  financial  purposes,  being  in  the  hands  of 
the  respective  classes  of  office  bearers. 

3.  Organic  Union,  or  the  right,  duty,  and  privilege  of  different 
Churches  or  bodies  of  the  faithful  to  associate  together  in  organic 
union,  so  as  to  cultivate  and  manifest  an  esprit  de  corps  or  interest  in 
the  separate  Churches'  well  being  at  large  and  secure  the  benefits  of 
the  union  that  is  strength.* 

1.  Drysdale,  pp.  6,  7. 

1 6  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  case  is  not  put  very  clearly,  because  there  is  little 
in  the  passage  which  is  really  distinctive  of  Presbyte- 
rianism.  At  any  rate,  Congregationalism,  which  is  sup- 
posed to  be  its  opposite,  could  use  the  language  as 
descriptive  of  itself  with  very  slight  modification.  Dr. 
Drysdale  is  a  little  more  explicit  when  he  adds  :  — 

Organic  Union  is  to  be  retained  by  means  of  a  Synod  or  Common 
Council  of  the  Elders.  It  is  in  brotherly  Council,  not  in  autocratic 
jurisdiction,  Presbyterianism  finds  the  key  of  both  liberty  and  order 
in  the  Church.  Presbyterianism  proceeds  not  on  any  monarchical 
principle  as  in  Diocesan  Episcopacy,  nor  on  any  merely  associative  or 
co-ordinative  principle  as  in  Congregationalism,  but  on  the  representa- 
tive or  subordinative  principle  embodying  itself  in  Presbyteries, 
Classes  and  Synods,  Assemblies,  or  vyhatever  else  such  gatherings  for 
counsel  or  appeal  may  be  called.' 

The  central  principle  of  the  system,  the  principle,  at 
least,  which  most  clearly  distinguishes  it  from  Congrega- 
tionalism, is  really  suggested  in  the  last  few  words  of  that 
passage.  The  individual  Christian  Society  is  more  or  less 
subject  to  pressure  from  this  outside  authority  represented 
by  Presbytery,  Synod  and  Assembly,  to  which  "  appeal  " 
may  be  made.  Mr.  Black  greatly  depreciates  this  prin- 
ciple. "  The  rule  of  the  eldership  or  Presbyterate  over 
the  congregation,"  he  declares  to  be  of  the  essence  of 
Presbyterianism,  but  "  the  organisation  of  Presbyteries 
and  Synods  "  is  not.^  The  same  tendency  appears  in  the 
latest  writer  on  this  subject.  "  Presbyterianism,"  says 
Mr.  Macphail,  "  might  so  far  as  the  word  goes  mean  the 
rule  of  one  Presbyter,  but  it  is  of  the  essence  of  the 
system  that  the  rule  is  always  exercised  by  a  Presbytery 
or  Council  of  Elders."  ^  This,  of  course,  is  the  Congre- 
gational Presbytery,  Mr.  Black's  "  Presbyterate,"  which 
he  declares  to  be  of  the  "essence  of  Presbyterianism." 
Mr.    Macphail,    however,    gives    among    "the    distinctive 

1.  Drysdale,  p.  7. 

2.  "Presbyterianism  in  England  in  the  18th  and  19th  Centuries,"  by  the 
Rev.  John  Black,  pp.  13,  14 ;  vide  "  An  English  Ulster,"  by  the  Rev.  A. 
Mearns,  p.  3. 

3.  Macphail,  p.  128. 

Presbyterianism  1 7 

features  of  Presbyterianism"  "the  Organic  Unity  of  the 
Church,"  in  relation  to  which  he  says :  — 

A  country  is  divided  into  so  many  districts,  in  each  of  which  all 
the  congregations,  the  strong  and  the  weak,  are  bound  together  under 
the  common  administration  of  the  District  Presbytery,  once  known  as 
the  Classis,  but  now  generally  called  simpliciter  "  The  Presbytery," 
which  is  composed  of  the  minister  and  one  or  more  Elders,  elected  by 
the  Session  of  each  congregation  within  the  bounds.  An  appeal  lies 
from  all  decisions  of  a  Session  to  the  Presbytery.  The  ministers  are 
elected  by  their  respective  congregations,  but  they  hold  office  by 
authority  of  the  Presbytery,  and  are  accountable  to  the  Presbytery 
alone  for  the  discharge  of  their  duties.  Similarly  the  Presbyteries 
are  grouped  together  to  form  Synods.  In  some  cases,  e  g.,  in  the 
Presbyterian  Church  of  England,  the  Synod  embraces  all  the  Pres- 
byteries and  is  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Church,  being  generally 
composed  of  all  the  ministers  and  a  representative  Elder  from  each 
congregation  throughout  the  Church.  Where  there  are  more  Synods 
than  one,  as  in  the  Scottish  Churches,  they  combine  to  form  the 
General  Assembly,  which  in  most  cases  consists  of  the  ministers  and 
representative  Elders  of  a  certain  proportion — a  half  or  a  third  or  a 
fourth — of  the  congregations  in  each  Presbytery  in  rotation.^ 

It  is  difficult  to  avoid  the  feeling  that  it  is  trifling  with 
the  subject  to  thus  emphasize  this  "  essence  "  of  the  "  Pres- 
byterian idea,"  and  belittle  the  elaborate  machinery  of 
Presbytery,  Synod  and  Assembly,  through  which  alone 
this  exterior  "authority"  is  exercised.  The  "essence"  of 
the  "  Congregational  idea "  is  autonomousness ;  each  con- 
gregation of  believers  is  self  contained.  Within  the 
range  of  that  idea  there  is  abundant  scope  for  diversity  in 
relation  to  methods  of  work,  machinery  of  government, 
ordination  of  Ministers,  the  amount  of  authority  to  be 
delegated  to  officers,  etc.  The  "essence"  of  the  "Presby- 
terian idea,"  that  which  presbytrates  it,  is  rule  by  Presby- 
tery, not  as  represented  merely  by  the  local  Church 
Session,  but  by  the  Presbytery  of  a  district,  by  Synod, 
Classis,  and  Assembly.  It  is  this  which  really  differen- 
tiates it  from  Congregationalism.  "  The  two  moot  points 
on  which  Presbyterian  and  Independent  had  been  at  war 
since  1644,"  says  Dr.  Shaw,  "were  ordination  of  the  pastor 

1.  Macphail,  pp.  130,   131. 

iB  The   Ejected   of  1662 

and  the  exercise  of  exterior  authority  over  a  single 
congregation."^  Doubtless  in  relation  to  ordination 
differences  existed,  but  they  were  not  the  things  which 
really  divided  the  two  bodies  :  for,  as  already  intimated, 
among  Congregationalists  themselves  opinions  have  always 
varied  considerably  as  to  the  value  of  ordination,  its 
obligation  and  mode.  The  root  difference  is  the  second  of 
Dr.  Shaw's  "moot  points,"  the  freedom  within  itself,  of 
each  congregation.  At  any  rate  it  was  no  denuded 
Presbyterian  idea  that  was  thrust  upon  the  country  in  the 
17th  Century,  but  Presbyterianism  in  its  fully  organized 
form.  There  is  no  thought  in  all  this  of  comparing  these 
two  forms  of  religious  life  with  a  view  to  showing  the 
superiority  of  the  one  over  the  other.  That  is  not  the 
purpose  of  this  work :  the  aim  throughout  is  to  get  at  the 
real  state  of  things.  Across  the  Tweed,  Prebyterianism 
has  taken  deep  root  and  grown  into  a  rich  and  stately  tree. 
Since  the  days  of  John  Knox,  who  may  be  regarded  as  its 
founder  in  Scotland,  it  has  been  the  prevailing  form  of 
religious  life  there;  and  the  more  than  three  centuries  of 
achievement  which  stand  to  its  credit  make  one  of  the 
most  fascinating  chapters  of  religious  history.  England, 
however,  has  never  seemed  to  provide  it  with  a  congenial 
soil.  That  is  meant  as  no  reflection  upon  it;  it  is  merely 
the  statement  of  a  fact  which  continually  presents  itself 
to  the  student  of  Comparative  E,eligion. 

Introduced  into  this  country  in  the  days  of  Elizabeth 
by  men  like  Cartwright,  who  had  borrowed  it  from  the 
continent,  Presbyterianism  made  no  serious  impression 
upon  the  nation's  thought  and  life,  and  secured  no  per- 
manent foothold.  "  The  Presbyterianism  of  the  days  of 
Elizabeth,"  says  Dr.  Shaw,  "was  an  academic  movement 
principally,  never  in  a  national  sense  a  clerical  movement. 
It  was  apparently  confined  to  three  counties  and  London, 
and  to  a  small  portion  of  the  ministers  even  of  these 
counties.  It  never  asserted  itself  in  actual  organization 
and  fell  away  before  the  close  of  Elizabeth's  reign.  There 
are  no  traces  of  any  inheritance  of  the  ideas  or  influence 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  170. 

Presbyterianism  1 9 

of    ttis    Elizabethan    Presbyterianism    by    tbe    English. 
Puritans  of  the  days  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I."  ^ 

The  testimony  of  Dr.  Roland  Gr,  Usher  is  to  the  same 
effect :  — 

The  movement  is  chiefly  distinguishable  from  later  Presbyterianism 
in  that  it  was  a  movement  inside  the  Church  to  stay  in  it,  or  at  most 
to  modify  its  government.  The  later  movement  was  an  attempt  to 
supplant  the  Established  Church  by  a  systematic  Presbyterian  govern- 
ment. There  was,  moreover,  no  connection  between  the  two  move- 
ments ;  there  was  even  no  continuity  reaching  from  one  to  the  other, 
from  the  Presbyterians  of  Elizabeth  to  the  Presbyterians  of  the  Civil 
War.  .  .  .  The  movement  had  been  one  for  Presbyteriajiism,  but  its 
actual  result  was  Congregationalism. 2 

The  Presbyterianism  of  that  period  was  quite  nebulous ; 
it  provides  abundant  opportunity  for  the  historian  to 
indulge  his  imagination  in  relation  to  the  "  Presbyterian 
idea  "  and  the  "  Presbyterian  essence  " ;  and  the  collapse 
of  the  movement,  sudden  and  complete  as  it  was,  shows 
how  little  it  had  succeeded  in  rooting  itself  in  the  country. 
When  James  I.  ascended  the  throne,  seeing  that  he  had 
been  reared  in  Presbyterianism,  it  was  naturally  ex- 
pected that  he  would  considerably  favour  that  form  of 
faith;  but  those  who  cherished  such  expectations  were 
-doomed  to  speedy  disappointment.  Whatever  else  he 
brought  with  him  across  the  Tweed,  he  left  his  Presby- 
terianism behind.  In  his  own  blunt  fashion  he  quite 
early  made  known  his  opinion  in  relation  to  this  matter. 
"A  Scottish  Presbytery,"  said  he,  "  agreeth  as  well  with 
monarchy  as  God  with  the  devil."  On  the  25th  of 
September,  1643,  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  was 
agreed  to;  and  in  June,  1646,  Parliament  passed  an 
ordinance  by  which  Presbyterianism  became  the  estab- 
lished religion  of  the  country  in  place  of  the  Episcopacy 
which  it  thus  swept  away. 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  i,  pp.  5,  6. 

2.  "  The  Presbyterian  Movement  in  the  Reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  as 
illustrated  by  the  Minute  Book  of  the  Dedham  Classis,  1582-1589,"  by 
Roland  G.  Usher,  Ph.D.  (Harvard),  Intro.,  pp.  xxiv,  xxv. 

20  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Two  facts  require  attention  here.  "English  presbytery," 
says  Dr.  M'Crie,  "  wlien  in  tlie  ascendant,  may  be  said 
to  have  sprung  out  of  the  bosom  of  the  church  of  England. 
It  was  no  exotic  plant,  but  indigenous  to  English  soil.  It 
came  neither  from  Geneva,  nor  Frankfort,  nor  Scotland, 
but  from  her  own  clergy,  many  of  whom  had  long  held  it 
in  theory,  and  who,  as  soon  as  the  arm  of  arbitrary  power 
was  withdrawn,  grew  of  their  own  accord  into  presby- 
terians.  What  is  more,  English  presbytery  had  a 
character  of  its  own,  and  it  may  be  said  to  have  left  its 
peculiar  stamp  on  the  religion  of  Scotland."  ^  Precisely 
the  opposite  to  what  is  there  stated  is  the  fact. 
Presbyterianism  as  thus  established  was  an  "  exotic  " ;  it 
was  not  even  the  free  choice  of  the  nation,  or  of  Parlia- 
ment as  representing  the  nation.  In  its  struggle  with 
the  King,  Parliament  found  itself  compelled  to  look  to 
Scotland  for  assistance ;  the  Solemn  League  and 
Covenant  was  the  price  it  had  to  pay  for  that  assistance ; 
and  the  long  drawn  out  negotiations,  which  preceded  the 
acceptance  of  the  Covenant,  witness  to  the  reluctance  with 
which  it  was  accepted.  It  is  morally  certain  that  had 
there  been  no  Scotch  Army  in  the  Civil  War  there  would 
have  been  no  established  Presbyterianism  in  England 
during  the  Commonwealth.     Says  Dr.  Shaw  :  — 

Ha5  the  success  of  the  Parliament  been  immediate  a<nd  decisive,  as 
was  at  one  time  expected,  the  Church  question  would  have  been 
treated  in  a  purely  national  sense,  probably  on  the  lines  sketched  out 
in  the  debates  on  the  Root-and-Branch  Bill.  There  may  have  been — 
there  doubtless  would  have  been — some  concession  to  clerical  feeling,  but 
there  would  not  have  been,  as  there  subsequently  was,  a  formation  of 
presbyteries,  parochial  and  classical,  possessing  censorial  powers,  and 
proceeding  by  legal  methods.  There  would  have  been  none  of  the 
Scotch  element  of  jurisdiction  in  the  English  Church  of  the  years, 
1643-51.  As  it  was,  no  sooner  had  it  become  apparent  that  the  war 
could  not  be  finished  at  a  stroke,  than  the  necessity  of  securing 
Scotland  for  the  Parliamentary  cause  was  at  once  seen.  The  only 
possible  condition  was  the  adoption  of  the  Covenant — of  a  uniformity 
of  Church  government — so  much  was  known  from  the  first ;  the 
question  then  became  one  of  time,  or  of  the  immediate  fortune  of  the 

1.  Annals,  p.  183. 

Presbyterianism  2 1 

war.  Fortune  declared  against  Parliament,  and  the  Covenant  was 
accepted.  It  may  be  that  a  slight  portion  of  the  Commons  had  no 
dislike  for  a  pure  Presbyterian  System — it  is  certain  that  a  Presby- 
terian party  had  sprung  up  amongst  the  clergy^ — it  may  also  be  that 
the  course  of  the  ecclesiastical  debates  of  the  year,  1641,  had 
educated  the  majority  of  the  Commons,  or  had  habituated  them  to  the 
conceptions  and  terminology  of  a  primitive  Presbyterian  system  in  the 
abstract,  but  none  the  less  the  final  adoption  of  the  Covenant  was, 
under  the  circumstances,  of  the  nature  of  a  capitulation.' 

Robert  Baillie,  one  of  the  eight  ^  Scottish  Commis- 
sioners sent  to  the  Assembly  of  Divines,  at  Westminster, 
whose  first  meeting  was  on  July  1st,  1643,  in  his 
illuminating  letters  tells  a  most  interesting  story  of  the 
long  and  protracted  negotiations,  the  wearisome  discus- 
sions, the  hopes  and  fears  which  alternated  in  the  breasts 
of  the  Scotch  contingent,  and  more  than  once  naively 
states  that  the  pressure  of  the  Scotch  Army  was  needed  to 
speed  progress.  "  Mr.  Henderson's  hopes,"  says  he,  "  are 
not  great  of  their  conformitie  to  us,  before  our  armie  be 
in  England."  3  "The  weakness  of  our  army  .  .  .  and  its 
delay  to  march  southward,  he  continues,  .  .  .  "have 
made  us  [the  Scotch  in  London]  almost  contemptible,  and 
this  contempt  hath  occasioned  jealousie  and  provocations, 
which  may  (if  not  provided  for)  prove  dangerous."*  He 
hopes  "  it  may  please  God  to  advance  our  armie,  which 
we  expect  will  much  assist  our  arguments."  ^  The  case 
is  not  too  strongly  put  by  Dr.  Brown  when  he  says  :  — 
"  When  the  first  regiments  of  the  Scottish  Army  crossed 
the  Tweed,  on  January  19th,  1644,  they  may  be  said  to 
have     brought     Presbyterianism     with     them."  ^        The 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  i,  pp.   141,  142. 

2.  The  Scottish  Commissioners  were  five  Ministers  :  Alexander  Hen- 
derson, Robert  Douglas,  Samuel  Rutherford,  Robert  Baillie  and  George 
Gillespie ;  and  three  laymen  :  John,  Earl  of  Cassilis,  John,  Lord 
Maitland,  and  Sir  Archibald  Johnston  of  Warriston. 

3.  Baillie,  vol.  ii,  p.  104. 
4    Ibid.,  vol.  ii,  p.  26?. 

5.  Ibid.,  vol.  ii,  p.  111. 

6.  Commonwealth  England,  p.  92  :  vide  also  "The  English  Puritans," 
by  the  same  author,  recently  published  by  "The  Cambridge  University 

22  The   Ejected   of  1662 

correctness  of  the  position  here  assumed  is  abundantly 
demonstrated  by  the  early  debates  on  the  Root  and  Branch 
Bill.  Dr.  Shaw  is  generous  in  his  estimate  of  the  growing 
influence  of  Presbyterianism  during,  and  as  the  result  of, 
those  debates.  The  sentiment  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
as  of  the  country,  was  Episcopalian  rather  than  Presby- 
terian ;  and  it  was  a  modified  Episcopacy  for  which 
successive  speakers  pleaded. 

The  other  fact  is  consequential,  viz.,  that  Presby- 
terianism as  thus  established  never  became  popular  and 
was  the  national  religion  only  in  name.  It  has  already 
been  intimated  that  the  Westminster  Assembly  and 
the  House  of  Commons  consumed  nearly  three  years 
before  the  ordinance  for  the  establishment  of  Presby- 
terianism, in  1646,  could  be  agreed  upon  and  issued; 
and  it  took  nearly  three  years  longer  to  complete 
the  "  Directory  for  Public  Worship,"  the  "  Form  of 
Presbyterial  Church  Government  and  Ordination  of 
Ministers,"  with  other  matters  inherent  in  the  system. 
"On  Thursday,  February  22,  1648-9,"  says  Dr.  Dale, 
"  three  weeks  after  the  death  of  the  King,  the  Assembly 
met  for  the  last  time  as  an  Assembly,  and  held  its  one 
thousand  one  hundred  and  sixty  third  session.  It  had 
sat  for  five  years  and  six  months."^  And  those  prolonged 
sittings  were  due  to  heated  controversies,  to  hopeless 
divergencies  of  opinion,  and  to  the  difficulty  of  securing 
decisions  which  Parliament  would  accept.  Three  further 
Parliamentary  ordinances  also  in  support  of  this  new 
religious  system  were  found  to  be  almost  immediately 
necessary.  In  April,  1647,  it  was  reported  to  the  House 
of  Commons  that  there  were  "  divers  obstructions  in  the 
business  of  Church  government,"  and  that  "  in  most  places 
neither  election  of  elders  nor  division  of  classes  had  taken 
place."  2  The  House  promptly  resolved  upon  certain 
remedies.  In  response  to  a  further  appeal  for  help  the 
House  adopted  on  January  27,  1647-'8,  "  an  ordinance  for 
the  speedy  and  more   effectual  settling  the  Presbyterial 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Cong.,  p.  303. 

2.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  14. 

Presbyterianism  23 

government,  and  removing  and  remedying  some  obstruc- 
tions therein."  ^  Again,  on  the  29th  of  August  following, 
was  passed  "  the  Form  of  Church  government  to  be  used  in 
the  Churches  of  England  and  Ireland,"  "  a  comprehensive 
ordinance,  the  last  of  which  was  issued  by  the  Parliament 
on  the  subject  of  the  establishment  of  the  Presbyterian 
system."  2  Yet  though  sent  forthwith  these  high  sanctions 
the  area  in  which  the  Presbyterian  system  succeeded  in 
planting  itself  was  not  considerable.  Dr.  Shaw  names 
the  following  as  Counties  where  "  a  purely  classical 
organization"  existed  : — Cheshire,  Derbyshire,  Devonshire, 
Durham,  Essex,  Hampshire,  Lancashire,  Lincolnshire, 
London,  Northumberland,  Shropshire,  Somerset,  Suffolk, 
Surrey,  Sussex,  Warwickshire,  Wiltshire,  and  Yorkshire. 
The  Minutes  of  a  few  only  of  these  Classical  Associations 
are  extant,  and  in  the  absence  of  such  documents 
evidence  for  their  existence  is  very  slender.  It  is 
quite  certain  that  Dr.  Shaw's  estimate  is  exceedingly 
liberal,  and  the  way  in  which  he  arrives  at  his  results  is 
far  from  satisfactory.  "  Whenever  a  body  is  found 
performing  the  work  of  ordination  in  the  years  1647-53," 
says  he,  "  it  was  a  properly  constituted  classis,  composed 
of  elders  freely  elected  into  a  parish  eldership  and  freely 
delegated  from  such  elderships  to  a  classis."  3  Surely 
that  is  extremely  arbitrary  and  anything  but  a  safe 
principle  to  follow.  Unless  we  are  to  assume  that  only 
ordinations  of  a  Presbyterian  type  were  possible  during 
those  years,  the  fact  of  a  body  ordaining  only  proves 
that  it  ordained.  If  by  ordaining  body  is  meant  a  Classis 
then  it  needs  to  be  remembered  that  the  word  was  used 
with  considerable  laxity.  But  it  was  not  at  all  necessary 
to  have  an  organized  body  to  ordain  :  the  Ministers  of  a 
neighbourhood  were  quite  competent  for  such  work.  On 
January  28,  1651-2,  before  the  era  of  Voluntary  Associa- 
tions, George  Larkham  was  ordained  at  Cockermouth  "  by 
the  imposion  of  the  hands  of  three  ordained  presbyters 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  16. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  19- 

3.  Ibid.,  p.  28. 

24  The   Ejected   of   1662 

then  present  (called  by  the  church  to  that  worke  for  feare 
of  offending  the  godly  brethren  of  ye  Presbyteriall  way) ."  i 
The  ordainers  were  Thomas  Larkham  of  Tavistock,  Devon, 
the  Pastor's  father;  George  Benson  of  Bridekirk;  and 
Gawin  Eaglesfield  of  Plumbland.  The  ordination  was 
specially  arranged  with  a  view  to  the  scruples  of  brethren 
of  the  "  Presbyteriall "  way,  yet  the  Ministers  were  not  all 
Presbyterian,  they  were  not  even  neighbours :  and  there 
is  no  suggestion  of  a  Classical  organization  for  Cumber- 
land, whose  Voluntary  Association  arose  very  shortly  after 
this  date.  In  later  years,  also,  the  years  of  Jollie, 
Frankland,  Heywood  and  others,  in  the  ordinations  of 
which  we  read  the  organized  bodies  conducting  them  were 
only  individual  Ministers  called  together  for  the  purpose. 
It  is  certain,  therefore,  that  not  a  few  of  the  names  in 
the  list  above  given  should  be  deleted ;  while  in  other 
cases  only  a  few  Classes  existed.  The  truth  is  that 
outside  London  and  Lancashire  with  a  few  eastern  and 
southern  Counties,  Presbyterianism  made  no  real  impres- 
sion upon  the  country;  and,  even  where  it  succeeded  in 
planting  itself,  its  hold  was  very  precarious.  This  is 
made  clear  by  the  study  of  its  career  in  Lancashire,  one 
of  the  very  first  Counties  to  adopt  the  Classical  system, 
and  where  the  system  reached  its  most  finished  form. 
Nowhere  was  Presbyterianism  more  aggressive,  nowhere 
did  it  assume  larger  powers,  yet  a  creeping  paralysis 
appears  to  have  been  upon  it  from  the  very  first.  For- 
tunately the  Minutes  of  the  Bury  arid  Manchester  Classes 
have  been  preserved  and  printed  ;2  and  they  vividly  illus- 
trate the  point  at  issue.  The  course  of  each  Classis  was 
an  exceedingly  troubled  one.  Its  authority  was  con- 
tinually defied  by  Ministers  and  laymen  alike,  and  its 
decisions  were  ignored  by  contumacious  Churches.  Here, 
in  Lancashire,  where  the  Classical  system  was  strongest, 
its  inherent  weakness  and  unpopularity  are  plainly  written 
across  all  its  proceedings.  It  no  sooner  began  to  be  than 
it  began  to  decay.     Dr.  Shaw  says  :  — 

1.  MS.  Min.  Bk.  Cock.  Ch. 

2.  C.  S.  (N.  S.),  vols.  36  and  41  for  the  former ;  and  vols.  20,  22  and  24 
for  the  latter. 

Presby  terianism  2  5 

The  few  classical  records  that  are  in  existence  tell  an  unvarying  tale 
of  classical  impotence.  Within  the  limits  of  the  accepted  or  estab- 
lished presbyteries,  the  erection  of  the  government  was  by  no  means 
uniform ;  and  though  it  still  might  remain  the  nominal  Church  system 
of  the  country,  the  coercive  power  was  gone.  It  was  not  so  much  that 
the  wooden  sword  of  excommunication  had  fallen  from  the  nerveless 
hands  of  the  parish  presbytery.  On  that  point  the  clerical  spirit 
fought  to  its  last  gasp,  and,  where  the  Sacrament  could  not  be 
administered  with  such  safeguards  as  they  chose  to  erect,  they  pre- 
ferred rather  to  cease  the  celebration  of  the  Communion  altogether. 
It  was  much  more  to  the  point  that  the  compulsive,  coercive  or 
directive  power  of  the  classes  over  the  parochial  presbytery  was  at  an 
end  from  the  moment  of  the  triumph  of  the  army.l 

This     represents    the    condition    of    things     to    about 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  100.  To  this  may  be  appended  the 
following  : — 

"England's  Deliverance  from  the  Northern  Presbytery,  compared  with 
its  Deliverance  from  the  Roman  Papacy  :  or  a  Thanksgiving  Sermon, 
Preached  on  Nov.  5,  1651,  at  St.  Margaret's,  Westminster,  Before  the 
Supreme  Authority  of  this  nation. 

The  High  Court  of  Parliament  By  Peter  Sterry,  once  Fellow  of 
Emmanual  CoUedge  in  Cambridge  Now  Preacher  to  the  Right  Honble 
the  Councel  of  State,  sitting  at  Whitehall,  London. 

Printed  by  Peter  Cole,  and  are  to  be  sold  at  the  Signe  of  the  Printing 
Presse  neer  the  Royal  Exchange  1652. 

Text  Jer.  Chap.   16.   14,   15. 

But  then  let  us  say  againe  with  a  louder  Noise  of  praises,  that  may 
drown  the  former  voice  [of  praise  for  deliverance  from  Romish  Papacy] 
The  Lord  liveth,  who  hath  brought  us  up  out  of  the  Scotch  Tyranny, 
and  Scotch-Presbytery,  which  came  like  a  Tempest  from  the  North.  .  . 
In  many  mercies  as  especially  that  of  saving  us  from  this  Bloody  Designe 
of  the  Egyptian  Papacy,  thou  hast  done  Gratiously,  and  Wonderfully ; 
but  this  last  Mercy,  by  which  thou  hast  saved  us  from  the  Black  plots 
and  Bloody  power  of  the  northern  presbytery  hath  Excell'd  them  all." 
P.  7.     (Copy  in  the  John  Rylands  Library.) 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  preachers  of  Peter  Sterry's  type  were  not 
nimierous,  for  it  is  impossible  to  commend  either  his  language  or  spirit ; 
and  this  sermon  might  have  been  left  unnoticed  had  it  not  been  for 
the  occasion  on  which  it  was  delivered.  That  such  a  sermon  was 
possible  before  such  an  Assembly  is  a  fact  which  lets  in  a  flood  of 
light  upon  the  state  of  feeling  at  the  time.  It  surely  shows  how 
exceedingly  unpopular  in  the  country  the  Scottish  alliance,  with  Pres- 
bytery as  its  annexe,  had  become. 

26  The   Ejected   of   1662 

1650/  when  Cromwell's  victory  at  Dunbar,  followed  by- 
Worcester  the  succeeding  year,  gave  him  and  his  Army  a 
freer  hand.  The  Commonwealth  never  either  "  declara- 
tively  or  legislatively  annulled  presbytery  or  established 
Independency  in  its  place  "  ;^  for  there  was,  at  least,  no 
need  that  it  should  do  the  former,  because  there  was  little 
or  nothing  to  annul.  Nominally  Presbyterianism  lived  the 
length  of  the  Long  Parliament,  but  as  an  organized  religious 
force  in  the  country  it  had  ceased  to  exist  long  before  1660. 
When  therefore  the  King  came  back  to  the  throne  the 
transition  to  Episcopacy  was  quite  easy  :  Presbyterianism 
was  no  longer  a  serious  competitor.  This  view  of  the 
matter  is  supported  by  one  or  two  further  considerations. 

In  the  first  place  no  attempt  was  ever  made  afterwards 
to  resurrect  the  Presbyterian  system.  Not  even  did 
Presbyterian  Lancashire,  or  London,  seek  to  rebuild  the 
structure  upon  whose  erection  so  much  labour  had  been 
expended.  It  is  difficult  to  explain  this  omission  if 
Presbyterianism  had  the  place  in  the  religious  life  of  the 
country  up  to,  and  after  the  Restoration,  claimed  for  it  by 
some  writers.  Apology  for  this  is  usually  sought  in  the 
state  of  the  law  as  represented  by  the  Toleration  Act.  It 
is  maintained  that  this  was  inimical  to  the  Presbyterian 
system.  "  There  was  little  or  nothing  indeed  in  the  new 
regulations  respecting  religious  liberty,"  says  Dr.  Drys- 
dale,  "  that  expressly  prevented  a  full  Presbyterial  organi- 
zation; but  the  whole  spirit  of  the  arrangements  was 
hostile  to  the  rise  and  development  of  such  a  display  of 
Dissenting  incorporation.  The  law  did  not  expressly 
forbid  the  constitution  of  Presbyteries  and  Synods  with 
juridical  functions ;  but  as  it  did  not  expressly  allow  them. 

1.  Throughout  this  work  the  terms  "  Commonwealth  "  and  "  Crom- 
wellian  regime  "  are  applied  to  this  period,  from  about  1646  to  1660,  in 
its  entirety,  though  the  one  fact  of  which  the  student  is  conscious  is  a 
dividing  line  about  1650  when  Presbyterianism  fell  from  power  and 
Independency  became  ascendant.  Were  this  a  history  of  the  religious 
life  of  this  period  it  would  be  necessary  to  note  this  division  and  insist 
upon  it ;  but  in  the  present  work  any  attempt  to  preserve  it  would  lead 
to  endless  confusion. 

2.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.    vol.  ii,  p.  98. 

Presbyterianism  27 

they  were  ipso  facto  not  in  accordance  with  the  scope  and 
aims  of  the  measure."  ^  It  is  not  easy  to  take  a  conten- 
tion of  that  kind  seriously;  and  yet  it  is  repeated  in 
substance  by  the  latest  author  of  Presbyterian  History. 
"  The  Act  of  Toleration,"  says  Mr.  Macphail,  "  did  less 
for  Presbyterians  than  for  other  Nonconformists,  because 
it  did  not  remove  the  interdict  on  meetings  of  Presbytery 
and  Synod.  It  secured  only  freedom  of  worship  for  con- 
gregations." 2  This  type  of  statement  is  not  complimen- 
tary to  the  men  whom  the  writers  are  really  wishful  to 
honour.  Practically  it  charges  those  old  Nonconformists 
with  having  grown  quite  indifferent  to  one  of  the  root 
principles  of  Presbyterianism;  or,  on  the  other  hand,  it 
makes  them  distinctly  unheroic.  For  they  give  no  indica- 
tion of  chafing  under  the  pressure  of  any  "  interdict " ; 
they  indulge  in  no  complaints  about  religious  disabilities ; 
and  they  make  no  attempt  to  take  the  law  into  their  own 
hands,  set  up  their  system  and  accept  the  risk.  Yet  they 
were  men  of  strong  make ;  many  of  them  were  "  outed  " 
in  1662 ;  and  in  obedience  to  what  they  believed  to  be  the 
voice  of  sacred  duty  endured  the  utmost  privation. 
Surely  the  truer  explanation  of  their  conduct  is  to  be 
found  in  Dr.  M'Crie's  admission :  "  It  is  too  plain  that, 
for  some  years  before  the  Revolution  they  had  ceased  to 
act  as  presbyterians.  The  regular  meetings  of  presby- 
teries, the  due  subordination  of  church  courts,  and  their 
authority  as  representative  courts  of  appeal  and  review, 
had  been  virtually  given  up."  ^ 

To  the  same  conclusion  are  we  led  when  we  trace  the 
evolution  of  those  old  Dissenting  interests,  which  are  said 
to  have  had  their  origin  in  the  Commonwealth  Presbyte- 
rianism, and  which,  it  is  contended,  lived,  though  in 
greatly  mutilated  form,  after  the  Restoration ;  especially 
if  we  take  a  district  free  from  influences  likely  to  inter- 
rupt its  natural  course.  Take  Lancashire,  again,  for 
example,    which,    because    of    its    pronounced    Presbyte- 

1.  Drysdale,  p.  428. 

2.  Macphail,  p.  261. 

3.  Annals,  p.  306. 

28  The   Ejected    of  1662 

rianism  in  Commonwealth,  times,  might  naturally  be 
expected  to  tell  against  rather  than  for  the  position  here 
assumed.  What,  however,  is  the  fact?  Four  only  of 
these  old  Dissenting  interests — Tunley,  Risley,  Dundee 
and  Wharton — at  the  present  time  belong  to  the  Presby- 
terian body;  and  these  have  been  acquired  by  that  body 
comparatively  recently.  The  rest  have  become  either 
Unitarian  or  Congregational.  Not  one  of  these  old  foun- 
dations has  in  normal  fashion  found  its  way  back  into 
that  ecclesiastical  system  whence  so  many  of  them  are 
said  to  have  sprung.  The  fact  is  not  easily  explained  on 
the  assumption  of  a  Presbyterian  origin  for  them. 

Similar  evidence  may  be  deduced  from  the  Indulgence 
Licenses  of  1672.  It  is  perfectly  clear  that  the  term 
"  Presbyterian  "  was  used  with  considerable  laxity,  almost 
interchangeably  with  the  term  "  Congregational  " ;  at  any 
rate,  that  it  no  longer  indicated  a  distinct  and  compact 
religious  body,  as  it  did  in  Commonwealth  times.  It  is 
no  uncommon  thing  to  find  the  same  Minister  described 
in  the  Licenses  as  a  "  Presbyterian  "  and  a  "  Congrega- 
tionalist,"  the  same  building  bearing  the  two  names,  and 
a  "Presbyterian  "  Minister  taking  a  License  to  officiate  in 
a  "  Congregational  "  building,  and  vice  versa.^  Cuthbert 
Harrison,  "  Presbyterian,"  for  example,  secures  a  License 
for  Elswick  Lees,  "  Congregational" ;  James  [should  be 
Michael]  Briscoe,  "Congregational,"  licenses  a  Meeting 
House  in  Toxteth  Park,  which  is  both  "Presbyterian"  and 
"Congregational" ;  and  George  Larkham  the  "Congrega- 
tional" Minister  of  Cockermouth,  licenses  a  house  at 
Bridekirk  as  "Presbyterian,"  etc. 

Equally  interesting  evidence  is  furnished  by  the  ordina- 
tion services  of  post  Restoration  times.  Ministers  of  both 
types  being  found  sharing  in  them.  Thomas  Jollie,  the 
Congregationalist,  Oliver  Heywood,  and  Richard  Frank- 
land,  Presbyterians,  frequently  joined  in  ordaining  a  man 
who  might  be  a  Congregationalist  or  a  Presbyterian.  It 
is  true  that  sometimes  they  scrupled  certain  points ;  but  it 

1.  Vide  Cal.  S.  P.,  Dom.  for  1672-3,  p.  xlii. 

Richard   Baxter  29 

is  also  true  that  at  least  the  term  "Presbyterian"  had  lost 
the  rigid  significance  in  the  matter  of  ordination  that  it 
formerly  had. 

What  then  was  the  situation  at  the  time  of  the  Restora- 
tion in  reference  to  the  men  who  had  borne  the  Presbyte- 
rian name,  and  who  had  contributed  very  largely  towards 
the  King's  return?  How  did  they  stand  in  relation  to 
the  prevailing  religious  Sects  of  the  time?  If  Presby- 
terianism,  in  any  real  sense  of  the  word,  in  any  sense  of 
the  word  in  which  it  is  used  to  day,  or  was  used  during  the 
period  of  its  ascendency  in  this  country,  had  ceased  to  be 
among  its  religious  organizations,  how  are  those  men  to 
be  classified?  It  is  at  once  frankly  admitted  that  it  is 
not  easy  to  define  their  position  precisely,  because,  in  a 
way,  they  had  none.  Torn  from  their  old  moorings  by 
the  force  of  events,  they  were  as  yet  without  proper 
anchorage.  They  were  in  process  of  evolution,  drifting 
in  two  quite  opposite  directions ;  on  the  one  hand,  towards 
Episcopacy,  and  on  the  other,  towards  Independency  or 
Congregationalism.  The  one  tendency  explains  why  so 
many  of  the  so  called  Presbyterian  Ministers  conformed 
in  1662.  They  had  no  great  objection  to  Episcopacy  as 
such,  nor  even  to  the  use  of  the  Prayer  Book.  They  were 
already,  and  had  been  all  along  more  than  half  Episco- 
palian at  heart;  hence  it  cost  them  little  to  alter  their 
name,  retain  their  livings,  and'  accept  the  new  order  of 
things.  The  repressive  legislation  of  later  times,  however, 
sent  others,  and  these  a  very  considerable  number,  to 
greater  distances  from  Episcopacy.  These  were  the 
Nonconformists  of  1662,  whose  ideas  crystallised  and 
hardened  in  the  direction  of  Congregationalism. 

Perhaps  no  man  more  distinctly  illustrates  these  latter 
tendencies  than  Richard  Baxter,  one  of  the  greatest 
figures  of  the  17th  Century,  and  whose  influence  can 
scarcely  be  over  estimated.  It  has  already  been  intimated 
that  he  had  no  great  affection  for  Cromwell,  and  that  many 
of  his  judgments  of  him  impress  us  as  singularly  un- 
generous and  harsh.  With  Philip  Nye  and  John  Owen, 
leading   Congregational   Ministers   of   the   time,   he   had 

30  The   Ejected    of  1662 

frequent  and  lively  controversies ;  and,  though  brought 
up  in  the  Episcopal  Church,  himself  Episcopally  ordained, 
having  distinct  sympathy  with  a  modified  form  of  Epis- 
copacy, and  going  even  to  the  length  of  preparing  a 
reformed  Liturgy,  yet  he  was  one  of  the  first  to  sufEer 
Ejection  through  the  Uniformity  Act  of  1662.  He  has, 
of  course,  been  claimed  as  a  Presbyterian,  though  he  him- 
self has  been  careful  to  repudiate  the  name.  Writing  of 
the  time  when  he  was  a  Chaplain  in  Cromwell's  army  he 
says : — 

Col.  Whalley,  though  Cromwell's  Kinsman  and  Commander  of  the 
Trusted  Regiment,  grew  odious  among  the  Sectarian  Commanders  at 
the  Headquarters  for  my  sake;  and  he  was  called  a  Presbyterian, 
though  neither  he  nor  I  were  of  that  Judgmeait  in  severall  Points.* 

It  is  noteworthy  also  that  when  he  took  out  his  License  to 
preach  on  October  2Tth,  1672,  he  entered  himself,  not  as 
a  Presbyterian,  but  as  "  a  Nonconforming  Minister."  2 
Nor  did  he  during  the  Presbyterian  regime  ever  attempt 
to  set  up  the  Presbyterian  system.  This  was  not  for  lack 
of  opportunity  or  power :  for  it  has  been  well  said  that 
"Richard  Baxter  in  his  best  days,  was  a  stronger  power 
with  the  religious  people  of  England  than  either  the  West- 
minster Assembly  or  the  Parliamentary  leaders."  ^  Yet 
in  his  own  County  of  Worcestershire,  where  he  exercised 
a  lengthened  and  powerful  ministry,  the  Classical  system 
was  never  adopted.  In  its  place,  in  1653,  appeared  the 
Worcestershire  Agreement  for  the  "Associated  Ministers 
of  the  County  of  Worcester  and  some  adjacent  parts"; 
mainly,  if  not  exclusively,  his  handiwork.  The  Associa- 
tion was  perfectly  voluntary  and  the  following  interesting 
account  of  its  character  and  aims  deserves  notice :  — 

The  Worcestershire  Agreement  was  based  on  the  rectoral  rights  of 
the  parish  clergyman.  It  was  the  clergyman's  business'  to  rule  his 
parish  as  well  as  to  teach  it.  He  might  order  his  parish  on  the 
Presbyterian  model  or  on  the  Congregational  or  on  the  old  system  of 
churchwardens,  which  Baxter  himself  preferred ;  but  this  was  at  the 

1.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.  55. 

2.  Cal.  S.  P.,  Dom.  for  1672/3,  p.  88      ' ' 

3.  Eng.  U.  Hist.,  p.  65. 

Richard   Baxter  31 

rector's  choice,  he  being  the  person  responsible  for  these  things. 
The  county  clergy,  Episcopalian,  it  might  be,  in  theory,  Presbyterian, 
Congregational,  even  Baptist  if  they  would,  were  to  meet  together. 
There  were  to  be  no  lay  assessors;  the  clergy  mutually  bound  by  a 
doctrinal  profession,  which,  so  far  as  it  went  was  of  strict  orthodoxy, 
were  to  meet  for  religious  exercises  and  mutual  advice,  without 
jurisdiction  one  over  another.' 

The    same    writer    thus    describes    the    spread    of    the 
Baxterian  Association  :  — 

Cheshire  never  had  anything  to  do  with  the  Parliamentary 
Presbyterianism.  Immediately  on  the  publication  of  the  terms  of 
the  Worcestershire  Agreement  (1653),  Cheshire  followed  Baxter 
(October,  1653)  under  the  leadership  of  Adam  Martindale.  So  did 
Cumberland  and  Westmoreland,  on  the  other  side  of  Lancashire. 
Northumberland  went  with  the  Parliament,  as  did  Derbyshire  on  the 
off  side  of  Cheshire.  All  over  England,  we  find  contiguous  counties 
religiously  organised,  here  on  the  Parliamentary  there  on  the  Baxter 
model.  And  it  was  the  Baxter  model  which  gained  ground.  Norfolk, 
Essex  and  Devonshire,  for  example,  began  with  the  Parliamentary 
system,  and  after  trying  it,  came  over  to  Baxter.  The  South  of 
Ireland,  which  had  resisted  Presbyterianism,  fell  into  hne  with  the 
Baxterian  principle   of  Associatio«n  in   1655.2 

E-ichard  Baxter,  therefore,  is  not  easily  classified. 
There  were  things,  he  informs  us,  both  among  the 
Episcopalians,  the  Presbyterians,  the  Independents,  and 
even  the  Anabaptists,  that  he  liked,  and  things  which 
he  did  not  like.  He  was  a  great  Comprehensionist, 
labouring  all  his  lifetime  to  heal  the  divisions  of  the 
Church  and  bring  its  various  branches  into  effective 
union ;  compelled  to  be  a  Nonconformist  in  relation  to  the 
Established  Church  of  the  nation,  and  beyond  that  it  is 
scarcely  possible  to  predicate  anything  definite  about  him. 

The  foregoing  is  not  intended  to  suggest  that  Presby- 
terianism had  become  identical  in  all  points  with 
Congregationalism.  To  do  that  would  be  to  close  the  eye 
to  some  of  the  most  obvious  facts  of  history.  The  way 
in  which  the  name  persisted  indicates  that  it  stood  for 
€ertain  divergencies  from  the  recognized  Congregationalism 

1.  Eng.  U.  Hist.,  p.  65. 
2    Ibid.,   p.    66. 

32  The   Ejected    of  1662 

of  the  time.  It  is,  however,  contended  that  these 
divergencies  were  not  sufficient  to  justify  the  use  of  the 
name ;  that  the  Presbyterian  idea  had  so  far  emptied  itself 
of  its  contents  as  to  represent  neither  the  Presbyterianism 
of  Commonwealth  days  nor  the  Presbyterianism  of  modern 
history;  and  that  the  two  sections  of  the  one  common 
Nonconformity  were  being  rapidly  fused.  The  "  Happy 
Union,"  as  it  came  to  be  called,  consummated  in  the 
early  part  of  1691,  according  to  which  the  so  called 
Presbyterians  and  Congregationalists  were  to  lay  aside, 
among  other  things,  their  respective  names,  and  be  known 
henceforth  as  "  The  United  Brethren,"  was  the  expression 
of  tendencies  which  had  long  been  operating.  True  the 
Union  had  only  a  brief  existence,  especially  in  London, 
where  it  was  born;  but  it  split  not  on  the  rock  of  polity 
but  on  that  of  doctrine.  The  name  "Presbyterian"  still 
lingered,  and  in  every  respect  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  it 
did  so.^  Had  it  passed  with  the  Long  Parliament,  which, 
so  far  as  this  country  is  concerned,  gave  it  position  and 
powe'r,  much  historic  confusion,  and  not  a  little  religious 
controversy  would  have  been  avoided.  It  is,  however, 
easy  to  see  why  it  did  persist.  It  represented  a  form  of 
Church  life  that  had  claimed  to  be  the  religion  of  the 
nation,  and  that  for  a  time  had  actually  been  established 
by  law,  the  religion  that  replaced  Episcopacy  and  which 
in  turn  was  replaced  by  Episcopacy.  Everything  therefore 
tended  to  make  it  bulk  in  the  national  imagination  and 
thought;  consequently  the  habit  was  to  think  and  speak 
of  Nonconformists,  especially  those  of  "  a  spiritual  serious 
way  of  worship,"  ^  as  "  Presbyterians."  The  County  of 
Lancashire  again  furnishes  a  very  striking  illustration  of 
this.     The  Bradshaigh  MS.,  which  gives  a  vivid  picture 

1.  It  ought  to  be  stated  also  that  the  name  has  been  used,  and  still  is, 
in  reference  to  those  old  Dissenting  foundations  at  present  in  the  hands 
of  the  Unitarians,  though  the  tendency  is  for  that  body  to  drop  it. 
The  only  justification  for  its  use  by  them  is  the  claim  that  they  have 
lineally  descended  from  those  Nonconformists  who  originated  them. 
In  point  of  doctrine  and  polity  they  are  quite  remote  from  them. 

2.  Eel.  Bax.,  p.  278. 

Summary  33 

of,  Nonconformity  in  Lancashire  during  the  repressive 
legislation  following  upon  tlie  Restoration,  is  concerned 
largely  with  the  suppression  of  "  Conventicles  "  and  the 
search  for  "  Conventiclers."  "  Presbyterian  "  is  the  term 
frequently  applied  to  both,  though  in  the  list  of 
"  Conventiclers  "  appear  pronounced  Congregationalists 
like  Thomas  Jollie  and  Michael  Briscoe.  In  Presbyterian 
Lancashire  the  name  would,  of  course,  die  hard. 

To  sum  up :  — All  the  evidence  goes  to  show  that  at  no 
period  of  its  history  was  Presbyterianism  ever  a  great 
religious  force  in  this  country;  that  during  the  years  of 
its  so  called  ascendency  (1646-1650)  the  area  of  its 
influence  was  very  restricted;  that  it  ceased  to  count  as  a 
serious  religious  organization  after  the  rupture  with  the 
Scotch  Army  and  the  triumph  of  Cromwell;  and,  in 
particular,  that  it  is  a  distinct  historic  inaccuracy  to  label 
with  the  term  "Presbyterian"  the  ^Nonconformists  of  post 
Restoration  times.  That  is  said  with  the  full  conscious- 
ness of  the  fact  that  not  a  few  of  these  men  persisted 
in  calling  themselves  by  the  name  for  many  years ;  it  had, 
however,  come  to  be  so  completely  a  misnomer  that  writers 
would  be  wise,  they  would  greatly  contribute  to  historic 
clearness  and  accuracy,  if  they  would  restrict  the  name 
to  the  period  to  which  it  really  belongs,  and  in  reference 
to  these  men  after  the  Restoration  employ  the  more 
general  one  of  "  Nonconformist."  The  application  of  this 
to  the  old  Nonconformist  foundations  in  the  area  with 
which  we  are  mainly  concerned  will  be  considered  later; 
and  it  is  only  necessary  to  add  that  the  last  thing  the 
serious  student  of  history  will  attempt  is  to  maintain  that 
modern  Presbyterianism  is  in  historic  continuity  with 
the  Presbyterianism  of  the  Commonwealth.  It  is  an 
"exotic,"  a  comparatively  recent 'importation,  like  its 
17th  Century  predecessor,  again  from  across  the  Tweed, 
but  happily  with  far  greater  promise  of  permanency  and 

This,  then,  was  the  state  of  the  country  religiously  when 
Charles  II.  ascended  the  throne.  The  people  were  divided 
to  bitterness,  and  the  problems  awaiting  him  in  conse- 


34  The   Ejected   of  1662 

quence  were  such  as  called  for  the  highest  wisdom  and  the 
most  skilful  statesmanship.  Nor  were  events  long  in 
moving.  The  Convention,  so  called  because  summoned 
without  Royal  writ,  when  it  invited  Charles  back  to  the 
throne  decreed  that  "according  to  the  ancient  and  funda- 
mental laws  of  this  kingdom  the  government  is  and  ought 
to  be  by  Xings,  Lords  and  Commons."  Petitions  began  to 
pour  in  from  the  Sequestered  Clergy,  and,  in  September, 
1660,  the  Convention  Parliament  passed  an  Act  for  the 
"  restoration  of  ejected  ministers  to  their  livings  and  for 
the  confirmation  of  the  present  holders  of  livings  in  cases 
where  the  rightful  incumbent  was  dead."  ^  It  is  of  first 
importance  to  remember  this,  because  frequently  it  is 
assumed  that  it  was  not  until  the  passing  of  the  Uniform- 
ity Act  of  1662,  that  the  ministerial  Ejections  took  place. 
In  point  of  fact  the  displacement  began  probably  with  the 
Restoration,  certainly  with  the  September  Act  just  named, 
and  continued  even  after  the  1662  Ejectment  Act.  Neal 
informs  us  that  "every  sequester'd  Minister  who  has  not 
justified  the  late  King's  Murder,  or  declared  against  Infant 
Baptism,  shall  be  restored  to  his  Living  before  the  25th 
of  DeceTuher  [1660]  next  ensuing,  and  the  present  Incum- 
bent shall  peaceably  quit  it,  and  be  accountable  for  Dilapi- 
dations, and  all  Arrears  of  Fifths  not  paid."  ^  The  result 
of  this  Act,  he  informs  us,  was  that  "some  hundreds  of 
Nonconformist  Ministers  were  dispossessed  of  their  Livings 
before  the  Act  of  Uniformity  was  formed.  -Here  was  no 
Distinction  between  good  or  bad;  but  if  the  Parson  had 
been  Episcopally  Ordained,  and  in  Possession,  he  must  be 
restored,  tho'  he  had  been  ejected  upon  the  strongest 
Evidence  of  Immorality  or  Scandal."  3  Dr.  Stoughton 
states  that  on  the  26th  of  May,  1660,  three  days  before  the 
King's  arrival  in  London,  "Prynne  made  a  report  touching 
the  quiet  possession  of  ministers,  schoolmasters,  and  other 
ecclesiastical   persons   in   sequestered   livings,   until   they 

1.  The  Cambridge  Modern  History,  vol.  v,  p.   96. 

2.  Hist.   Pur.,  vol.  iv,  p.  303. 

3.  Ibid. 

The    Uniformity   Act  35 

should  be  legally  convicted;  and  two  days  afterwards 
allusion  is  made  in  a  further  report  from  the  same  member 
to  several  riots  which  had  '  been  committed,  and  forcible 
entries  made  upon  the  possessions  of  divers  persons, 
ecclesiastical  and  temporal."  "'  ^ 

The  Savoy  Conference  convened  by  the  King  on  April 
15th,  1661,  in  fulfilment  of  his  promise  to  the  Puritan 
party,  was  ostensibly  for  the  purpose  of  readjusting 
religious  differences  that  there  might  be  peace  in  the 
realm.;  but  it  was  doomed  to  failure  beforehand.  The 
Independents  had  no  representatives  in  it,  the  Presbyte- 
rian or  Puritan  party  had  as  their  leader  Richard  Baxter, 
who  expected  great  things  from  it.  The  Prelatical  party, 
however,  conceded  nothing  of  any  moment,  and  the  Con- 
ference ended  on  July  24th,  1661,  having  accomplished 
nothing  beyond  the  still  further  embitterment  of  the 
respective  parties.  In  the  meantime  the  Convention  Par- 
liament had  been  dissolved  and  a  new  one  summoned  in 
May,  1661,  so  violently  Poyalist  in  its  sympathies  that  it 
came  to  be  known  as  the  "Cavalier  Parliament."  It  lost 
no  time  in  indicating  its  spirit  and  policy.  Little  more 
than  two  months  after  assembling,  Parliament  passed  a 
Bill  for  restoring  the  Prelates  to  the  House  of  Lords,  and 
before  the  year  was  out  the  Corporation  Act  had  been 
placed  upon  the  Statute  Book.  This  Act  "required  that 
all  members  of  Corporations  should,  besides  taking  the 
Oath  of  Supremacy,  swear  that  it  is  not  lawful,  under  any 
pretence,  to  bear  arms  against  the  King,  and  that  the 
Solemn  League  and  Covenant  was  illegal.  It  also 
declared  every  one  ineligible  for  a  municipal  office, 
who  had  not,  within  one  year,  received  the  Lord's  Supper, 
according  to  the  rites  of  the  Church  of  England."  2  On 
the  19th  of  May,  1662,  the  Uniformity  Act  received  the 
Royal  assent.  It  is  an  exceedingly  lengthy  document  3 
and  Neal's  summary  will  be  sufficient.     This  is  as  follows  : 

1.  Religion  in  England,  vol.  iii,  p.  89. 

2.  Ihid.,  p.  196. 

3.  Printed  in  full  in  Bayne's  "English  Puritanism,"  pp.  386 — 404. 

36  The   Ejected   of  1662 

An  Act  for  the  Uniformity  of  publick  Prayers,  and  Administration 
of  Sacraments,  and  other  Rites  and  Ceremonies,  and  for  establishing 
the  Forms  of  making,  ordaining,  and  consecrating  Bishops,  Priests 
and  Deacons  in  the  Church  of  England. 

The  Preamble  sets  forth,  That  from  the  first  of  Queen  Elizabeth 
there  had  been  one  uniform  Order  of  Common  Service  and  Prayer 
enjoined  to  be  used  by  Act  of  Parliament,  which  had  been  very 
comfortable  to  all  good  People,  till  a  great  Number  of  People  in 
divers  Parts  of  the  Realm,  living  without  Knowledge  and  the  due 
Fear  of  God,  did  wilfully  and  schismatically,  refuse  to  come  to 
their  Parish  Churches,  upon  Sundays,  and  other  Days  appointed  to 
be  kept  as  Holy  Days.  And  whereas,  by  the  scandalous  Neglect  of 
Ministers  in  using  the  Liturgy  during  the  unhappy  Troubles,  many 
People  have  been  led  into  Factions  and  Schisms,  to  the  Decay  of 
religion  and  the  Hazard  of  many  Souls;  therefore,  for  preventing  the 
like  for  Time  to  come,  the  King  had  granted  a  Commission,  to  review 
the  Book  of  Common-Prayer,  to  those  Bishops  and  Divines  who  met 
at  the  Savoy ;  and  afterwards  his  Majesty  required  the  Clergy  in 
Convocation  to  revise  it  again ;  which  Alterations  and  Amendments 
having  been  approved  by  his  Majesty,  and  both  Houses  of  Parliament ; 
therefore  for  settling  the  Peace  of  the  Nation,  for  the  Honour  of 
Religion,  and  to  the  Intent  that  every  Person  may  know  the  Rule 
to  which  he  is  to  conform  in  publick  Worship  it  is  enacted  by  the 
King's  most  excellent  Majesty,  &c. 

That  all  and  singular  Ministers  shall  be  bound  to  say  and  use  the 
Morning  Prayer,  Evening  Prayer,  and  all  other  Common- Prayers 
in  such  Order  and  Form  as  is  mentioned  in  the  Book ;  and  that  every 
Parson,  Vicar,  or  other  Minister  whatsoever,  shall  before  the  Feast 
of  St.  Bartholomew  which  shall  be  in  the  Year  of  our  Lord  1662, 
openly  and  publickly,  before  the  Congregation  assembled  for  Religious 
Worship,  declare  his  unfeigned  Assent  and  Consent  to  the  Use  of  all 
Things  contained  and  prescribed  in  the  said  book,  in  these  Words,  and 
no  other.  I  A.B.  do  here  declare  my  unfeigned  Assent  and  Consent 
to  all  and  every  Thing  contained  and  prescribed  in  and  by  the  Book, 
entitled,  the  Book  of  Common-Prayer,  and  Administration  of 
Sacraments,  and  other  Rites  and  Ceremonies  of  the  Church,  according 
to  the  Use  of  the  Church  of  England,  together  with  the  Psalter,  or 
Psalms  of  David,  pointed  as  they  are  to  be  sung  or  said  in  Churches; 
and  the  Form  and  Manner  of  making,  ordaining,  and  consecrating  of 
Bishops,  Priests  and  Deacons.  The  Penalty  for  neglecting  or  refusing 
to  make  this  Declaration,  is  Deprivation  i'pso  facto  of  all  his  spiritual 

And  it  is  further  enacted,  that  every  Dean,  Canon,  Prebendary ;  all 
Masters,  Heads,  Fellows,  Chaplains,  and  Tutors  in  any  College,  Hall, 
House  of  Learning,  or  Hospital ;   all  publick  Professors,  Readers  in 

The    Uniformity   Act  2>7 

either  University,  and  in  every  College  and  elsewhere;  and  all 
Parsons,  Vicars,  Curates,  Lecturers ;  and  every  School-Master  keeping 
any  publick  or  private  School ;  and  every  Person  instructing  Youth  in 
any  private  Family,  shall  before  the  Feast  of  St.  Bartholomew  1662, 
subscribe  to  the  following  Declaration  (viz.)  I  A.B.  do  declare,  that 
it  is  not  lawful  upoai  any  Pretence  whatsoever,  to  take  Arms  against 
the  King ;  and  that  I  do  abhor  that  traitorous  Position  of  taking  Arms 
by  his  Authority,  against  his  Person,  or  against  those  that  are 
comfnissioned  by  him ;  and  that  I  will  conform  to  the  Liturgy  of  the 
Church  of  England,  as  it  is  by  Law  established.  And  I  do  hold, 
that  there  lies  no  Obligation  upon  me,  or  on  any  other  Person,  from 
the  Oath  commonly  called  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  to 
endeavour  any  Change  or  Alteration  of  Government  either  in  Church 
or  State;  and  that  the  same  was  in  itself  an  unlawful  Oath,  and 
imposed  upon  the  Subjects  of  this  Realm  against  the  known  laws 
and  Liberties  of  this  Kingdom. 

This  Declaration  is  to  be  subscribed  by  the  Persons  above- 
mentioned  before  the  Archbishop,  Bishop,  or  Ordinary  of  the  Diocese, 
on  Pain  of  Deprivation,  for  those  who  were  possessed  of  Livings; 
and  for  School-Masters  and  Tutors  three  Months  Imprisonment  for 
the  first  Offence ;  and  for  every  other  Offence  three  Months  Imprison- 
ment, and  the  Forfeiture  of  five  Pounds  to  his  Majesty.  Provided 
that  after  the  25th  of  March,  1682,  the  Renouncing  of  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant  shall  be  omitted. 

It  is  further  enacted,  that  no  Person  shall  be  capable  of  any 
Benefice,  or  presume  to  consecrate  and  administer  the  holy  Sacrament 
of  the  Lord's  Supper,  before  he  be  ordained  a  Priest  by  Episcopal 
Ordination,  on  pain  of  forfeiting  for  every  offence  one  hundred 
Pounds.  No  Form,  or  Order  of  Common-Prayer  shall  be  used  in  any 
Church,  Chapel,  or  other  Place  of  publick  Worship,  or  in  either  of 
the  Universities,  than  is  here  prescribed  and  appointed.  None  shall 
be  received  as  Lecturers,  or  be  permitted  to  preach,  or  read  any 
Sermon  or  Lecture  in  any  Church  or  Chapel,  unless  he  be  approved 
and  licensed  by  the  Archbishop  or  Bishop,  and  shall  read  the  Thirty 
Nine  Articles  of  Religion,  with  a  Declaration  of  his  unfeigned  Assent 
and  Consent  to  the  same ;  And  unless  the  first  Time  he  preaches  any 
Lecture  or  Sermon  he  shall  openly  read  the  Common-Prayer,  and 
declare  his  Assent  to  it ;  and  shall  oh  the  first  Lecture-Day  of  every 
Month  afterwards  before  Lectiwe,  or  Sermon  read  the  Common- 
Prayer  and  Service,  under  pain  of  being  disabled  to  preach;  and  if 
he  preach  while  so  disabled,  to  suffer  three  Months'  Imprisonment  for 
every  Offence.  The  several  Laws  and  Statutes  formerly  made  for 
Uniformity  of  Prayer  &c.  shall  be  in  force  for  confirming  the  present 
Book  of  Common-Prayer,  and  shall  be  applied  for  punishing  all 
Offences  contrary  to  the  said  Laws,  with  relation  to  the  said  Book, 

38  The   Ejected   of  1662 

and  no  other.  A  true  printed  Copy  of  the  said  Book  is  to  be 
provided  in  every  Parish  Church,  Chapel,  College  and  Hall,  at  the 
Cost  and  Charge  of  the  Parishioners,  or  Society,  before  the  Feast  of 
St.  Bartholomew,  on  pain  of  forfeiting  three  Pounds  a  Month,  for  so 
long  as  they  shall  be  unprovided  of  it.^ 

Obviously  this  Act  did  not  err  on  tlie  side  of  generosity; 
and  it  Avas  not  meant  that  it  should.  The  spirit  of  those 
who  were  responsible  for  it  will  be  evident  from  what 
Dr.  Sheldon,  the  Bishop  of  London,  subsequently  Arch- 
bishojD  of  Canterbury,  said.  Referring  to  the  Uniformity 
Act,  Dr.  Allen  remarked: — " 'Tis  pity  the  Door  is  so 
strait":  Sheldon  replied  : — "' 'Tis  no  pity  at  all;  if  we 
had  thought  st)  many  of  them  would  have  conformed  we 
would  have  made  it  straiter."  2  This  harsh  and  vindictive 
temper  reveals  itself  also  in  the  shortness  of  the  time 
limit  fixed  between  the  passing  of  an  Act  of  such  a 
momentous  character  and  the  date  Avhen  it  was  to  come 
into  operation.  "  The  Book  of  Common  Prayer  with  the 
new  corrections  was  that  to  which  they  were  to  subscribe," 
says  Bishop  Burnet, "but  the  corrections  were  so  long  a 
preparing,  and  the  vast  number  of  copies,  above  two 
thousand,  that  were  to  be  wrought  off  for  all  the  parish 
churches  of  England,  made  the  impression  go  on  so 
slowly,  that  there  were  few  books  set  out  to  sale  when 
the  d"ay  came.  So,  many  that  were  affected  to  the 
church,  but  that  made  conscience  of  subscribing  to  a  book 
that  they  had  not  seen,  left  their  benefices  on  that  very 
account.  Some  made  a  journey  to  London  on  purpose  to 
see  it.  With  so  much  precipitation  was  that  matter 
driven  on,  that  it  seemed  expected  that  the  clergy  should 
subscribe  implicitly  to  a  book  they  had  never  seen.  This 
was  done  by  too  many,  as  I  was  informed  by  some  of  the 
bishops."  ^  jSTeal  adds  that  there  was  "  not  one  Divine 
in  ten  that  lived  at  any  considerable  Distance  from 
London  that  did  peruse  it  within  that  Time."  "*  Additional 

1.  Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  359-362. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  366. 

3.  History  of  his  own  Times,  p.   126  (William  Smith). 

4.  Hist.   Pur.,  vol.   iv,  p.   363. 


The   Conventicle   Act  39 

hardship  was  caused,  and  designedly  so,  in  ordaining  that 
the  Act  was  to  come  into  force  on  St.  Bartholomew's  Day. 
This  day  was  fixed  upon,  says  Bishop  Burnet,  that  "  if 
they  were  then  deprived,  they  should  lose  the  profits  of 
the  whole  year,  since  the  tithes  are  commonly  due  at 
Michaelmas."  ^ 

The  prime  author  of  this  Act  was  Edward  Hyde,  Earl 
of  Clarendon.  "A  strong  man,"  passionately  devoted  to 
his  Church,  enthused  with  the  Laudian  spirit,  he  scrupled 
not  at  the  harshest  proceedings  necessary  in  his  judgment 
to  strengthen  the  position  of  the  Church,  of  which  he  was 
such  a  zealous  friend  and  champion;  and  it  will  be  well 
at  this  point  to  indicate  briefly  two  other  measures,  his 
handiwork  also,  the  appropriate  sequel  to  his  Uniformity 
Act.  The  one  was  the  Conventicle  Act  of  1664.  It 
declared  :  — 

The  35th  of  Queen  Elizabeth  to  be  in  full  force,  which  condemns 
all  Persons  refusing  peremptorily  to  come  to  Church,  after  Conviction, 
to  Banishment,  and  in  case  of  Return,  to  Death,  without  Benefit  of 
Clergy.  It  enacts  furthei%  "  That  if  any  Person  above  the  age  of 
sixteen,  after  the  first  of  July,  1664,  shall  be  present  at  any  Meetirfg, 
under  Colour  or  Pretence  of  any  Exercise  of  Religion,  in  other 
manner  than  is  allowed  by  the  Liturgy  or  Practice  of  the  Church  of 
England,  where  shall  be  five  or  more  Persons  than  the  Household, 
shall  for  the  first  Offence  suffer  three  Months  Imprisonment,  upon 
Record  made  upon  Oath  under  the  Hand  and  Seal  of  a  Justice  of 
Peace ;  or  pay  a  Sum  not  exceeding  five  Pounds ;  for  the  second 
Offence  six  Months  Imprisonment,  or  ten  Pounds ;  and  for  the  third 
Offence  the  Offender  to  be  banished  to  some  of  the  American  Plantations 
for  seven  Years,  or  pay  one  hundred  Pounds,  excepting  New  England 
and  Virginia ;  and  in  case  they  return,  or  make  their  Escape,  such 
Persons  are  to  be  adjudged  Felons,  and  suffer  Death  without  Benefit 
of  Clergy.  Sheriffs,  or  Justices  of  Peace,  or  others  commissioned  by 
them,  are  empowered  to  dissolve,  dissipate,  and  break  up  all  unlawful 
Conventicles,  and  to  take  into  Custody  such  of  their  Number  as 
they  think  fit.  They  who  suffer  such  Conventicles  in  their  Houses 
or  Barns  are  liable  to  the  same  Forfeitures  as  other  Offenders.  The 
Prosecution  is  to  be  within  three  Months.  Married  women  taken  at 
Conventicles  are  to  be  imprisoned  twelve  Months,  unless  their 
Husbands   pay    forty   Shillings   for  their  Redemption.     This   Act   to 

1.  History  of  his  own  Times,  p.  126. 

40  The   Ejected   of  1662 

continue  in   force  for  three  Years  after  the  next  Session  of   Parlia- 
ment.   ' 

The  other  was  the  Five  Mile  Act  of  1665,  which  ordained 

that :  — 

Nonconformist  Ministers  shall  not  after  the  24th  of  March,  1665, 
unless  in  passing  the  Road,  come,  or  be  within  five  Miles  of  any  City, 
Town  Corporate,  or  Borough  that  sends  Burgesses  to  Parliament;  or 
within  five  Miles  of  any  Parish,  Town  or  Place  wherein  they  have 
since  the  Act  of  Oblivion  been  Parson,  Vicar  or  Lecturer  &c.  or  when 
they  have  preached  in  any  Conventicle  on  any  Pretence  whatsoever, 
before  they  have  taken  and  subscribed  the  abovesaid  Oath  ^  before 
the  Justices  of  Peace  at  their  Quarter  Sessions  for  the  County, 
in  open  Court;  upon  Forfeiture  for  every  such  Offence  of  the  Sum 
of  Forty  Pounds,  one  third  to  the  King,  another  third  to  the  Poor, 
and  a  third  to  him  that  shall  sue  for  it-  And  it  is  further  enacted. 
That  such  as  shall  refuse  the  Oath  aforesaid  shall  be  incapable  of 
teaching  any  publick  or  private  Schools,  or  of  taking  any  Boarders  or 
Tablers  to  be  taught  or  instructed,  under  pain  of  Forty  Pounds,  to 
be  distributed  as  -above.  Any  two  Justices  of  Peace,  upon  Oath  made 
before  them  of  any  Offence  committed  against  this  Act,  are  empowered 
to  commit  the  Offender  to  Prison  for  Six  Months,  without  Bail  or 

This  series  of  Acts,  whose  *  animus  towards  everything 
bearing  the  semblance  of  Nonconformity  is  so  marked,  is 
generally  referred  to  as  the  "  Clarendon  Code." 

Returning  to  the  Uniformity  Act,  as  might  be  expected, 
considerable  numbers,  in  various  parts  of  the  country, 
accepted  the  new  condition  of  things  and  so  retained  their 
livings.     Baxter  names  three  sets  of  Conformists  :  — 

(1)  Some  of  the  old  Ministers,  called  Presbyterians  formerly,  who 
had  been  in  possession  before  the  King  came  in. 

(2)  Those  called  Latitudinarians,  mostly  Cambridge  men,  Platonists 
or  Cartesians,  many  of  them  Arminians,  with  some  additions. 

1.  Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  p.  394. 

2.  I,  A.  B.  do  swear,  that  it  is  not  lawful  upon  any  Pretence  whatso- 
ever, to  take  Arms  against  the  King  :  and  that  1  do  abhor  that 
traiterous  Position  of  taking  Arms  by  his  Authority,  against  his  Person, 
or  against  those  that  are  commissioned  by  him,  in  pursuance  of  such 
Commissions  :  and  that  I  will  not  at  any  Time  endeavour  any  Alteration 
of  Government  either  in  Church  or  State.     (Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  p.  400.) 

3.  Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  400,  401. 

Nonconformists  4 1 

(3)  Those  that  were  heartily  Conformists  throughout,  zealous  for 
the  Diocesan  Party  and  the  Cause.' 

A  great  number,  however,  refused  to  conform,  and  con- 
sequently were  silenced  or  ejected;  and  these  were  among 
the  most  cultured,  hard  working,  devout  and  saintly 
Ministers  in  the  Church.  Baxter  classes  them  under  the 
four  following  heads  :  — 

(1)  Some  few  (of  my  acquaintance)  who  were  for  the  old  Con- 
formity, for  Bishops,  Prayer  Book,  Ceremonies,  the  Old  Subscripticm 
and  against  the  imposing  and  taking  of  the  Covenant  (which  they 
never  took)  and  the  Parliament's  wars.  They  were  however  unable 
to  subscribe  their  "  assent  and  coaisent  to  all  things  now  imposed." 

(2)  A  greater  number  of  no  Sect  or  Party,  but  abhorring  the  very 
Name  of  Parties ;  who  like  Ignatius's  Episcopacy  but  not  the  English 
Diocesan  Frame  :  and  like  what  is  good  in  Episcopals,  Presbyterians 
or  Independents ;  but  reject  somewhat  as  evil  in  them  all  :  being  of 
the  Judgment  which  I  have  described  myself  to  be  in  the  beginning 
of  this  Book  :  that  can  endure  a  Liturgy,  and  like  not  the  Imposition 
of  the  Covenant ;  but  cannot  Assent  and  Consent  to  all  things  required 
in  the  Act,  nor  absolve  three  Kingdoms  from  all  Obligation  by  their 
Vows  to  endeavour  in  their  Places  the  Alteration  of  the  English 
Diocesan  Form  of  Government. 

(3)  The  Presbyterians,  the  soberest  and  most  judicious,  unanimous, 
peaceable,  faithful,  able,  constant  Ministers  in  the  Lord,  or  that  I 
have  heard  or  read  of  in  the  Christian  World. 

(4)  The  Independents,  for  the  most  part  a  serious  godly  People, 
some  of  them  moderate,  going  with  Mr.  Norton  and  the  New  England 
Synod  and  little  differing  from  the  moderate  Presbyterians,  and  as 
well  ordered  as  any  Party  that  I  know ;  but  others  more  raw  and  self- 
conceited  and  addicted  to  Separations  and  Divisions,  their  Zeal  being 
greater  than  their  Knowledge  who  have  opened  the  door  to  Anabaptists 
first  and  then  to  all  the  other  Sects. 2 

Baxter  himself  was  one  of  the  very  first  to  refuse 
Conformity,  being  at  the  time  without  "  place  but  only 
that  I  preached  twice  a  Week  by  Request  in  other  Men's 
Congregations  (at  Milkstreet  and  Blackfriars)."^  He 
preached  his  last  sermon  in  this  capacity  on  May  25th, 
1660,  just  six  days  after  the  Royal  signature  was  appended 

1.  Eel.  Bax.,  pp.  386,  387. 

2.  Ihid.,  p.  387. 

3.  Ihid.,  p.  384. 

42  The    Ejected   of  1662 

to  the  measure.     His  reason  for  acting  thus  early  is  given 
in  the  following  terms  :  — 

I  would  let  all  Ministers  in  England  understand  in  time,  whether 
I  intended  to  Conform  or  not :  For  had  I  stayed  to  the  last  day  some 
would  have  Conformed  the  sooner,  upon  a  Supposition  that  I  intended 

Others,  however,  in  London  and  elsewhere,  preached 
Farewell  Sermons,  and  took  leave  of  their  congregations 
in  most  affecting  circumstances  the  Sunday  immediately 
preceding  St.  Bartholomew's  Day.  "  Such  a  passionate 
Zeal  for  the  Welfare  of  their  People  ran  through  their 
Sermons,"  says  Neal,  "as  dissolved  their  Audiences  into 
Tears."  2 

The  number  of  men  thus  silenced  and  ejected  is  usually 
given  as  two  thousand.     It  will  at  once  be  suspected  that 
this  is  only  a  general  term,  and  the  information  necessary 
to  preciseness  in  the  matter  is  never  likely  to  be  forth- 
coming.    All  investigation,  however,  goes  to  show  that 
the  figure  is  none  too  high.     Writes  Principal  Gordon  :  — 
Calamy's  own  volmnes  record  the  names  of   2465,   including  after- 
conformists.     Palmer  has  added  others.     Neither  Calamy  nor  Palmer 
is   exhaustive.      In  every  county  where  the   list   has   been   tested   by 
modern  research,  it  has  been  extended.     Thus,  in  Cheshire,   Calamy 
and   Palmer   give  fifty-two    names  :     Urwick    produces    authority    for 
sixty-two.     For  Norfolk  and  Suffolk,  Calamy  and  Palmer  supply  one 
hundred  and  eighty-two  names  :    Browne,   while   removing   two  (one 
ejected    in    another    county),    adds    fourteen,    on    the    authority    of 
ecclesiastical  registers.     On  the  whole,  Oliver  Hey  wood  may  be  right 
in  estimating  those  permanently  disabled  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity  at 
2500  :    while   Baxter  is  probably  justified   in  saying  that  about   1800 
of  them  entered  on  active  work  in  the  Nonconformist  ministry.' 

Mr.  Bate  in  his  recent  work  says  :  — 

As  regards  the  numbers  ejected,  after  some  months'  work  upon  the 
question,  we  would  offer  the  following  statistics,  at  the  same  time 
giving  warning  that  though  they  may  be  more  accurate  than  any 
offered  hitherto,  much  remains  to  be  done  before  reliable  statistics 
can  be  obtained. 

Ejected  in  England  and  Wales  between  May,  1660,  and  St. 
Bartholomew,    1662, — 450.     Ejected   in    England    and    Wales    at    St. 

1.  Eel.  Bax.,  p.  384. 

2.  Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  p.  369. 

3.  Eng.  U.  Hist.,  p.  80. 

Calamy's   Figures  43 

Bartholomew — 1,800.     These  figures  do  not  include  schoolmasters,  or 
clergy  who  were  merely  silenced.' 

When  we  come  to  examine  the  area  with  which  we 
are  specially  concerned,  it  will  be  found  to  present 
peculiarities  quite  its  own;  to  show  that  while  Calamy's 
list  is  in  no  way  inflated,  its  testimony  in  reference  to  the 
number  of  men  displaced  is  less  marked  in  that  direction 
than  in  the  cases  just  cited. 

The  lot  of  these  "on ted"  men  was  one  of  great  hardship 
and  suffering.  Baxter,  who  was  not  given  to  exaggeration 
in  these  matters,  says  :  — 

Hundreds  of  able  Ministers,  with  their  Wives  and  Children,  had 
neither  House  nor  Bread  :  For  their  former  Maintenance  served  them 
but  for  the  time,  and  few  of  them  laid  up  anything  for  the  future  : 
For  many  of  them  had  not  past  30  or  iOl  per  Annum  apiece,  and 
most  but  about  60  or  80^  per  Annum,  and  very  few  above  1001,  and 
few  had  any  considerable  Estates  of  their  own.  The  Peoples  Poverty 
was  so  great,  that  they  were  not  able  much  to  relieve  their  INIinisters. 
The  Jealousie  of  the  State,  and  the  Malice  of  their  Enemies  were  so 
great,  that  People  that  were  willing  durst  not  be  known  to  give  to 
their  ejected  Pastors,  least  it  should  be  said  that  they  maintained 
Schism,  or  were  making  Collections  for  some  Plot  or  Insurrection.* 

Calamy,  upon  very  reliable  authority,  tells  many  touch- 
ing stories  of  the  straits  to  which  these  men  were  reduced, 
and  contemporary  records  support  the  Historian  in  his 
"Account."^      Neal  contends  that  their  hardships  were 

1.  The  Declaration  of  Indulgence,  1672.  Appendix  II.  I  confess  to 
some  surprise  that  Mr.  Bate  should  venture  these  figures  after  only 
"some  months'  work  upon  the  question."  They  may  be  quite  correct,^ 
but  from  the  very  nature  of  the  case  they  cannot  be  more  than  a  guess. 
After  some  years'  work  upon  only  a  fraction  of  the  area  covered  by 
Calamy,  I  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  a  really  scientific  examina- 
tion of  his  work  means  stupendous  labour.  Superficial  defects  may  more 
easily  be  removed,  and,  perhaps,  even  that  is  worth  doing ;  but  a 
thorough  testing  of  Calamy's  figures  and  revision  of  his  work  is  almost 
beyond  pos-sibility  for  any  one  man.  One  fact  alone  will  make  this 
clear.  That  work  cannot  be  properly  done  without  an  examination  of 
the  Registers  of  each  Parish ;  and  "  who  is  sufficient  for  these  things  ?" 

2.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.   385. 

3.  Vide  Adam  Martindale's  Diary,  Henry  Newcome's  Autobiography 
and  Diary,  Diary  of  Roger  Lowe,  Thomas  Jollie's  Note  Book,  George 
Larkham's  Cockermouth  Ch.  Bk.  and  Oliver  Haywood's  Diaries. 

44  The   Ejected   of  1662 

greater  far  tlian  tliose  which  overtook  the  Roman  Catholics 
in  Queen  Elizabeth's  Protestant  Reformation,  or  the 
Loyalists  in  the  time  of  the  Civil  War.  The  latter  state- 
ment, in  particular,  has  been  frequently  contravened,  and 
still  is.  It  has  often  been  asserted  that  the  whole  period 
from  1646  to  1660,  during  which  Presbyterianism  and  the 
Commonwealth  were  in  the  ascendency,  was  a  tyranny  of 
the  worst  type,  and  especially  a  religious  tyranny. 
Walker,  whose  book  was  intended  as  a  counterblast  to 
Calamy's,  by  his  exaggerations  has  helped  to  strengthen 
that  idea.  ^  Doubtless  there  were  cases  of  real  hardship 
and  suffering  among  the  Sequestered  Clergy,     "Toleration 

1.  "  If  it  were  worth  while,"  says  Dr.  Brown,  "  to  test  Walker's 
statements  through  all  the  counties  of  England  and  Wales,  it  would 
probably  be  found  that  his  8,000  would  shrink  to  about  1,800,  and  that 
many  of  the  stories  he  was  told,  and  honestly  believed,  would  turn  out 
to  be  myths."  (Commonwealth  England,  p.  74.)  To  this  may  be  added 
the  testimony  of  Richard  Baxter,  no  friend  to  Cromwell  and  his  rule  : 
"  I  must  needs  say,  that  in  all  the  Countreys  where  I  was  acquainted, 
six  to  one  at  least  (if  not  many  more)  that  were  Sequestred  by  the 
Committee,  were  by  the  Oaths  of  Witnesses  proved  insufficient,  or 
scandalous,  or  both ;  especially  guilty  of  Drunkenness  or  Swearing ;  and 
those  that  being  able,  godly  Preachers  were  cast  out  for  the  War  alone, 
as  for  their  Opinions  Sake,  were  comparatively  very  few.  This  I  know 
will  displease  that  Party;  but  this  is  true."  (Rel.  Bax.,  p.  74.) 
Dr.  Brown's  criticism  of  Walker  is  here  cited  not  because  in  the  matter 
of  its  numbers  it  commends  itself  to  my  judgment.  I  have  not  tested 
Walker's  statements  "  through  all  the  counties  of  England  and  Wales," 
and,  therefore,  am  not  competent  to  pronounce  in  relation  to  the  whole 
question ;  but,  so  far  as  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  are  concerned, 
the  evidence  tells  strongly  in  the  other  direction.  As  tiie  reader 
proceeds  he  will  meet  with  name  after  name  which  finds  no  place  in 
Walker's  list,  and  yet  the  Sequestration  is  beyond  all  doubt-  Walker 
may  have  somewhat  inflated  his  list,  the  tendency  in  these  matters  is  to 
do  so;  but  it  is  only  right  to  say  that  the  evidence  for  this  is  not 
furnished  in  our  area.  It  is  the  second  part  of  Dr.  Brown's  criticism, 
in  which  he  is  in  agreement  with  Baxter,  upon  which  the  accent  should 
be  put.  Walker's  pages  are  full  of  the  idle  gossip  of  the  time ;  and 
many  of  the  pictures  of  suffering  which  he  sketches  were  largely 
imaginative,  though  doubtless  honestly  believed  by  their  author;  while 
the  character  of  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  Sequestered  was  entirely 
inconsistent  with  the  duties  of  their  sacred  calling. 

Sequestration  45 

was  a  new  idea,"^  says  Professor  Gwatkin,  and,  because 
new,  must  have  been  very  imperfectly  developed.  In  the 
bour  of  their  ascendency,  the  Presbyterians  called  the  civil 
power  to  their  assistance  to  coerce  the  consciences  of  others 
to  such  an  extent  that  Milton  in  his  scathing  lines  on 
"  new  Forcers  of  Consciences,"  said  "  new  Presbyter  is  but 
Old  Priest  writ  large."  Even  Cromwell,  probably  the 
most  liberal  minded  and  tolerant  man  of  his  day,  by  his 
"proclamation  of  November  25th,  1655,  forbade  seques- 
tered or  ejected  ministers  to  keep  any  school  either  public 
or  private,  or  either  publicly  or  privately  (except  in  their 
own  family),  preach  or  use  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer. 
But  Cromwell  seems  to  have  meant  this  rather  in  terrorem 
than  for  serious  use."  ^  That  this  was  so  is  made  clear  by 
the  case  of  Robert  Rickerby,  who,  after  being  sequestered 
from  Cockermouth,  served  as  Schoolmaster  at  Crosthwaite, 
and  actually  received  Augmentation  grants  as  such.^ 

It  has  already  been  intimated  that  the  charges  brought 
against  the  Clergy  thus  sequestered  more  than  justified 
their  removal.  They  were  charges  of  neglect  or 
"  delinquency,"  the  Incumbents  in  some  cases  having 
gone  to  the  King's  quarters  and  deserted  their  cures ;  of 
"  scandalousness,"  the  holders  of  not  a  few  of  the  livings 
being  openly  dissolute  and  immoral,  as  well  as  ignorant 
and  incompetent;  and  of  "malignancy,"  the  Incumbents 
being  violent  opponents  of  the  ruling  authority,  and  using 
their  positions  to  preach  rebellion.  Apart  from  all  this, 
however,  two  or  three  things  emerge  clearly  out  of  the 
chaos  of  that  period,  which  place  in  striking  contrast  the 
conduct  of  the  men  who  were  responsible  for  these  Seques- 
trations, when  set  sfde  by  side  with  that  of  those  who 
framed  and  enforced  the  Uniformity  Act  of  1662.  A 
careful   examination   of   the   three    MSS.   in   the   British 

1.  The  Cambridge  Modern  History,   vol.  v,   p.   326. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  328. 

3.  Vide  pp.  658,  683. 

46  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Museum  covering  the  years  1644—7/  also  of  the  Bodleian 
MSS.  and  other  documents,  furnishes  the  following  facts, 
all  of  which  receive  illustration  in  the  area  with  which 
we  are  concerned  :  — 

1.  Pluralism,  one  of  the  crying  scandals  of  the  time, 
was  vigorously  assailed  by  the  Committee  of  Plundered 
Ministers,  the  aim  being  to  secure  a  more  effective  ministry 
and  care  of  the  various  parishes. ^  Dr.  Shaw  seems  to 
suggest  that  this  was  one  of  many  "  excuses  "  of  which 
the  Committee  eagerly  availed  themselves,  for  the 
purpose  of  sequestering  the  Hoyalist  Clergy;^  but  such 
was  not  the  case.  The  men  in  question  were  summoned 
before  the  Committee  to  elect  which  living  they  would 
keep  and  which  relinquish ;  and  it  was  not  because  they 
were  Poyalist  Clergy  that  they  were  ordered  to  make 
this  choice.  It  was  the  principle  of  Pluralism  that  was 
assailed,  the  root  of  much  neglect  and  spiritual  destitution, 
and  the  Royalist  not  less  than  the  Parliamentarian 
was  frequently  left  undisturbed  in  his  single  living. 
Dr.  Shaw's  treatment  of  this  question  of  Sequestration 
is  the  least  satisfactory  part  of  his  valuable  work.  He  is 
too  much  in  bondage  to  the  traditional  view,  the  view 
which  is  the  product  of  ecclesiastical  bias,  the  view  of 
Walker  and  his  School.  He  assumes  that  the  regnant 
power  was  bound  to  retaliate,  to  satisfy  the  clamours  of 
its  supporters  and  sycophants ;  but  the  evidence  for  this  is 
not  forthcoming.  It  has  already  been  stated  that  cases 
of  real  hardship  doubtless  occurred.  That  would  be  in- 
evitable because  of  the  disturbed  condition  of  the  times, 
and  because  local  feeling  counted  for  so  much;  but 
everything  goes  to  show  that  responsible  authorities 
sought  to  deal  justly,  often  indeed  generously,  with  men 

1.  Additional  MSS.,  Nos.  15669—15671. 

2.  This  was  in  accordance  with  the  Act  "  against  the  enjoying  of 
pluralities  of  benefices  by  Spiritual  persons  and  non-residence,"  which 
was  passed  Jan.  16,  1642-3. 

3.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  188. 


Pluralism  47 

who  were  even  known  not  to  be  in  sympathy  with  them. 
Where  a  Clergyman  used  his  position  to  preach  sedition, 
his  "  malignancy  "  not  infrequently  cost  him  his  living ; 
and  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  it  could  have  been  otherwise. 
He  had  simply  become  a  political  partisan ;  and,  assuming 
that  the  preservation  of  the  Commonwealth  was  their 
care,  it  was  scarcely  to  be  expected  that  ruling  authorities 
would  actually  place  men  in  positions  of  vantage,  which 
they  would  employ  with  a  view  to  their  own  subversion. 
The  chief  religious  aim  of  the  Commonwealth  regime  was 
to  establish  a  godly,  "  painefull,"  and  efficient  ministry, 
decently  supported,  throughout  the  country.  In  doing 
this,  it  singled  out  Pluralism  for  special  attack ;  and  there 
was  need,  for  the  system  largely  prevailed  and  its  evils 
were  most  serious.  No  better  evidence  of  the  viciousness 
of  Pluralism  can  be  furnished  than  the  entries  in  Bishop 
Nicolson's  A^isitation  Book  and  Diaries.^  The  picture 
which  he  sketches  of  the  condition  of  the  Clergy,  and  the 
Churches  in  the  Carlisle  Diocese  at  the  beginning  of  the 
18th  Century,  mainly  as  the  result  of  this  system,  is 
unspeakably  sad.  That  it  is  not  overdrawn  we  may  be 
quite  certain ;  but  there  was  scarcely  a  place  of  which  he 
could  speak  in  terms  of  unrestricted  praise.  He  tells  us 
that  the  Church  buildings  were  ill  kept ;  the  "  quires 
nasty,"  to  use  his  own  strong  and  expressive  language; 
and  the  Incumbents  disorderly  in  their  conduct  and 
doubtful  in  their  character.  It  was  this  sort  of  thing 
which  led  to  such  widespread  Sequestration  in  Common- 
wealth days. 

2.  Where  Sequestration  was  threatened  full  warning 
was  given  and  the  convenience  of  the  Sequestered  was  in 
every  way  considered.  The  marvellous  patience  of  the 
Committee  with  Bernard  Robinson  of  Torpenhow,  whose 
Royalist  proclivities  were  most  pronounced,  and  whose 
"  malignancy "  against  the  Government  was  so  marked, 
is  quite  an  outstanding  fact  in  the  story  of  that  place.  2 

1.  Miscel.  ;  also  Diaries — Trans.  (N.S.),  vols,  i — v.  Vide  also  Dr. 
Brown's  "English  Puritans,"  p.  68. 

2.  Vide  p.  574. 

48  The   Ejected   of  1662 

3.  On  August  ITtli,  1643,  Parliament  ordained  that  a 
Fifth  of  a  Sequestered  living  should  be  given  to  the  wife 
of  the  Sequestered  Minister  for  the  maintenance  of 
herself  and  children.  This  ordinance  is  much  depreciated 
by  certain  writers,  but  the  MSS.  in  question  make  it 
perfectly  plain  that  the  Plundered  Ministers'  Committee 
were  most  anxious  that  it  should  be  anything  but  a  dead 
letter.  The  case  of  William  Cole  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale  is 
particularly  interesting  from  that  point  of  view.  He  had 
taken  the  place  of  Greorge  Buchanan,  and  being  charged 
with  neglecting  or  refusing  to  pay  the  usual  Fifths  to 
the  Sequestered  Yicar's  wife,  though  he  was  their  own 
nominee,  the  Committee  gave  definite  instructions  that 
unless  the  Fifths  with  all  arrears  were  paid  within  a 
given  time,  the  living  should  be  sequestered  from  him. 
It  was  much  the  same  with  Simon  Atkinson  of  Lazonby, 
and  Richard  Hutton  of  Caldbeck.^  It  was  human  for 
those  men  to  object  to  such  big  slices  being  taken  out  of 
their  incomes;  but  the  one  thing  upon  which  the  Com- 
mittee appear  to  have  made  up  their  mind,  in  carrying  out 
their  Sequestration  orders,  was  that  needless  suffering 
should  not  be  inflicted ;  that,  at  any  rate,  the  wives  and 
children  should  be  protected  as  far  as  possible.  It  is 
impossible,  as  we  read  these  things,  not  to  feel  that  the 
conduct  of  the  Commonwealth  Sequestrators  stands  in 
pleasant  contrast  to  that  of  Clarendon,  Sheldon  and  others, 
who  framed  and  administered  the  Uniformity  Act  of 

Clarendon  fell  from  power  in  1667,  and  fled  to  France 
for  safety,  where  he  passed  the  rest  of  his  life;  but  the 
repressive  legislation,  of  which  he  had  largely  been  the 
author,  continued  in  force ;  and,  in  1670,  the  Conventicle 
Act  was  renewed  and  made  more  stringent,  the  penalties 
imposed  upon  Nonconformists  being  considerably  heavier 
than  those  of  the  previous  Act. 

On  the  15th  of  March,  1671-2,  Charles  issued  his 
famous  Declaration  of  Indulgence,  which  suspended  the 

1.  Vide  pp.  319,  549. 

Indulgence   Declaration  49 

operation  of  all  the  penal  enactments  just  enumerated, 
and  gave  Nonconformists  permission  to  have  their  own 
religious  worship  in  places  licensed  for  the  purpose.  As 
this  document  is  of  supreme  importance  it  is  here  printed 

in  extenso  :  — 

Charles  Rex. 

Our  Care  and  Endeavours  for  the  Preservation  of  the  Rights  and 
Interests  of  the  Church,  have  been  sufficiently  manifested  to  the 
World,  by  the  whole  Course  of  our  Government  since  our  happy 
Restoration,  and  by  the  majiy  and  frequent  Ways  of  Coercion  that 
we  have  used  for  reducing  all  erring  or  dissenting  Persons,  and  for 
composing  the  unhappy  Differences  in  Matters  of  Religion,  which  we 
found  among  -our  Subjects  upon  our  Return ;  but  it  being  evident  by 
the  sad  Experience  of  twelve  Years,  that  tl:  ere  is  very  little  Fruit  of 
all  these  forcible  Courses,  We  think  our  self  obliged  to  make  use 
of  that  supream  Power  in  Ecclesiastical  Matters  which  is  not  only 
inherent  in  us,  but  hath  been  declared  and  recognized  to  be  so,  by 
several  Statutes  and  Acts  of  Parliament;  and  therefore  we  do  now 
accordingly  issue  this  our  Declaration,  as  well  for  the  quieting  of  our 
good  Subjects  in  these  Points,  as  for  inviting  Strangers  in  this 
Conjuncture  to  come  and  live  under  us ;  and  for  the  better  Encourage- 
ment of  all  to  a  chearful  following  of  their  Trades  and  Callings,  from 
whence  we  hope,  by  the  Blessing  of  God,  to  have  many  good  and 
happy  Advantages  to  our  Government ;  as  also  for  preventing  for  the 
Future  the  Danger  that  might  otherwise  arise  from  private  Meetings 
and  seditious  Conventicles.  And  in  the  first  Place,  we  declare  our 
express  Resolution,  Meaning  and  Intention  to  be  that  the  Church  of 
England  be  preserved,  and  remain  entire  in  its  Doctrine,  Discipline 
and  Government  as  mow  it  stands  established  by  Law;  and  that 
this  be  taken  to  be,  as  it  is,  the  Basis,  Rule,  and  Standard  of  the 
general  and  publick  Worship  of  God,  and  that  the  Orthodox  conform- 
able Clergy  do  receive  and  enjoy  the  Revenues  belonging  thereunto, 
and  that  no  Person,  tho'  of  a  different  Opinion  and  Persuasion,  shall 
be  exempt  from  paying  his  Tithes,  or  other  Dues  whatsoever.  And 
further  we  declare,  that  no  person  shall  be  capable  of  holding  any 
Benefice,  Living,  or  Ecclesiastical  Dignity  or  Preferment,  of  any  kind 
in  this  our  Kingdom  of  England,  who  is  not  exactly  conformable. 
We  do  in  the  next  place  declare  our  Will  and  Pleasure  to  be,  that 
the  Execution  of  all,  and  all  manner  of  Penal  Laws  in  Matters 
Ecclesiastical,  against  whatsoever  Sort  of  Non-Conformists  or 
Recusants,  be  immediately  suspended,  and  they  are  hereby  suspended ; 
and  all  Judges,  Judges  of  Assize  and  Gaol  Delivery,  Sheriffs,  Justices 
of  Peare,  Mayors,   Bailiffs,  and   other   Officers   whatsoever,   whether 


50  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Ecclesiastical  or  Civil,  are  to  take  Notice  of  it,  and  pay  due  Obedience 

And  that  there  may  be  no  Pretence  for  any  of  our  Subjects  to 
continue  their  illegal  Meetings  and  Conventicles,  we  do  declare,  that 
we  shall  from  Time  to  Time  allow  a  sufficient  Number  of  Places,  as 
they  shall  be  desired,  in  all  Parts  of  this  our  Kingdom,  for  the  Use 
of  such  as  do  not  conform  to  the  Church  of  England,  to  meet  aaad 
assemble  in  order  to  their  publick  Worship  and  Devotion,  which 
Places  shall  be  open  and  free  to  all  Persons. 

But  to  Prevent  such  Disorders  and  Inconveniences  as  may  happen 
by  this  our  Indulgence,  if  not  duly  regulated ;  and  that  they  may  be 
the  better  protected  by  the  Civil  Magistrate,  our  express  Will  and 
Pleasure  is,  that  none  of  our  Subjects  do  presume  to  meet  in  any 
Place,  until  such  Places  be  allowed,  and  the  Teacher  of  that  Congre- 
gation be  approved  by  us. 

And  lest  any  should  apprehend  that  this  Restriction  should  make 
our  said  Allowance  and  Approbation  difficult  to  be  obtained,  we  do 
further  declare,  that  this  our  Indulgence,  as  to  the  Allowance  of  the 
publick  Places  of  Worship,  and  Approbation  of  the  Preachers,  shall 
extend  to  all  sorts  of  Non-Conformists  and  Recusants,  except  the 
Recusants  of  the  Roman  Catholick  Religioai,  to  whom  we  shall  in  no 
wise  allow  publick  Places  of  Worship,  but  only  indulge  them  their 
Share  in  the  common  Exemption  from  the  Penal  Laws,  and  the 
Exercise  of  their  Worship  in  their  private  Houses  only. 

And  if  after  this  our  Clemency  and  Indulgence  any  of  our  Subjects 
shall  pretend  to  abuse  this  Liberty,  and  shall  preach  seditiously,  or 
to  the  Derogation  of  the  Doctrine,  Discipline  or  Government  of  the 
Established  Church,  or  shall  meet  in  Places  not  allowed  by  us,  we 
do  hereby  give  them  Warning  and  declare,  we  will  proceed  against 
them  with  all  imaginable  Severity.  And  we  will  let  them  see,  we  can 
be  as  severe  to  punish  such  Offenders  when  so  justly  provoked,  as 
we  are  indulgent  to  truly  tender  Consciences. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  Whitehall  this  15th  Day  of  March  in  the 
four  and  Twentieth  Year  of  our  Reign.  ^ 

This  Declaration  was  generally  welcomed  by  Noncon- 
formists because  of  the  relief  which  it  offered.  Some 
scrupled  and  hesitated,  but  they  were  comparatively 
few.  Staunch  men  and  advanced  like  Thomas  Jollie  of 
Wymondhouses,  and  George  Larkham  of  Cockermouth, 
held  Thanksgiving  Services  and  secured  their  Licenses  at 
the  earliest  convenient  moment.  The  first  batch  was 
issued  as  early  as  April  2nd,   1672,   little  more  than  a 

1.  Hist.  Pur.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  443-445. 

Indulgence  Licenses  5 1 

fortnight  after  the  Indulgence  had  been  made  public; 
and  there  was  quite  a  large*  number  of  them.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  the  second  License  issued  was  for 
"  Theophilus  Polwheele,  M.A.,"  formerly  a  Cumberland 
Minister,  then  resident  at  Tiverton ;  and  that  "  Comfort 
Starre "  also,  previously  at  Carlisle,  then  at  Sandwich, 
Kent,  and  William  Baldwin  at  Chisnall,  Lancashire, 
where  Eoger  Baldwin,  formerly  of  Penrith,  preached, 
appear  in  the  earliest  list  of  applicants. 

Allowing  somewhat  for  a  vigorous  imagination,  Mr. 
J,  B.  Marsh  catches  the  spirit  of  the  time  as  he  thus  vividly 
describes  the  reception  of  the  Indulgei  ce  Declaration  in 
the  country :  — 

Carriers  in  charge  of  country  waggons  spread  the  intelligence  in 
every  little  village  through  which  they  passed.  Guards  of  fast  coaches 
caused  the  Declaration  to  be  read  aloud  by  the  landlords  of  inns  at 
which  they  stopped  to  bait  or  change  their  horses.  Itinerant 
preachers  carried  the  Declaration  in  their  Bibles  and  read  it  to  the 
congregations  to  which  they  preached.  And  whether  the  news  was 
told  in  barn  or  kitchen,  in  cellar  or  wainscotted  chamber,  everywhere 
it  excited  exceeding  happiness.  The  fact  of  the  Indulgence  added 
point  to  many  a  sermon,  inspired  the  devotion  of  many  a  prayer,  and 
gave  volume  to  the  singing  of  many  a  psalm-  The  tin-streamers  as 
they  laboured  amoaigst  the  gorse  on  the  hill-sides  of  Cornwall,  spoke 
to  each  other  joyfully  of  the  great  concessions  made  by  the  King. 
The  weavers  of  Lancashire,  as  they  bent  over  their  looms,  sang  psalms 
in  their  joy,  and  were  no  longer  fearful  of  the  listeners  who  might 
be  at  their  doors.  The  armourers  of  Warwickshire,  the  blacksmiths 
of  Northumberland,  the  coal-winners  of  Wales,  partook  of  the  general 
joy.  Artisans  in  towns,  and  fishermen  on  the  coasts,  manifested  a 
similar  amount  of  enthusiasm ;  while  poor  hinds,  as  they  drove  their 
awkward  ploughs  through  the  rich  soil,  chanted  psalms  with  glad 
hearts  because  of  the  King's  Indulgence.' 

It  is  not  easy  to  fix  precisely  the  number  of  Licenses 
issued;  but  the  writer  just  quoted,  who  had  made  a 
careful  study  of  the  original  documents,  in  the  Record 
Office,  says :  — 

Altogether  there  were  granted  between  April  2nd,  1672,  and 
February   3rd,   1672-3,^    3,356   licenses   for   preachers   and   preaching- 

1.  The  Congregationalist  for  1872,  p.  464. 

2.  The  Declaration  was  withdrawn  on  Feb.   7th,   1672-3. 

52  The   Ejected   of  1662 

places.  Of  that  number  1,712  were  preachers'  licenses;  and  of  the 
remaining  1,644  licensed  places  simply,  upwards  of  1,000  were  houses 
belonging  to  men  who  were  doubtless  in  the  habit  of  preaching  to 
small  congregations  in  their  own  dwellings,  l 

Mr.  F,  H.  Blackburne  Daniell,  M.A.,  in  his  elaborate 
and  carefully  prepared  Introduction  to  the  Calendar  of 
State  Papers,  2  gives  the  number  of  personal  Licenses 
issued  in  England  and  Wales  including  three  for 
Guernsey  as  1,481 ;  while  Mr.  Bate  says :  "Allowing  that 
the  numbers  may  need  revision,  1,508  preachers  were 
licensed."  ^ 

Professor  Lyon  Turner  in  answer  to  an  enquiry  sends 
the  following :  — 

The  number  of  Licenses,  excluding   duplicates  and  triplicates,  by 

actual  Counting;   both  for  Teachers  and  Householders  (for  meeting 

places)  is  as  follows  : — 

1.  Teachers  : 

i.  England  and  Channel  Islands 1,549 

ii.  Wales        65 

Total       1,614 

2.  Householders  : 

i.  England  and  Channel  Islands 2,457 

ii.  Wales        109 

Total       2,566 

These  make  a  Grand  Total  of  4,180  Individuals  actually  licensed  in 
1672/3.     Of  these  : 

Presbyterians   were     935 



No  particular  Denomination 




Then  there  is  the  question  of  undated  entries.  Are  they  to  be 
reckoned  as  actually  issued  or  not?  There  were  over  1,100  entries 

With  reference  to  the  original  licenses  still  extant  I  have  come  upon 
8  in  addition  to  the  6  mentioned  by  Bate. 
1.  The  for  1872,  p.  467. 

2,  Cal.  S.  P.,  Dom.  for  1672—1673,  p.  xliii. 

3.  The  Declaratiooi  of  Indulgence,  1672,  p.  98. 

Indulgence   Licenses  .  53 

As  just  intimated  the  Licenses  both  for  buildings  and 
persons  were  issued  under  certain  denominational  names, 
the  numbers  being  as  stated  in  Prof.  Turner's  communi- 
cation. Richard  Baxter  and  Francis  Bampfield  are 
simply  called  "  IS^onconf orming  "  Ministers;  two,  Jerome 
Gregorie  in  Buckinghamshire  and  John  Axford  in 
Wiltshire,  are  without  denominational  name ;  while 
Richard  Coore  of  Tonge,  in  Yorkshire,  is  described  as  an 
"Antinomian."  The  Quakers  do  not  appear :  they  applied 
for  no  Licenses.  Mr.  Daniell  from  his  careful  analysis 
of  the  License  documents  deduces  some  interesting  facts 
as  to  the  relative  strength  of  Nonconformity  in  various 
parts  of  the  country.  "  Some  of  the  most  remarkable 
facts  that  appear,"  says  he,  "  are  (1)  the  great  strength 
of  the  Nonconformists  in  and  about  London  and  in  the 
West.  Deducting  duplicates,  London,  Middlesex,  Surrey, 
Essex,  and  Kent  contain  272  ministers  and  the  four 
Western  Counties,  Devon,  Dorset,  Somerset,  and  Cornwall 
263,  being  respectively  a  little  over  and  a  little  under  18 
per  cent,  of  the  total  number.  (2)  Their  weakness  in  the 
four  Northern  Counties  and  in  Wales.  In  the  former 
there  were  only  31,  and  in  the  latter  only  45."  ^  With 
two  of  the  Northern  Counties  we  shall  deal  a  little  more 
fully  subsequently. 

The  original  applications  for  Licenses  are  preserved  in 
the  Record  Office,  and,  doubtless,  many  a  pathetic  story 
lies  enshrined  within  the  simple  documents.  "  There 
are  some  hundreds  of  pieces  of  paper,"  says  Mr.  Marsh, 
"  no  bigger  than  the  palm  of  a  man's  hand,  containing 
the  name  and  address  of  the  writer;  many  bear  signs  of 
having  been  torn  out  of  some  book,  others  are  large  sheets 
with  as  many  as  thirty  addresses  upon  each."  ^     Where  a 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1672-3,  Intro.,  p.  Ix.  The  whole  of  this  Article 
will  repay  careful  study  on  the  part  of  any  one  interested  in  these  Indul- 
gence Documents.  It  is  necessary,  however,  to  remember  what  has  been 
previously  said  in  reference  to  the  significance  of  the  terms  "  Presby- 
terian "  and  "  Congregational  "  (vide  p.  28). 

2.  The  Congregationalist  for  1872^  p.   465. 

54  The   Ejected   of  1662 

License  was  issued  in  full  and  proper  form  it  is  represented 
in  tlie  E-ecord  Office  by  three  documents :  — 

1.  Application  for  License  accompanied  sometimes  by 
a  Petition  from  a  considerable  body  of  people. 

2.  Date  of  actual  issue  of  License. 

3.  Receipt  for  tbe  License  thus  issued.  ' 

Not  infrequently  the  applications  appear  to  have  been 
duplicated,  and  sometimes  the  Licenses  are  undated,  a 
fact  which  has  led  to  the  conjecture  that  such  were  never 
actually  issued,  i 

The  Licenses  were  of  three  kinds  :  — 

1.  To  be  a  Preacher  in  a  particular  Place  and  to  a 
particular  Congregation. 

2.  To  be  a  Preacher  at  large. 

3.  For  a  particular  Building. 

The  following  is  a  specimen  of  the  kind  issued  for 
No.  1,  blanks  being  left,  of  course,  for  names  of 
Persons,  Places,  and  Congregations.  This  is  the  one 
issued  to  John  Angier  of  Denton ;   it  is  still  in  existence. 

Charles  R. 

Charles  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  England,  Scotland,  France 
and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  &c.  To  all  Mayors,  Bayliffs, 
Constables,  and  other  Our  Officers  and  Ministers,  Civil  and  Military, 
whom  it  may  concern,  Greeting.  In  pursuance  of  Our  Declaration  of 
the  15th  of  March,  167^.  We  have  allov^red,  and  We  do  hereby  allow 
of  a  Rooms  or  Roomes  in  the  house  of  John  Angier  of  Manchester 
pish  in  Lancash.  to  be  a  place  for  the  Use  of  Such  as  do  not  conform 
to  the  Church  of  England,  who  are  of  the  Perswasion  conunonly 
called  presbyterien  to  meet  and  assemble  in,  in  order  to  their  publick 
Worship  and  Devotion.  And  all  and  singular  Our  Officers  and 
Ministers,  Ecclesiastical,  Civil  and  Military,  whom  it  may  concern, 
are  to  take  due  notice  hereof  :  And  they,  and  every  of  them,  are 
hereby    strictly    charged    and    required    to    hinder    any    tumult    or 

1.  The  late  Rev.  Bryan  Dale,  M.A.,  however,  in  a  letter  to  me  shortly 
before  his  death,  said  that  this  conjecture  could  not  be  sustained,  as  he 
himself  had  found  several  undated  Licenses  in  Yorkshire,  which  were 
known  to  have  been  issued. 

Dr.    Butler  55 

disturbance,  and  to  protect  them  in  their  said  Meetings  and 
Assemblies.  Given  at  our  Court  at  Whitehall,  the  30th  day  of 
September  in  the  24th  year  of  Our  Reign,  1672. 

By  His  Majesties  Commaoid. 
John  Angler's  house.  Arlington.* 

The  buildings  tlius  licensed  for  religious  worship  were 
of  every  possible  description :  barns,  brick  kilns,  out- 
houses, private  dwelling  houses,  an  occasional  Court 
house,  "  newly  erected  meeting  houses,"  and,  in  a  few 
instances,  a  Church  or  a  Chapel.  At  first,  however,  there 
was  considerable  difficulty  in  securing  a  License  for  the 
latter  kind  of  building,  lest  Nonconformist  worship,  as 
thus  observed,  should  prove  to  be  a  serious  competitor  to 
that  of  the  Established  Church.  This  led  Dr.  Butler,2 
who  acted  as  a  sort  of  intermediary  between  the  Noncon- 
formists on  the  one  hand,  and  Sir  Joseph  Williamson  and 
Lord  Arlington  on  the  other,  to  take  up  their  case.  His 
letter  to  Lord  Arlington  dated  April  26th,  1672,  is  thus 
epitomised :  — 

I  should  not  be  faithful  if  I  concealed  the  daily  growth  of 
jealousies.  Protestant  Dissenters  conclude  this  their  liberty,  so 
graciously,  so  freely  granted  by  his  Majesty,  will  be  short  lived  in 
regard  it  is  so  stifled  in  the  birth.  Public  places,  which,  it  was 
declared,  should  be  allowed,  are  now  refused,  and  they  licensed  to  no 
more  than  what  those  of  the  Romish  persuasion  freely  enjoy.  They 
say,  why  not  Halls,  Schools,  or  Chapels  not  endowed,  they  being  by 
declaration  only  debarred  Church  benefices  ?  Let  others  supply  un- 
endowed chapels  with  preaching  ministers,  Dissenters'  desires  of  them 
presently  cease,  otherwise  they  conclude  where  God  hath  his  church, 
the  Devil  might  have  his  chapel,  it  being  his  great  work  to  keep  the 
Gospel  from  being  preached.  Every  day  almost  affords  tidings  (I  can 
show  some)  from  the  countries  of  the  many  frequent  and  fervent 
blessing  of  God  and  the  King.  'Tis  great  pity  that  anything,  by 
lessening  his  Majesty's  so  merciful  grant,  should  be  done  to  hinder  so 
good,  so  advantageous  a  work,  as  the  getting  the  hearts  of  the  people, 
which  now,  as  the  heart  of  one  man,  begin  to  say — 'Long  may  your 
Majesty  live,  and  rule  over  us.'  These  are  weighty  reasons,  I 
conceive,  rather  of  choice  to  allow  them  these  public  places.3 

1.  Copied  from  facsimile  of  original  in  "  Historical  Account  of  Dukin- 
field  Chapel,"  by  Alexander  Gordon,  M.A.,  p.  28. 

2.  Vide  p.  56,  note  2. 

3.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1671-2,  p.  381. 

56  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Previously,  indeed  only  four  days  after  the  Indulgence 
Declaration,  Dr.  Butler  had  made  a  number  of  sugges- 
tions to  Sir  Joseph  Williamson  in  reference  to  the  matter, 
all  in  the  interests  of  those  for  whom  the  Indulgence  was 
intended.  His  letter,  dated  Tuesday,  March  19th,  1671-2, 
11  o'clock,  is  again  summarised  thus:  — 

(1)  That  some  reasonable  time  be  given  to  the  countries  for  taking 
licences.  (2)  That  where  no  public  meeting-house  is,  a  private  one  be 
allowed,  but  yet  as  public ;  if  they  have  not  fixed  it  at  present,  that 
time  be  given  for  it.  (3)  That  they  be  licensed  to  preach  in  any 
licensed  place.  (4)  That  they  be  licensed  on  particular  occasions  to 
preach  in  private  families  as  for  fasting  or  thanksgiving.  (5)  That 
all  Nonconformists,  which  have  not  a  people,  but  preach  occasionally., 
may  be  licensed,  being  obliged  to  set  the  doors  open,  wherever  they 
shall  so  preach  (Note  by  Williamson,  'Negatived').  (6)  That  so  far 
as  with  safety  may  be,  a  connivance  be  had  to  those  whose  wild 
principles  suffer  them  not  to  accept  this  act  of  so  great  grace  (Noted 
'Quakers,  Fifth  Monarchy').  (7)  That  the  way  of  obtaining  licence 
be  not  made  burdensome  or  troublesome.  ...  If  to  this  great  act  of 
grace  were  added  a  way  for  the  people  to  come  at  justice  in  law  cases 
in  a  short  time,  I  think  it  would  be  beyond  the  power  of  the  devil 
and  bad  men  to  give  his  Majesty  any  disturbance  in  his  kingdoms. 
These  things  will  abundantly  please.' 

It  has  already  been  suggested  that  the  securing  of  a 
License  required  some  effort.  Generally  it  was  done 
through  an  agent,  Dr.  Butler  ^  just  mentioned  acting  in 
that  capacity. 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1671-2,  p.  217. 

2.  Professor  Turner,  in  a  letter,  says  that  he  was  "a  Church  of 
England  Clergyman  who  was  for  ever  place-seeking  and  hanging  on  the 
Court  through  Prince  Kupert  and  others."  This,  however,  has  been 
found  to  be  incorrect,  that  description  applying  to  a  Dr.  John  Butler, 
who  for  some  time  was  Chaplain  to  the  English  Colony  at  Breda  and 
afterwards  to  Prince  Rupert  on  the  "Royal  George."  The  License 
agent  was  Nicholas  Butler,  Doctor  of  Medicine,  who  obtained  his  degree 
from  Cambridge  University  by  Royal  Letters  from  Charles  II.  in 
recognition  of  his  volimtary  service  rendered  to  the  suffering  poor 
during  the  Great  Plague.  He  petitioned  the  King  in  1672  for  pardon 
on  having  married  a  second  time,  his  first  wife,  who  had  been  divorced 
for  adultery,  being  still  alive.  He  is  an  interesting  person  and 
for  some  reason  or  other,  championed  very  vigorously  the  Nonconformist 
cause  in  this  matter  of  Licenses. 

Thomas   Blood  57 

The  following  letter  from  his  pen  throws  light  upon  the 
way  in  which  these  Licenses  were  obtained :  — 

Letter  from  Mr.  Butler  of  London  to  a  Dissenter  in  the  Country.' 

"Lond.  Ap.  4th.  '72. 
I  am  not  unmindful  of  friends,  and  therefore  thought  good  to  offere 
my  service  to  you  and  any  of  your  brethren,  in  order  to  procuring 
licenses.  [They]  shall  cost  nothing.  Our  London  ministers  have 
returned  thankes,  and  most  have  already  taken  out  their  licenses.  Its 
expected  that  someth  :  by  way  of  addresse  be  sent  from  those  in  the 
countrey.  2  examples  I  have  sent  you,  coppyed  by  my  men  from  the 
originall ;  the  places  must  be  mentioned  and  so  licensed,  the  name  of 
the  minister  and  his  Persuasion,  and  so  he  wiH  [would]  not  only  be 
licensed  to  this  place,  but  to  all  places  whatever  we  have  licensed. 
If  you  please  you  may  direct  your  letter  to  mee  in  little  St.  Hellens  in 
Bishopgate  Street, 

I  am 

Sr.  your  loving  friend 

Nicholas  Butler."^ 

John  Hickes  also  served  in  a  similar  capacity.  He  was 
the  distinguished  Nonconformist  Minister  ejected  from 
Stoke  in  Devonshire,  who  suffered  death  in  1685  in  con- 
nection with  the  Monmouth  Eebellion.s 

Colonel  Thomas  Blood  was  another  of  these  License 
agents.  His  theft  of  the  Crown  Jewels  about  twelve 
months  previously  made  him  notorious.  The  Bradshaigh 
MS.  gives  considerable  information  respecting  attempts 
made  to  effect  his  capture  in  Lancashire  on  other  and 
earlier  charges.  Sir  William  Morton,  "  one  of  his  Maties 
Justices  of  the  Court  of  Kinges  Bench,"  in  his  instructions 
"  to  all  Sherrif  es  Mayors  Balliffes  Constables  head 
boroughes  Tythingmen  &  othr  his  Maties  Officers  as  well 
within  Libertys,"  dated  February  23rd,  1670-1,  says:  — 
Whereas  J  am  Credibly  informed  that  Marke  Bloud  Thomas  Bloud 

and  Willm  Moore  stand  outlawed   for  high  Treason  in   Ireland   and 

doe  lurke  up  and  downe  in  this  Kingdome  of  England,   Theise  are 

1.  The  author  of  the  work  from  which  it  is  extracted  appends  a  note 
to  the  effect  that  in  all  probability  this  Dissenter  lived  in  Lancashire. 

2.  Presbyterian  and  General  Baptist  Chiorches  in  the  West  of  England, 
by  Jerom  Murch,  p.  378. 

3.  Calamy,  vols,  ii,  p.  248 ;  iii,  p.  333. 

58  The   Ejected   of  1662 

therefore  to  will  &  require  you  &  in  his  Maties  name  to  Charge  & 
Comand  you  &  evry  one  of  you  upon  sight  hereof  to  make  diligent  search 
and  Inquiry  in  all  suspected  places  within  yor  sevall  pr'sincts  where  the 
sd  psons  may  bee  ffound  and  use  yor  Uttmost  Endeavours  for  the 
Apprehension  of  the  aforesd  Marke  Bloud  Thomas  Bloud  and  Willm 
Moore,  &  ev'ry  of  them,  And  them  to  bringe  before  me  or  some  other 
of  his  Maties  Justices  of  the  peace  neare  the  place  where  they  or  any 
of  them  shall  be  taken  &c. 

Two  letters  relating  to  the  matter  addressed  to  Sir 
Roger  Bradshaigli,  Deputy  Lieutenant  of  the  County  of 
Lancashire,  are  here  appended  :  — 

Honrd  Sr. 

Yors  of  the  24th.  J  thanke  you  for,  and  have  Inclosed  a  discription 
of  Blood  which  J  did  allsoe  on  this  day  seavennight  my  Cossen  Roger 
Reed  your  Irs.  as  I  was  with  him  to  see  him  take  Coach  to  Puttney — 
he  din'd  with  a  Create  many  Cheshire  and  Lancashire  Gent,  uppon  A 
Invitation  of  Doctor  Smalewood  who  gave  us  a  noble  treate  yesterday- 
meane  tyme  aboute  3  of  the  Clocke  in  the  afternoone  the  Dutches  of 
Yorke  dy'd,  This  day  his  Matie  is  Expected  in  toune  from  New- 
markett.  The  house  is  now  upon  the  Law  bill,  And  I  beleeve  wee 
shall  rise  within  this  fortnight,  since  his  Matie  sent  to  us  to  make  a 
recesse  on  this  day  senight.  I  hope  to  see  you  soone  after  our  risinge 
of  the  house  and  therefore  referr  what  I  have  to  say  till  I  see  you 
My  Lord  Ormond  thankes  you  for  your  Care,  &  desires  your  Con- 
tinuance Mr.  Vice  Chancellor  gave  you  an  account  of  what  pass'd 
Concerninge  Tyldesley,  I  shall  say  noe  more,  but  you  may  be  very  well 
Satisfy'd  with  his  Maties  good  opinion  of  you.  My  Service  to  your 
good  Lady  Cossen  Betty  and  all  my  good  friends,  to  Betty  my 
Blessing,  Bro  :  and  Sister  Errington  p'sent  there  Service  to  you  are 
glad  you  seale  your  pte-  God  will  reward  you  for  your  care  of  your 
Betty  and  her  Brothers.  Brother  Freddy  doath  much  obstruct  them. 
I  am  Sorry  things  are  not  soe  fairely  Carry'd  amongst  soe  neare 
relaccons,  I  thought  a  poore  Satisfaction  for  my  Children,  better  then 
to  have  longe  Suite  to  greate  hazard  and  Cost,  Deare  Sr  I  am 

London  Aprill  L  71.  R.  Kiekby. 

The  house  sitt  raorninge  and  afternoone 
and  I  am  call'd  downe  into  the  house. 

Mr.  Blood  is  aslendor  man  some  what  Inclining  to  Tallnes,  a  Long 
leane  pale  face  with  pocke  holes  in  it,  Smale  Grey  Eyes  and  hollow, 
with  a  light  Browne  straight  haire. 

*  this  Blood  and  his  Sone,  and  one  ]\Ir.  Moore  were  the  psona  who 
attempted  to  Steale  the  Kings  Crowne  out  of  the  Tower  and  had  got 

Thomas   Blood  59 

it  to  the  2d  Gate  they  weare  the  psons  allsoe  suspected  that  Assaulted 
James  duke  of  Ormond  in  his  Coach,  and  had  taken  him  out  to  have 
Murther'd  him. 
[*  From  this  point  the  writing  is  in  a  later  hand.] 

A  Copy  of  Mr.  Jno.  Willson  of  Warrington  Ire  [letter]  Concerning 
Blood  &  the  rest. 

Ever  Honrd  Sr. 

You  may  phapps  have  thought  yt  I  have  beene  to  remisse  in  that 
business  you  imploy'd  me  in  Concerning  Blood  but  in  deed  I  have 
beene  Very  Active  and  att  Last  I  hope  to  effect  ye  business  to  your 
desire.  Sr  I  have  made  use  of  Thomas  Benett  who  is  Brother  in 
Lawe  to  Mr.  Ed  :  Standish  to  Enquire  wh>t  sweet  hearts  Mrs  : 
Grimsdicte  or  her  Daughters  had  &  how  often  they  came  a  wooinge 
this  was  ye  way  I  thought  might  prove  the  most  prudent  way  to 
discover  what  you  Imployed  mee  to  doe  &  the  least  suspected  &  he 
hath  found  out  yt  there  are  2  Gentlemen  yt  frequente  yt  house  of 
Grimsdicte  &  yt  the  one  of  ym  is  said  to  be  Sonn  to  Sr.  George 
Warburton  ye  other  his  Companion  but  it  is  beleeved  to  be  Blood  & 
his  ffellow  K —  Sr.  I  am  goeinge  on  as  secretly  as  I  can,  &  doe  hope 
by  the  assistance  of  Leivt.  Coll.  Daniell,  who  I  knowe  Is  a  greate 
lover  of  my  Lord  Duke  de  Ormond  as  also  of  your  Selfe  &  Coll. 
Kirkby  whos  assistance  I  can  have  upon  a  very  short  warninge  but  if 
possible  I  would  have  your  Worsp  theare  when  tyme  is ;  Sr  you  shall 
have  notice  how  things  succeed  and  god  Willing  I  will  doe  my  Uttmost 
Endeavours  to  serve  you  to  best  of  my  Skill  or  Last  droppe  of  Blood  : 

Whilst  I  am 
Warrington  March  the  19th  1670.  John  Wilson. 

For  the  ever  Honrd  Sr.  Roger  Bradshaigh 
Knt  at  his  house  Haigh. 


Blood's  pardon  and  restoration  to  Royal  favour  is  one  of 
the  most  singular  incidents  in  Charles's  reign.  His 
marriage,  on  June  21st,  1650,  with  Maria,  daughter  of 
Holcroft  of  Holcroft,  Colonel  in  the  Parliamentary  Army, 
appears  in  the  Parish  Registers  of  Newchurch,  near 
Warrington.     He  died  August  26th,  1680. ^ 

Blood  acted  as  License  agent  for  George  Larkham  of 
Cockermouth  and  Richard  Gilpin,  then  at  Newcastle. 
Evidently  in  this,  however,  as  in  other  matters,  his  actions 

1.  The  Bradshaigh  MS. 

2.  "Colonel  Blood,"  by  Whittenburg  Kaye,  pp.  vii,  258. 

6o  The   Ejected   of  1662 

were  distinctly  shady.  Writing  to  "  William  Mascall, 
chirurgeon  at  Romford,"  on  May  14tli,  1672,  he  says  :  — 
I  enclose  the  licences  you  gave  me  a  note  for.  If  you  need  any 
other  places  to  be  licensed,  you  can  have  them.  There  is  no  charge 
for  them,  only  it  is  agreed  that  5s.  for  the  personal  licences  be  gotten, 
and  the  doorkeepers  and  under  clerks  should  afterwards  be  remembered 
by  a  token  of  love.i 

Two  days  after  this  Thomas  Gilson,  Nonconformist 
Minister   of   Little    Baddow,    writes   to    Mr.   Mascall    as 

follows  :  — 

I  have  had  a  conceit  that  Blood  has  detained  the  personal  licences 
for  me  and  Mr.  Kiteley  till  you  send  him  word  of  the  money  he 
mentioned.  Therefore  if  you  write  to  him,  write  smartly  that  we 
cannot  take  it  kindly  to  be  so  disingenuously  dealt  with,  as  if  he 
would  stop  our  personal  licences,  though  he  knows  us  both,  and  only 
send  down  licences  for  our  houses,  which  signify  nothing  without  a 
person ;  and  we  should  have  takeji  it  better  if  he  had  sent  down  the 
personal  licences,  and  left  to  our  courtesy  what  we  would  gratify  the 
clerks  and  doorkeepers  with,  rather  than  to  have  a  sum  imposed  on 
us,  contrary  to  the  King's  express  command  that  nothing  should  be 
required,  and  therefore  advise  him  to  send  down  presently  the  personal 
licences  for  us,  lest  we  make  our  address  some  other  way.2 

A  much  more  interesting  person,  who  figures  promin- 
ently in  connection  with  these  Licenses,  is  Sir  Joseph 
Williamson,  subsequently  Secretary  of  State  in  succession 
to  Lord  Arlington.  He  was  a  native  of  Cumberland, 
being  born  at  Bridekirk,  near  Cockermouth,  where  his 
father,  the  E-ev.  Joseph  Williamson,  was  Vicar  from  1626 
to  1634,  his  death  taking  place  in  August  of  the  latter 
year.  It  was  just  twelve  months  previous  to  this  that 
young  Joseph  was  born,  as  the  following  from  the  Bridekirk 
Parish  Registers  shows  : . — 

1633  Aug  4  Josephus  fil.  Josephi  Williamson  Cler.  Vicarij  de  Bride- 
kirk Bapt. 

"At  his  first  setting  out  in  the  world,"  write  Nicolson 
and  Burn,  "  the  young  man  was  entertained  by  Robert 
Tolson  esquire,  representative  in  parliament  for  Cocker- 
mouth,  in  the  time  of  the  great  rebellion,  as  his  clerk  or 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1671-2,  p.  568. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  689. 

Sir   Joseph   Williamson  6i 

amanuensis."  ^  Whilst  with  his  master,  Mr.  Tolson,  in 
London,  he  was  introduced  into  Westminster  School,  and 
being  "  a  youth  of  a  quick  apprehension  and  unwearied 
diligence,"  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Head  Master, 
Dr.  Busby,  he  went  to  Queen's  College,  Oxford.  He 
matriculated  Nov.  18,  1650;  took  his  B.A.  Feb.  2,  1653-4; 
M.A.  by  diploma  Nov.  11,  1657;  incorporated  at  Cam- 
bridge 1659;  was  created  D.C.L.  June  27,  1674;  became 
barrister-at-law.  Middle  Temple,  1664,  and  of  Lincoln's 
Inn,  1672;  Clerk  of  the  Council  and  was  knighted  Jan.  24, 
1671-2;  Secretary  of  State  1674—1679;  Member  of  Par- 
liament for  Thetford  (1669 — 1689)  in  five  Parliaments, 
for  Rochester  (1690 — 1701)  in  four  Parliaments;  Clare  in 
Ireland  1692-5,  Limerick  and  Portarlington,  1695;  and 
was  President  of  the  E-oyal  Society,  a  position  which  he 
resigned  Feb.  9,  1678-9.  His  death  took  place  on  October 
3rd,  1701,  and  he  was  interred  in  Westminster  Abbey  on 
the  14th.  To  the  College  to  which  he  owed  so  much,  "  in 
his  lifetime  and  at  his  death  he  gave  in  plate,  books, 
building  and  money  to  the  value  of  £8,000.  To  the 
grandchildren  of  Dr.  Langbaine,  his  patron,  [Provost  of 
Queen's  College]  he  left  by  will  £500.  And  he  sent  to 
this  parish  [Bridekirk]  gilt  bibles  and  prayer  books,  velvet 
covering  and  rich  linen  for  the  altar,  with  silver  flagons 
and  chalices  for  the  administration  of  the  holy  commu- 
nion." 2  Sir  Joseph  Williamson  was  never  permitted  to 
forget  that  he  belonged  to  Cumberland.  Whilst  he  was 
at  the  State  Secretary's  office,  letters  and  petitions  to  him 
poured  in  continually  from  all  sorts  of  people  with  all 
kinds  of  requests;  and  judging  from  the  language  em- 
ployed he  was  regarded  in  his  native  County  as  a  sort  of 
divinity.  It  was  an  age  of  flattery,  and  in  relation  to 
few  men  has  this  been  more  freely  employed  than  it  was 
in  reference  to  him.^    All  this  has  made  the  little  County, 

1.  Nicolson  and  Bum,  vol.  ii,  p.  101. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  p.  101.  Vide  also  Hutchinson,  Foster's  AI.  Ox., 
Diet,  of  Nat.  Biog.,  Wood's  Athenae,  Cals.  S.  P.  Dom.,  and  Letters  to 
Sir  Joseph  Williamson  (Camden  Soc,  Second  Series,  vols.  8  and  9). 

3.  Vide  pp.  437,  719. 

62  The   Ejected    of  1662 

remote  though  it  was  from  the  heart  of  the  kingdom, 
assume  quite  an  importance  in  the  State  Papers  of  that 

The  Licenses  bear  different  dates.  As  previously 
intimated  some  were  taken  very  early,  but  others  were 
issued  quite  late.^  Doubtless  the  explanation  is  to  be 
found  in  a  variety  of  things.  Possibly  the  fact  indicates 
lack  of  faith  in  the  efficacy  of  the  License  on  the  part  of 
some ;  still  more  probable  is  it  that  local  feeling  and 
opinion  were  such  as  made  haste  in  the  matter  unneces- 
sary. Possibly  also  many  a  romance  lies  in  this  delay,  if 
we  only  knew  it.  At  any  rate,  whatever  the  explanation, 
the  fact  is  that  some  of  the  Licenses  wer.e  not  petitioned 
for  and  secured  until  within  a  month  or  two  of  the  Declar- 
ation being  cancelled.  On  the  7th  of  February,  1672-3, 
the  Indulgence  Declaration  was  withdrawn,  "  the  king 
breaking  with  his  own  hand  the  Great  Seal  appended  to 
it."^  The  Declaration  had  been  issued  on  the  King's  own 
responsibility.  It  was  not  an  Act  of  Parliament;  it  was 
an  exercise  of  that  dispensing  power  which  Charles 
claimed  to  be  vested  in  the  Kingship;  and  it  is  curious  to 
note  that  it  was  the  very  Parliament  which  had  shown 
itself  in  all  else  to  be  so  subservient,  the  Cavalier  Parlia- 
ment, whose  Royalist  sympathies  were  most  pronounced, 
that  had  maintained  the  Declaration  to  be  illegal  from 
the  first,  had  pressed  incessantly  for  its  recall,  and  which 
now  accomplished  its  purpose.  Clearly  the  lessons  of  the 
past  had  not  been  forgotten,  the  exercise  of  the  Royal 
prerogative  was  carefully  watched,  and  even  this  Parlia- 
ment kept  strict  guard  over  its  own  rights. 

1.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  in  Mr.  Bate's  book,  excellent  in 
many  respects,  there  is  the  very  serious  defect  of  a  list  of  these  Licenses 
without  a  single  date.  The  list  is  not  near  so  valuable  as  it  would  have 
been  if  the  dates  had  been  supplied,  while  many  of  the  errors,  which 
have  already  appeared  in  print,  are  perpetuated.  This  lack  has  been 
met  by  the  monumental  work  of  Professor  G.  L.  Turner,  M.A.,  on 
"  Original  Kecords  of  Early  Nonconformity  under  Persecution  and 
Indulgence,"  which  has  just  been  issued. 

2.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1672-3,  Intro.,  p.  xxxvi. 

The    Great    Schism  63 

This  was  immediately  followed  by  the  Test  Act  requir- 
ing all  who  held  office  in  the  State  to  receive  the  Sacrament 
according  to  the  Church  of  England  and  renounce  the 
doctrine  of  Transubstantiation.  Complaint  being  made 
that  notwithstanding  the  withdrawal  of  the  Indulgence 
Declaration,  Nonconformists  still  met  for  worship,  acting 
on  the  advice  of  the  Bishops,  on  February  3rd,  1675-6, 
Charles  recalled  all  Licenses  and  commanded  that  care 
should  be  taken  for  the  suppression  of  all  Conventicles. 

What  now  was  the  result  of  all  this  religiously?  The 
creatfon  of  a  Nonconformity  that  was  to  be  a  permanent 
force  in  the  religious  life  of  the  country.  Efforts  in  the 
direction  of  compromise  and  schemes  of  comprehension 
had  been  repeatedly  put  forth  from  almost  the  beginning 
of  the  Century.  Richard  Baxter,  in  particular,  had 
cherished  the  hope  of  a  reunion  of  Protestant  Christen- 
dom, of  such  a  modification  of  the  doctrines,  worship,  and 
polity  of  the  Church  of  England  as  would  permit  of  a 
return  to  its  Communion  on  the  part  of  those  who  had 
long  been  exiled  from  it;  and,  by  speech  and  pen,  in 
season  and  out  of  season,  he  had  laboured  towards  that 
end.  It  is  indeed  quite  pathetic  to  read  the  story  of  his 
life  as  revealed  in  his  own  writings,  and  see  how  he  clung 
to  this  hope.  He  was  not  himself  specially  fitted  to  lead 
in  such  a  movement :  he  was  too  keen  a  controversialist 
and  his  temper  was  too  quick.  But  from  whatever  quarter 
the  suggestion  of  a  reunion  scheme  came,  it  never  failed 
to  find  in  him  a  sympathetic  and  quick  response.  There 
can  be  little  doubt,  also,  that  at  certain  stages  of  the 
conflict  the  prospects  of  reunion  were  remarkably  favour- 
able. At  the  Restoration,  for  example,  had  the  returning 
Episcopalians  been  more  conciliatory  and  less  unbending 
a  very  large  proportion  of  the  Presbyterians,  who  had  no 
rooted  objection  either  to  Episcopacy  as  such,  or  to  a  State 
Church,  would  have  been  won  over;  and  the  course  of 
religious  history  in  this  country  during  the  last  two 
hundred  and  fifty  years  would  have  been  altogether 
different.  The  lex  talionis,  however,  had  too  strong  an 
attraction  for  them;   wiser  and  more  moderate  counsels 

64  The   Ejected   of  1662 

were  set  aside ;  and  there  followed  the  years  of  repressive 
and  cruel  legislation  which  have  been  briefly  outlined, 
with  the  result  that  English  Christianity  became  hope- 
lessly rent  asunder.  Baxter  and  others  still  dreamed  of 
Comprehension,  but  the  dreams  were  impossible  of  fulfil- 
ment :  the  current  of  separation  had  set  in  too  strongly 
to  be  diverted  from  its  course.  The  "  Great  Schism  "  hqd 
taken  place,  Nonconformity  had  got  a  definiteness  of 
character  and  a  volume  of  life  that  prophesied  perma- 
nency for  it.  The  two  events  just  named — the  Ejection 
of  1662  and  the  Indulgence  Declaration  of  1672 — were 
mainly  responsible  for  this.     Mr.  Wakeman  writes:  — 

Through  all  the  mists  and  confusion  generated  by  politics,  the  eye 
of  the  historian  can  see  clearly  enough  that  the  two  systems  of  religion 
were  ever  growing  further  and  further  away  from  each  other,  as  they 
developed  themselves  on  their  own  religious  lines  by  their  own 
religious  power  from  the  day  of  the  birth  of  Puritanism  in  the  reign 
of  Edward  VI.  to  the  day  ot  its  final  exclusion  from  the  national 
Church  in  1662.  There  never  was  a  time  when  they  were  compatible 
with  each  other.  There  was  often  a  time  when  it  seemed  that  one 
would  completely  exterminate  the  other.  By  1662  it  was  clear  that 
neither  comprehension  nor  extermination  was  possible,  and  as  the 
Church  was  in  possession  of  the  field,  Puritanism  had  to  go  forth 
into  the  wilderness.  The  Reformation  struggle  was  ended.  The 
Church  of  England  reformed  on  Catholic  lines,  and,  freed  from 
Puritanism,  was  able  to  discharge  her  own  duties  to  her  own  people 
in  her  own  way.  Puritanism,  relieved  from  its  struggle  for  ascend- 
ency over  the  Church,  was  able  to  develop  its  principles  in  the 
freedom  of  voluntary  societies.  For  a  time,  it  is  true,  the  toleration 
which  this  altered  state  of  affairs  demanded  was  refused  by  politi- 
cians ;  but  in  the  purely  religious  sphere  the  problems  of  the 
Reformation  were  solved  at  the  Restoration.* 

It  is  not  necessary  to  assume  that  in  every  particular  that 
passage  is  an  accurate  resume  of  the  Puritan  movement; 
but  its  one  correct  pronouncement  is  that  the  Uniformity 
Act  marks  the  great  dividing  line  in  English  History ; 
and  the  same  is  true  in  reference  to  the  Indulgence 
Declaration  of  1672.     Dr.    Edward   Stillingfleet,   Bishop 

1.  Hist,  of  the  Church  of  Eng.,  by  H.  0.  Wakeman,  M.A.,  pp.  387, 

Policy   of   Charles  65 

of  Worcester,  dates  from  it  what  lie  calls  the  "  Presby- 
terian Separation."  1 

It  is  easy  to  see  how  the  matter  would  work.  The 
Ejected  Ministers  frequently  lingered  in  the  neighbour- 
hood in  which  they  had  lived  and  laboured.  Generally 
many  of  their  parishioners  were  deeply  devoted  to  them, 
common  suffering  binding  them  still  more  closely  together ; 
and,  even  at  considerable  risk,  when  the  days  were  most 
threatening  secret  worship  was  occasionally  held.  Under 
the  Indulgence  Declaration  these  would  frequent  their 
licensed  meeting  places,  and  would  serve  as  the  nuclei  for 
the  Nonconformist  Churches,  which  arose  when  the  advent 
of  William  and  Mary  put  an  end  to  religious  persecution 
and  secured  for  all  Dissenters  religious  Toleration.  The 
policy  of  repression,  therefore,  pursued  so  unfalteringly 
by  a  dominant  Episcopacy  after  the  Restoration  was  self 
destructive.  It  was  the  Church  which  persecuted  that 
stood  to  lose.  "  So  mistaken  a  policy,"  says  Mr.  Wake- 
man,  "  brought  its  own  retribution  in  the  deadening  of 
spiritual  life,  and  contributed  to  the  loss  of  half  the 
English-speaking  races  to  the  allegiance  of  the  Church."  ^ 

The  question  now  arises  as  to  what  was  the  policy  of 
Charles  II.  during  all  these  years.  What  were  his  inten- 
tions and  aims?  Historians,  both  ecclesiastical  and 
other,  have  done  much  to  make  Charles  the  Sphinx  of 
the  17th  Century.  The  idea  which  has  largely  obtained 
among  them,  and  still  does,  is  that  he  was  abnormally, 
almost  supernaturally,  clever;  that  he  succeeded  in  hood- 
winking all  who  were  about  him;  that  his  true  self 
seldom,  if  ever,  appeared  upon  the  surface ;  and  that  even 
when  he  was  most  engrossed  in  pleasure  he  was  faithful 
to  the  two  ideals  which  he  had  made  his  own,  and  for 
whose  realisation  he  was  always  steadily  and  secretly 
endeavouring — the  two  ideals  being  Kingly  Absolutism 
and  the  re-establishment  in  his  kingdom  of  Roman 
Catholicism.     It   is    interesting    to    note    how   this    idea 

1.  Eng.  U.  Hist.,  p.  87. 

2.  Hist,  of  the  Church  of  Eng.,  p.  393. 

66  The   Ejected    of  1662 

asserts  itself  even  in  authors  who  give  evidence  of  anxiety 
to  escape  its  enthralment ;  but  in  no  case  is  it  more 
strongly  and  persistently  emphasized  than  by  John 
Richard   Green.     He  writes:  — 

The  degradation  of  England  was  only  a  move  in  the  political  game 
which  he  was  playing,  a  game  played  with  so  consimomate  a  secrecy 
and  skill  that  it  deceived  not  only  the  closest  observers  of  his  own 
day  but  still  misleads  historians  of  ours.  What  his  subjects  saw  in 
their  king  was  a  pleasant,  brown- faced  gentleman  playing  with  his 
spaniels,  or  drawing  caricatures  of  his  ministers,  or  flinging  cakes  to 
the  water-fowl  in  the  park.  To  all  outer  seeming,  Charles  was  the 
most  consummate  of  idlers  .  .  .  meanwhile  he  went  on  patiently 
gathering  up  what  fragments  of  the  old  Royal  power  still  survived, 
and  availing  himself  of  whatever  new  resources  offered  themselves. 
.  .  .  He  wished  to  break  down  English  Protestantism.  In  heart  he 
had  long  ceased  to  be  a  Protestant.  Whatever  religious  feeling  he 
had  was  on  the  side  of  Catholicism.^ 

The  insertion  of  that  passage  is  not  at  all  to  be  taken 
as  suggesting  that  modern  historians  hold  that  view  with 
anything  like  the  strength  with  which  Green  appears  to 
have  done,  Nor  indeed  is  it  easy  to  reconcile  with  it 
much  else  that  Green  himself  has  written;  but  it  is  given 
because  it  presents  the  view  in  question  in  such  clear  and 
emphatic  form.  It  may  at  once  be  conceded  that  Charles 
had  gifts  of  no  mean  order ;  that  his  travels  had  furnished 
him  with  a  wide  knowledge  of  men  and  things;  that  he 
had  leanings  towards  Roman  Catholicism,  as  other  Stuart 
Kings  had ;  and  that  he  found  the  idea  of  Kingly  Abso- 
lutism pleasant  to  entertain.  I  am  not  even  disposed  to 
deny  the  story  of  his  reception,  as  he  lay  dying,  of  Father 
Huddleston,  the  priest  who  had  saved  his  life  after  the 
Worcester  defeat,  or  even  of  his  private  reconciliation 
with  the  Church  of  Rome;  but  it  is  denied  that  he  had 
any  real  care  for  either  the  one  or  the  other,  a  care  suffi- 
ciently strong  to  induce  him  to  take  them  as  the  ideals 
of  his  life.  The  following  points  will  assist  in  making 
this  position  clear  :  — 

Men  never  play  at  tyranny.  That  is  the  one  thing 
which  is  always  taken  seriously  and  lived  openly.     There 

1.  Short  Hist,  of  the  Eng.  People,  pp.  616-620. 

Policy   of   Charles  67 

is  never  any  difficulty  in  discovering  the  Absolutist,  either 
in  religion  or  in  politics — the  Church  or  the  State.  The 
verdict  of  history  is  clear  and  decisive  on  that  point.  If 
on  the  other  hand  Charles  was  a  E-oman  Catholic  he  was 
an  exceedingly  indifferent  and  unprofitable  one.  During 
all  his  long  reign  it  is  impossible  to  discover  a  single 
thing  which  he  did  in  furtherance  of  that  faith.  All  the 
repressive  legislation  of  that  period,  which  told  so 
heavily  against  Nonconformists,  told  with  equal  force 
against  Roman  Catholics;  and  there  is  no  evidence  that 
he  ever  sought  to  secure  for  them  exemption.  In  the 
Indulgence  Declaration,  which  some  say  was  intended 
mainly  in  their  interests,  the  exemption  was  the  other 
way.  While  it  gave  Nonconformists  generally  liberty 
to  license  all  kinds  of  buildings  and  hold  their  worship 
publicly,  it  ordained  that  "  the  recusants  of  the  Homan 
Catholic  religion  should  in  no  wise  be  allowed  public 
places  of  worship" ;  but  only  that  they  should  be  indulged 
"  their  share  in  the  Common  exemption  from  the  penal 
laws,  and  the  exercise  of  their  worship  in  their  private 
houses  only."  Then  the  Test  Act,  which  followed  almost 
immediately,  was  deliberately  aimed  at  them,  and  the 
King  raised  no  protesting  voice.  If  Charles  was  of  that 
religious  persuasion  it  owed  him  nothing;  he  risked 
nothing;  he  achieved  nothing  for  it. 

Moreover,  if  the  two  things  named  were  the  ideals  of 
his  life  he  entirely  failed  in  their  realisation.  At  the 
end  of  his  reign  the  re-establishment  of  Roman  Catholic- 
ism was  less  possible  than  it  was  at  the  beginning;  and 
the  personal  rule  of  the  King  had  given  way  to  rule  by 

During  the  greater  part  of  his  reign  Charles  was  in  the 
hands  of  his  ministers — his  Junto,  his  Cabal.  It  was  not 
so  much  that  he  played  off  each  against  the  other  to 
secure  for  himself  position  and  power  as  that  each  played 
himself  and  the  King  against  the  other  with  a  view  to  his 
own  ends. 

Charles's  policy  was  determined  by  his  character,  and 
his  character  appears  in  the  distinctly  illuminating  sen- 

68  The   Ejected    of  1662 

tence  which  once  escaped  his  lips,  when  he  declared  that 
he  had  no  intention  "  to  set  out  on  his  travels  again." 
It  was  laughingly  spoken,  but  it  contained  the  one  really- 
fixed  principle  of  his  life.  In  more  serious  vein  the 
other  words  with  which  he  is  credited,  when  in  reference 
to  Yane,  who  was  being  tried  for  treason,  he  said :  — "  He 
is  too  dangerous  a  man  to  live  if  we  can  safely  put  him 
away."  The  two  statements,  however,  were  the  product 
of  the  same  spirit :  it  was  his  personal  safety,  convenience, 
pleasure,  to  which  he  always  gave  first  consideration.  At 
heart  the  Stuart  Kings  were  considerable  cowards. 
Nobody  questions  that  in  relation  to  the  first  James.  His 
weakness  and  folly  led  to  his  being  mockingly  described 
as  "  the  wisest  fool  in  Christendom."  His  son,  Charles, 
was  much  less  an  exception  than  would  at  first  appear. 
His  fatal  habit  of  lying  was  quite  as  much  responsible 
for  the  troubles  of  his  reign  as  his  obstinacy  and  wilful- 
ness, and  lying  is  always  the  coward's  castle;  while  his 
desertion  of  Strafford,  after  assuring  him  that  "  on  the 
word  of  a  king  "  he  should  "  not  suffer  in  life,  honour,  or 
fortune,"  was  a  pitiful  piece  of  weakness,  if  not  something 
worse.  The  second  James,  again,  after  years  of  so  called 
resolute  rule,  completely  collapsed  in  the  supreme  hour, 
offered  to  concede  et^erything  which  his  opponents  had 
demanded,  and  eventually  ran  away  from  his  kingdom. 
Charles  II.  had  this  weakness  of  the  Stuart  character 
emphasized  to  a  high  degree,  and  he  was  honest  enough 
not  to  attempt  to  be  other  than  himself.  He  was  always 
receding  from  positions  which  he  had  taken  up.  It  cost 
him  little  to  forget  the  Breda  Declaration  in  which  he 
promised  relief  for  "  tender  consciences,"  when  his  Par- 
liament demanded  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  which  sent 
those  tender  consciences  into  exile.  The  Indulgence 
Declaration,  which  again  was  in  the  interests  of  the  per- 
secuted party,  was  withdrawn  under  the  pressure  of  the 
same  Parliament.  Too  idle,  too  indulgent  and  voluptuous 
to  take  in  hand  the  affairs  of  the  State,  given  up  to  women 
and  gambling,  "  Love's  mere  pensioner,"  like  Gallio  for 
things  of  a  serious  character,  he  had  no  care  whatever. 

Policy   of   Charles  69 

His  policy  was  all  with,  a  view  to  saving  himself.  He  had 
no  deep  religious  convictions,  or  indeed  deep  convictions 
of  any  kind.     He  was  the  great  opportunist  of  his  day. 

Nor  is  it  in  the  least  difficult  to  account  for  those 
rumours  of  his  Romanist  leanings,  which  were  so  frequent 
in  his  time.  The  nation  was  feverishly  Protestant;  it 
scented  the  Popish  peril  everywhere.  Even  Quakers  were 
charged  with  being  E-onianists  in  disguise;  and  the  Titus 
Gates  forgeries,  which  were  accepted  on  evidence  that 
would  not  have  borne  a  moment's  investigation,  witness 
to  the  excited  and  hysterical  state  of  public  feeling.  Not 
too  seriously  even  must  be  taken  th.e  Treaty  of  Dover, 
completed  on  June  1st,  1670 ;  according  to  which,  among 
other  things,  Charles  was  to  acknowledge  himself  a 
"  Catholic  whenever  lie  thought  fit  to  do  so"  ;  and  in  return 
was  to  receive  a  large  sum  of  money  with  considerable 
troops  from  Louis  of  France  to  be  employed  in  his  defence 
against  his  own  people.  The  Treaty  was  a  secret  one,  not 
even  known  to  two  members  of  the  Cabal ;  and  that  Charles 
was  an  adept  in  making  promises,  whose  fulfilment  sat 
lightly  upon  his  conscience,  is  almost  axiomatic.  One 
thing  is  certain,  viz.,  that  he  never  "thought  fit"  to  make 
the  necessary  pronouncement,  and  that  the  fulfilment  of 
the  promise  was  never  attempted.  Charles  had  simply 
sold  himself  to  France  for  money;  and  the  Dover  Treaty 
proves  nothing  beyond  the  King's  shameful  weakness  and 

Charles's  religious  policy,  therefore,  was  not  dictated 
by  principles  of  cruelty :  he  had  no  thought  of  being  a 
persecutor  of  Nonconformists.  There  is  no  reason  to 
suppose  that  the  Indulgence  Declaration  was  other  than 
an  honest  attempt  to  put  an  end  to  the  twelve  years'  sad 
experience  of  repressive  legislation,  "  during  which  little 
fruit  had  resulted  from  all  these  forcible  courses."  There 
is  no  evidence  to  show  that  the  Uniformity  Act,  and  the 
other  persecuting  edicts  which  range  themselves  around 
it,  would  ever  have  been  passed,  if  behind  him  had  not 
been  a  minister  like  Clarendon  and  an  ecclesiastic  like 
Sheldon.     Charles  clearly  saw  that  the  more  of  national 

JO  The   Ejected   of  1662 

unrest  there  was,  the  more  insecure  was  his  throne. 
There  can,  of  course,  be  no  admiration  for  a  character 
like  that  of  Charles,  who  "  laughed  at  religion  when  well 
and  turned  to  Catholicism  when  sick  and  serious" ;  and 
yet  even  his  was  the  type  that  was  calculated  to 
contribute  to  national  progress  at  that  particular  time. 
It  filled  up  a  sort  of  lacuna  in  the  national  life,  which, 
occupied  by  a  character  of  a  different  type,  would  have 
issued  in  disaster.  His  very  weaknesses  were  the  oppor- 
tunity for  the  steady  growth  of  the  Constitutional  spirit. 
The  nation  was  in  no  mood  to  play  either  with  its  Pro- 
testantism or  its  liberties.  James  II.  on  succeeding 
Charles,  tried  to  do  both ;  and  the  result  was  calamitous 
for  himself.  He  did  not  lose  his  head,  as  his  father  did, 
but  he  lost  his  crown.  Charles  the  Second's  reign  made 
certain  the  dethronement  of  James  the  Second  and  the 
Revolution  of  1688.^ 

1.  The   reader  interested   in  the  questions  raised  in  this   chapter   in 
addition  to  the  works  already  cited  will  do  well  to  consult  the  following  : 
The  Creeds  and  Platforms  of  Congregationalism   (Walker). 
Congregationalists  in  America  (Dunning). 

Inner  Life  of  the  Religious  Societies  of  the  Commonwealth  (Barclay). 
The  Puritan  in  England  and  New  England  (Byington). 
The  Congregationalism  of  the  Last  Three  Hundred  Years  as  seen  in 

its  Literature  (Dexter). 
The  Pilgrim  in  Old  England  (Bradford). 
The  Evolution  of  Congregationalism  (Mackennal). 
The  England  and  Holland  of  the  Pilgrims  (Dexter). 
Richard  Baxter's  Self  Review  &c.   (Bishop  of  Chester). 
Life  of  John  Howe  (Rogers). 
Historical  Enquiry  (Wilson). 

Presbyterian  Chapels  and  Charities  &c.   (James). 
English  Puritanism  (Bayne). 

CHAPTER    11. 

The  Area. 

It  was  originally  intended  to  include  in  +liis  area  that 
part  of  Lancashire  which  lies  north  of  Morecambe  Bay, 
between  the  Kent  on  the  one  hand  and  the  Irish  Sea  on 
the  other.  This  with  the  two  Counties,  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland,  coincides  almost  exactly  with  the  modern 
Diocese  of  Carlisle.  The  work,  however,  has  grown  so 
considerably  that  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  drop  the 
Lancashire  portion,  and  restrict  the  enquiry  to  the  two 
Counties  just  named.  The  exception,  hinted  at  in  the 
previous  sentence,  is  the  Parish  of  Alston,  which,  though 
in  the  County  of  Cumberland,  is  in  the  Diocese  of  New- 
castle. In  reference  to  it  Chancellor  Ferguson  thus 
writes  :  — 

The  exclusion  of  the  Cumberland  parish  of  Alston  from  the  diocese 
of  Carlisle  may  at  first  sight  seem  an  anomaly,  but  it  is  not  so.  By 
.  all  the  laws  of  geography  the  parish  belongs  to  the  County  of 
Northumberland,  and  to  the  diocese  of  Durham,  or  since  1882,  of 
Newcastle ;  the  anomaly  is  that  it  belongs  to  the  county  of  Cumber- 
land, to  which  it  has  access  only  over  a  col,  whose  summit  is  1,900 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  This  arises  from  the  fact  that  Alston 
contained  jura  regalia,  silver  mines,  whose  profits  the  Crown  of 
England  found  it  convenient  to  collect  through  the  Sheriff  of  Cum- 
berland and  Alston  thus  became  fiscally  severed  from  the  district  to 
which,  ecclesiastically  and  geographically  it  belongs.^ 

In  the  north  eastern  part  of  the  same  County,  also 
contiguous  to  the  Northumbrian  border,  is  Upper  or  Over 
Denton,  which  previous  to  the  early  part  of  the  18th 
Century  was  an  unclaimed  parish,  a  sort  of  ecclesiastical 
"  No  Man's  Land" ;  but  since  then  it  has  been  definitely 

1.  DiocesBJi  Histories,  Carlisle,  pp.  3,  4. 

72  The   Ejected   of  1662 

associated  with  the  Diocese  of  the  County  in  which  it 
appears.     Writing  in  1703,  Bishop  Nicolson   says:  — 

There's  another  Church  at  Upper  or  Over-Denton,  which  is  said 
to  be  in  the  Diocese  of  Durham.  .  .  .  Upon  consulting  Dr.  Smith, 
Prebendary  of  Durham,  about  the  jurisdiction  of  Upper-Denton,  I 
had  this  State  of  ye  matter  from  him  in  a  Letter  dated  Mar.  4. 
1703-4  : — "  I  employed  Mr.  Rowel  in  the  Search  .  .  .  who  says  [among 
other  things]  that  he  has  often  seen  it  in  diverse  old  Synod  and 
Visitation  Rolls  of  the  Clergy  in  the  Bishop's  Registry.  But  he 
believes  no  notice  has  been  taken  of  it,  nor  any  Exercise  of  Jurisdiction 
claimed,  for  nigh  a  hundred  years.  And,  if  your  Lp  will  take  it,  none 
will  oppose  you  from  hence.  And,  if  the  Minister  or  Parishioners 
should  contest  it,  he  believes  you  may  depend  upon  wt  assistance  can 
be  made  you,  either  by  disclaiming  it  or  otherwise.  I  have  also 
discours'd  Archdeacon  Morton  about  it;  who  is  of  the  same  opinion."  ' 

The  Carlisle  Diocese,  as  we  now  have  it,  is  quite  modern. 
Previous  to  1856  it  was  barely  two  thirds  of  its  present 
size,  the  other  third  then  added  having  been  carved  out  of 
the  large  and  wealthy  Diocese  of  Chester.  A  line  drawn 
from  Workington  on  the  Cumbrian  coast  across  the 
country  to  the  head  of  Bassenthwaite  Lake,  traversing  the 
eastern  side  to  below  Thirlmere,  striking  east  again  about 
midway  between  Ullswater  and  Windermere  until  the 
Lune  is  reached  a  little  below  Tebay,  taking  in  all  that 
part  of  Westmorland,  and  terminating  near  Arnside  on 
Morecambe  Bay,  will  indicate  the  portion  which  was  then 
added  to  the  Diocese.  It  formed  part  of  the  Archdeaconry 
of  Richmond,  one  of  the  largest,  most  ancient  and 
wealthy  in  the  kingdom.  As  already  indicated  the  North 
Lonsdale  portion  has  been  most  reluctantly  omitted.  It 
is  a  compact  area  for  the  purpose  of  study,  and  its  physical 
homogeneity  at  once  impresses  the  student.  It  is  pre- 
eminently "  the  Land  of  the  Mountain  and  the  Flood" ; 
and,  in  consequence,  is  only  sparsely  populated.  Even 
to  day  it  is,  for  the  most  part,  cut  off  from  the  main 
stream  of  life,  whose  throb  is  felt  so  powerfully  in  the 
neighbouring  Counties  of  Yorkshire  and  Lancashire.  It 
is  sparingly  intersected  by  railways,  though  its  well  kept 

1.  Miscel.,  pp.  3,  4. 

Isolation  "]}> 

roads  invite  the  cyclist  and  motorist  to  its  delightful 
retreats.  With  the  exception  of  Carlisle,  Penrith,  Cocker- 
mouth,  Workington,  Appleby  and  Kendal,  its  towns  are 
little  more  than  good  sized  villages;  its  villages  are 
scattered  and  often  mere  hamlets;  and  the  traveller, 
fresh  from  the  stress  and  strain  of  Lancashire  life,  feels 
the  reposefulness  of  a  quaint  old  worldishness  wherever 
he  goes.  The  population  of  the  entire  area  is  far  from 
equal  to  that  of  Manchester  or  Liverpool :  the  two 
Counties  are  among  the  most  rural  and  thinly  populated 
parts  of  England.  If  these  are  the  characteristics  of  this 
district  to  day  they  were  the  same,  greatly  emphasized, 
in  the  period  with  which  we  are  concerned.  Chancellor 
Perguson,  writing  in  1894,  says :  — 

For  the  greater  part  of  the  last  century  the  Lake  District  was  as 
primitive  and  as  out-of-the-world  a  place  as  could  possibly  be  im- 
agined. English  travellers  did  not  visit  mountains  for  the  sake  of 
mountain  scenery,  but  only  to  traverse  them  into  Italy.  They  liked 
their  sherry  sv^eet  and  their  scenery  flat.  A  fine  champaign  country 
was  their  idea  of  the  picturesque ;  and  small  blame  to  them  if  they 
preferred  the  view  from  Richmond  Hill,  in  Surrey,  to  any  other  in 
the  world.  ^ 

Occasional  writers,  like  West  and  Gilpin,  toured  through 
the  Lake  District  in  the  second  half  of  the  18th  Century, 
and  gave  to  the  world  their  impressions  of  the  glories 
which  they  had  seen;  but  it  was  not  until  near  the  end 
of  that  Century  that  travellers  began  to  turn  their  atten- 
tion seriously  to  it.  Curiously  enough  this  was  in  large 
measure  due  to  the  French  Revolution,  that  wonderfully 
liberalising,  though,  in  many  respects,  terribly  iconoclastic 
movement,  which  in  all  sorts  of  ways  influenced  the  life 
of  this  country.  Chancellor  Ferguson  observes  that  it 
"  closed  the  Continent  to  English  travellers  and  they 
turned  to  the  Lake  District."  2  To  the  same  end  also 
contributed  the  literary  Renaissance,  which  that  period 
witnessed,  that  "  new  Romanticism  "  which  made  litera- 
ture living  and  fresh,  the  work  of  men  like  Wordsworth, 

1.  History  of  Westmorland,  pp.  6,  7.     (Popular  County  Histories.) 

2.  Ibid.,  p.   7. 

74  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Coleridge  and  Southey;  men  who  were  either  natives  of 
the  district,  or  who  made  their  home  there  for  some  while ; 
and  who,  having  communed  with  nature  in  all  its  impres- 
siveness  and  splendour,  sang  of  it  in  telling  verse,  with 
the  result  that  strangers  sought  out  these  parts  and  found 
therein  a  world  of  unexplored  beauty.  The  significance 
of  this  will  appear  in  what  follows.  The  physical  envi- 
ronment of  a  people  does  much  to  stamp  the  character  of 
a  people's  life,  even  as  does  their  moral.  It  is  not  alone 
the  animal  and  the  insect  that  have  the  power  to  adjust 
themselves  to  the  climatic  conditions  in  which  they  find 
themselves,  man  also  feels  the  pressure  of  this  law  con- 

The  two  Counties  were  overwhelmingly  Royalist,  by 
far  the  greater  proportion  of  the  territorial  magnates 
being  active  supporters  of  the  King.  The  Musgraves  of 
Edenhall,  the  Lowthers  of  Lowther,  the  Howards  of 
Naworth,  the  Lamplughs  of  Lamplugh,  the  Huddlestons 
of  Millom,  the  Curwens  of  Workington,  the  Fletchers  of 
Cockermouth,  the  Featherstonhaughs  of  Kirkoswald,  the 
Flemings  of  Rydal,  with  many  others,  were  vigorous 
upholders  of  Church  and  King.  The  Puritan  or  Parlia- 
mentary interests  were  represented  by  very  few  landed 
families.  Chief  among  these  were  the  Whartons  of 
Wharton  Hall,  near  Ravenstonedale,  whose  most  distin- 
guished member  was  the  "  Good  Lord  Philip  Wharton," 
the  friend  and  shelterer  of  Nonconformists  in  the  days 
of  their  exile  and  suffering.  At  one  time  he  was  Colonel 
of  a  Regiment  of  Horse  in  the  Parliamentary  Army  and 
at  the  Restoration,  though  in  favour  of  a  Monarchy,  he 
stood  in  some  risk  of  life.^  The  Wharton  influence  was 
much  felt  in  the  Eden  Valley;  and  it  was  this  Lord 
Wharton  that  left  the  Wharton  Bequest  of  Bibles  for 
distribution  among  the  school  children  of  certain  places 
specified  in  his  Will.     The  Briscos^  of  Crofton  and  the 

1.  Vide  the  Masy  Letters,  p.  879. 

2.  In  the  British  Museum  is  a  pamphlet  containing  "  a  Perfect  List  of 
the  names  of  Persons  returned  to  Serve  in  this  Parliament  1656  for  the 
several    Counties  and    Corporations   within   the    Commonwealth"    from 

County   Families  75 

Barwises  of  Ilekirk  together  with  the  Lawsons  of  Isel  were 
Puritan  in  their  sympathies ;  and  to  that  may  be  attributed 
the  fact,  says  Chancellor  Ferguson  "  that  Wigton,  Holm 
Cultram  and  Cockermouth  were  full  of  Puritans  and 
fanatics."  1  The  Braithwaites  of  Ambleside  Hall  also 
were  somewhat  Puritan  in  their  proclivities,  and,  may  be, 
helped  to  check  the  aggressions  of  Sir  Daniel  Fleming  of 
Rydal  Hall,  to  whose  family  they  were  closely  related. 
In  this  overwhelming  preponderance  of  Royalist  influ- 
ence will  be  found,  in  part,  at  least,  the  explanation  of  a 
fact  which  is  such  a  marked  feature  of  this  area.  The 
story  of  the  Ejection  has  often  been  recited  in  most 
dramatic  fashion,  and  the  painful  leave  taking  of  the 
devoted  pastors  from  their  congregations  immediately 
before  St.  Bartholomew's  Day  has  been  sketched  in  most 
vivid  colours;  and  there  is  abundant  reason  for  this.  We 
have  already  seen  how  the  London  Ministers  preached 
their  Farewell  Sermons  to  their  flocks,^  in  dignified  and 
restrained  phrase,  the  very  Sunday  preceding  the  day 
when  the  Act  came  into  force ;  ^  and  the  same  holds 
doubtless  of  other  places.  It  is  quite  certain  that  it  does 
of  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire,  where  the  two  contending 
parties  were  more  evenly  balanced;  but  in  relation  to 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  it  is  otherwise.  jS^ot  more 
than  half  a  dozen  appear  to  have  waited  for  the  Act  of 
Uniformity;  immediately  the  King  returned  and  Episco- 
pacy was  restored  to  power  the  necessary  machinery  was 
set  in  motion,  and  the  displacement  of  men  began.  In 
many  parts  of  the  country,  indeed,  men  did  not  wait  for 
these  events :   action  began  to  be  taken  as  soon  as  it  was 

which  the  following  is  extracted  : — "  For  Cumberland — Major-Generall 
Charles  Howard,  William  Briscoe,  Esq.  For  Carlisle — Scoutmaster- 
generall  Downey.     For  Westmorelajid— none  yet  returned." 

1.  Hist,  of  Cumberland,  p.  255.     (Popular  County  Histories.) 

2.  Vide  p.  42. 

3.  A  "collection  of  Farewell  Sermons  preached  by  Calamy  [and  others] 
to  their  respective  congregations  at  their  departure  from  them "  was 
published  in  1662. 

76  The    Ejected    of  1662 

decided  that  Monarchy  should  be  restored;  but,  at  least, 
the  action  was  definite  and  decisive  after  the  King 
actually  returned.  It  has  already  been  stated  that  Peti- 
tions from  Sequestered  Ministers  and  suffering,  or  pseudo- 
suffering,  E-oyalists  of  all  kinds  began  to  pour  in.  The 
Journals  of  the  House  of  Lords  for  May  and  June,  1660, 
abound  with  them.  In  some  cases  the  request  was  for 
actual  and  immediate  reinstatement  in  benefices  from 
which  the  petitioners  had  been  sequestered  "  by  Oliver 
Cromwell  and  his  pretended  Council " ;  ^  also  that  "  satis- 
faction"' might  be  made  "for  the  profits  so  unjustly  "  kept 
from  them,  "  or  at  least  that  the  fifths  might  be  paid." 
In  other  cases  petitioners  ask  that  "  the  tithes  and  other 
profits  of  sequestered  livings  "  may  be  secured  "to  Church 
Wardens  and  Overseers  of  the  poor  of  tlie  several  parishes 
until  the  titles  of  the  sequestered  Clergy  and  of  the 
present  possessors  should  be  determined."  -  In  the 
Seventh  Report  of  the  Historical  MSS.  Commission, 
appear  the  names  of  some  580  petitioning  Clergy,  ranging 
over  all  the  country,  their  Petitions  being  presented  to 
the  House  of  Lords  on  June  23rd,  1660,  among  them 
eleven  from  Westmorland  and  Cumberland;  and  the 
administration  being  in  local  hands  it  is  easy  to  see  what 
would  happen  in  those  places  in  which  local  feeling  was 
deeply  stirred.  The  possessor  of  a  living,  who  did  not 
happen  to  be  a  Hoyalist,  would  know  how  little  chance 
there  was  of  success  in  contesting  any  claim  to  continuance 
therein.  The  Convention  Parliament,  also,  by  its  ordin- 
ance of  September,  1660,  authorizing  the  return  of 
Sequestered  Incumbents,  where  still  living,  contributed 
largely  in  the  same  direction ;  and  possibly  the  influence 
of  Richard  Sterne,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  with  his  Dean,  Dr. 
Guy  Carleton,  a  strong  and  active  supporter  of  the 
Royalist  cause,  even  more. 

There  is  quite  a  conflict  of  opinion  as  to  the  real  charac- 
ter of  Richard  Sterne.     Burnet's  description  of  him  as 

1 .  H.  M.  C.  Seventh  Report,  Part  i,  p.  100. 

2.  Ihid  ,  p.  104. 

Richard   Sterne  "jj 

"  a  sour  ill  tempered  man  who  minded  chiefly  the  enrich- 
ing of  his  family  and  was  suspected  of  popery,  because  he 
was  more  than  ordinarily  compliant  in  all  things  to  the 
court  and  very  zealous  for  the  duke,"  ^  is  questioned  by 
some,  though  for  what  reason  it  is  not  easy  to  discover. 
E-ichard  Baxter,  referring  to  the  Savoy  Conference  of 
1661,  gives  Sterne  a  character  not  very  dissimilar :  — 

Among  all  the  Bishops  there  was  none  who  had  so  promising  a 
Face  as  Dr.  Sterne,  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle.  He  look'd  so  honestly, 
and  gravely,  and  soberly,  that  I  scarce  thought  such  a  Face  could 
have  deceived  me ;  and  when  I  was  intreating  them  not  to  cast  out 
BO  many  of  their  Brethren  through  the  Nation,  as  scrupeled  a 
Ceremony  which  they  confess'd  indifferent,  he  tum'd  to  the  rest  of 
the  Reverend  Bishops,  and  noted  me  for  saying  [in  the  Nation].  He 
will  not  say  [in  the  Kingdom]'  saith  he,  lest  he  own  a  King.  This 
was  all  that  ever  I  heard  that  worthy  Prelate  say  :  But  with  grief 
I  told  him,  that  half  the  Charity  which  became  so  grave  a  Bishop, 
might  have  sufficed  to  have  helpt  him  to  a  better  Exposition  of  the 
word  [Nation];  from  the  Mouths  of  such  who  have  so  lately  taken 
the  Oaths  of  Allegiance  and  Supremacy,  and  sworn  Fidelity  to  the 
King  as  his  Chaplains,  and  had  such  Testimonies  from  him  as  we 
have  had  :  and  that  our  case  was  sad,  if  we  could  plead  by  the  King's 
Commission  for  Accommodation,  upon  no  better  Terms,  than  to  be 
noted  as  Traytors,  every  time  we  used  such  a  word  as  the  [Nation] 
which  all  monarchical  Writers  use.2 

Nicolson  and  Burn  endeavour  to  tone  down  Bishop 
Burnet's  estimate  of  him,  and  present  him  in  a  more 
favourable  light.  They  cite  a  letter  from  York,  whither 
Sterne  was  transferred,  in  1664,  to  the  Archiepiscopal 
Chair,  in  which,  among  other  things,  it  is  said  that  "he 
was  greatly  respected  and  generally  lamented.  All  the 
clergy  commemorate  his  sweet  condescensions,  his  free 
communications,  faithful  counsels,  exemplary  temperance, 
chearful  hospitality,  and  bountiful  charity."  ^  Thomas 
Pickard's  letter  is  much  to  the  same  effect.  *  Dr.  Stough- 
ton,  also,  seems  wishful    to  take  a  slightly  more  generous 

1.  Hist,  of  his  Own  Times,  p.  382. 

2.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.  338. 

3.  Nicolson  and  Bum,  vol.  ii,  p.  289. 

4.  Vide  p.  766. 

78  The   Ejected   of  1662 

view  of  his  character,  though  he  scarcely  succeeds  in  doing 
so.  On  summing  up  the  position,  he  says :  — "  It  only 
follows  that  the  Archbishop  showed  himself  an  exceed- 
ingly disagreeable  man  to  such  as  belonged  to  the  opposite 
party,  and  quite  a  pleasant  one  to  those  who  belonged  to 
his  own."  ^  Thoresby  has  the  following  suggestive 
reference  to  his  son  under  date  February  19,  1683 : — "At 
Street  house,  took  up  a  gentleman  and  his  man  who  proved 
very  good  company  (not  so  hot  as  I  feared,  being  the 
Archbishop's  son)  Richard  Sterne,  Esq.,  Parliament  man 
for  Ripon."  ^  Hutchinson,  however,  asserts  that  the 
letter  in  question  is  practically  valueless  because  anony- 
mous, and  complains  more  than  once  of  the  ecclesiastical 
bias  of  Nicolson  and  Burn's  work.-^  Sterne  being  a  pro- 
nounced Royalist  had  suifered  considerably  under  the 
Commonwealth  regime.  For  conveying  the  plate  of 
Jesus  College,  Cambridge,  when  he  was  Master  there,  to 
Charles  I.  at  York,  he  was  imprisoned  for  several  months; 
and  he  appears  to  have  carefully  preserved  the  memory 
of  his  experiences  during  these  times.  ^  His  translation 
to  the  See  of  Carlisle  was  near  the  end  of  1660,  his  Con- 
secration taking  place  in  December  of  that  year.  He 
appears  in  the  list  of  petitioners  previously  mentioned,  s 
against  his  name  being  the  words  "  Harleton  Camb  " ;  and 
his  removal  from  that  place  occurred  almost  immediately 
after.  The  domestic  Chaplain  of  Archbishop  Laud, 
attending  him  on  the  scaffold  at  his  death,  whatever 
else  he  may  have  been,  we  may  expect  to  find  that  he  was 
a  strong  and  aggressive  Churchman.  That  he  was  such 
the  Episcopal  Register  at  Carlisle  abundantly  testifies. 
He  held  ordination  services  quite  frequently,  licensed  a 
large  number  of  men,  and  with  his  advent  and  that  of 
his  Dean  changes  began  to  register  themselves  through 

1.  Eeligion  in  England,  vol.  iii,  p.  486. 

2.  Diary,  vol.  i,  p.  154. 

3.  Hutchinson,  vol.  ii,  p.  632. 

4.  In  Le  Neve's  Lives  of  the  Bishops  is  a  letter  from  his  pen  dated 
Oct.  9th,  1643,  in  which  he  details  fully  his  sufferings. 

5.  Vide  p.  76. 

Calamy  79 

the  Diocese.  Richard  Gilpin  of  Greystoke  made  way  for 
William  Morland  the  old  Eector  towards  the  end  of  1660 ; 
George  Larkham  was  ejected  by  violence  in  November, 
1660;  George  Benson  lost  his  vicarage  at  Bridekirk  in 
October,  1660;  and  so  with  the  rest.  In  other  Counties 
the  Act  of  Uniformity  was  a  necessity,  because  local 
feeling  was  fairly  evenly  balanced;  but  it  was  not  so  in 
this  area.  Had  there  been  no  Act  of  Uniformity  it  would 
have  been  much  the  same  so  far  as  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland  are  concerned.  Nearly  every  man  who  went 
out  did  so  before  St.  Bartholomew's  Day ;  in  some  instances 
almost  two  years  before.  It  is  still,  of  course,  quite  per- 
missible to  speak  of  the  "  Ejected  Ministers  "  in  relation 
to  St.  Bartholomew's  Day,  and  Calamy,  the  Historian, 
does  not  in  the  least  stand  discredited  by  the  discovery 
of  this  fact.  His  book  is: — "An  Account  of  the  Minis- 
ters, Lecturers,  Masters  and  Fellows  of  Colleges  and 
Schoolmasters,  who  were  Ejected  or  Silenced  after  the 
Restoration  in  1660,  By,  or  before,  the  Act  of  Uniformity." 
It  is  true  that  in  the  various  sketches  he  is  not  always 
careful  to  indicate  who  went  out  "before,"  and  who  "by," 
the  Act  of  Uniformity;  and  that  is  a  defect  in  the  work. 
In  his  Preface  he  gives  us  the  principles  which  guided 
him  in  its  composition.  "A  Catalogue  of  them"  [the 
Ejected],  says  he,  "was  Printed  in  1663,  but  it  was  diffi- 
cult to  come  by,  and  very  scarce.  I  could  not  obtain  a 
sight  of  it,  till  my  first  Edition  of  this  Work  was  got 
through  the  Press ;  and  when  I  look'd  into  it,  I  found  it 
very  deficient.  It  mentions  the  names  of  those  who  were 
Ejected  in  London  and  Essex,  and  Eight  Counties  more, 
but  has  not  a  word  of  all  the  rest,  and  yet  it  bears  the 
Title  of  an  exact  Catalogue."  ^  This  list,  he  says,  con- 
tains not  more  than  "  Five  or  Six  Hundred."  Four  other 
lists  came  into  his  hands.  "  One  was  Collected  with  great 
Industry  and  Application  by  the  Reverend  Mr.  William 
Taylor,  late  of  jSTewbery,  who  while  Chaplain  to  the  late 
Lord  Wharton,  had   a  Correspondence   in  most  parts   of 

1.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  iv. 

8o  The    Ejected    of  1662 

England,  in  pursuit  of  his  Design" ;  "two  I  receiv'd  from 
the  laborious  Mr.  Roger  Morrice" ;  "the  fourth  I  receiv'd 
from  another  hand."  ^  He  informs  us  that  he  collated 
these  several  lists  and  drew  up  one  "out  of  all  of  them, 
omitting  none  where  they  were  all  agreed;  and  where  they 
differ' d,  1  sometimes  foUow'd  one  copy,  and  sometimes 
another,  with  respect  to  the  several  Counties,  according  to 
the  Information  and  Advice  of  such  as  T  consulted  in 
Person,  and  by  Letter,  for  the  Places  with  which  they 
were  best  Acquainted."  The  person  upon  whom  he  mainly 
relied  for  our  area  was  Dr.  Thomas  Dixon  of  Whitehaven. 
It  is  not  easy  to  suggest  safer  principles  than  those 
which  Calamy  adopted,  yet  they  did  not  preserve  him 
from  error;  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  1663  list 
to  which  he  refers,  whilst  defective,  is  more  accurate  than 
his  own  in  one  or  two  particulars.  It  is  also  particularly 
valuable  because  it  distinguishes  between  those  ejected 
"  before "  and  "  by "  the  Uniformity  Act.  A  copy  of 
this  rare  Tract  appears  in  the  Walker  MSS.  from  which 
the  following  is  extracted  :  — 

An   Exact   Catalogue    of    the    names    of    several    Ministers    lately 
Ejected  out  of  their  Levings  in  several  Counties  of  England,  Because 
they  could  not  conform  for  Conscience  Sake,  London,  printed  1663. 
In  Westmerland  : 

Ministers  outed  upon  Title  : 

Mr.   Langhorne  of  Askam. 

Mr.  Jackson,  of  Crosby  on  the  Hill. 

Mr.  Wallace  of  Evesham. 
Ministers  outed  for  Nonconformity  : 

Mr.  Higgeson  of  Kirby  Stephen. 

Mr.  Dodgson  of  Rushendale. 

Mr.  Roberts  of  Barton. 

Mr.   Dalton  of   Shape. 

Mr.    Greenwood   of  Hutton,   near   Kendal. 
In  Cumberland  : 

Ministers   outed    since  1660  : 

Mr.  Gilpin  of  Graystock. 

Mr.   Baldwin  of  Penrith. 

Mr.   Starre  of  Carlisle. 

Mr.  Larkham  of  Cockermouth. 

1.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  v.      * 

Calamy  8 1 

Mr.    Benson  of  Bride   Kerke. 

Mr.  Lane  [Cave]  of  Cros  [Crosthwaite]  in  Keswick  Parish 
Mr.  Hopkins  of  Mellerby. 
Mr.  Askyns  [Atkinson]  of  Lazonby. 
Mr.   Broadly  of  Addingham. 
Mr.  Forward  of  Bolton. 
Mr.  John  Jacksoin  of  Hutton. 
Mr.  Peter  Jackson  of  Sowerby. 
Mr.  Yates  of  Ainstable. 
Mr.  Carmitchel  of  Thursby. 
Mr.  Tayler  of  Eadnal  [Edenhall]. 
Mr.  Saxton  of  Bonus  [Bowness]. 
Mr.  Cragge  of  New  Kerke. 
Ministers  outed  upon  the    Act  : 
Mr.  Rogers  of  Crogelyn. 
Mr.  Barnard  of  Brampton.' 

It  may  be  that  the  plan  here  followed,  comparatively 
easy  in  1663,  in  Calamy's  day,  had  become  impossible; 
but  no  one  can  read  his  Preface  and  be  in  any  doubt  as 
to  his  intentions.  His  list  is  meant  to  include  all  the 
"Silenced"  and  "Ejected"  between  the  years  1660  and 
1662.  Both  Calamy  and  Palmer  give  the  number  of  men 
ejected  for  Cumberland  as  thirty,  of  whom  four  are  said  to 
have  conformed  afterwards;  for  Westmorland  nine,  of 
whom  four  conformed;  and  two  are  singled  out  as  un- 
worthy of  being  remembered  because  of  some  scandalous 
conduct  associated  with  their  names. 

We  shall  see  later  how  far  these  figures  are  accurate. 
What,  however,  impresses  the  reader  is  the  largeness  of 
the  number  of  those  who  accepted  the  new  situation,  and, 
therefore,  were  left  undisturbed,  as  compared  with  the 
neighbouring  County  of  Lancashire ;  and  the  still  further 
fact,  that  many  of  those  who  were  displaced  or  ejected 
were  undistinguished.  In  Calamy's  list  they  are  mere 
names,  not  a  sentence  being  given  about  them ;  and  in  the 
case  of  not  a  few  the  most  careful  research  has  resulted  in 
establishing  little  more  than  that  such  and  such  persons 
lived.     The  truth  is  that  the  livings  were  small  and  in 

1.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  8,  fol.  20,  Bodl.  It  will  be  noted  that  this  list 
contains  fewer  names  than  Calamy's,  and  that  it  makes  clear  the 
Ejection  of  Wallace  from  Heversham. 


82  The   Ejected   of  1662 

out  of  tke  way  places,  and  that,  while  the  men  in  them 
doubtless  served  faithfully,  they  lacked  those  qualities 
that  were  likely  to  make  them  appear  much  in  the  public 

Reference  has  several  times  been  made  to  the  Seques- 
tration of  the  Clergy  before  the  Restoration,  and  it  may 
be  well  to  hark  back  a  little  and  look  at  the  situation  from 
that  point  of  view.  The  machinery  used  for  this  purpose 
appears  to  have  been  of  a  complicated  character,  but  the 
following  briefly  summarised  facts  will  help  to  an  under- 
standing of  the  matter.  "  The  Committee  for  Scandalous 
Ministers,"  ^  says  Dr.  Shaw,  "was  the  first  mechanism 
invented  by  the  Long  Parliament  for  dealing  expressly 
with  the  clergy."  It  began  its  work  four  months  after 
the  Long  Parliament  was  summoned  into  being  and  on  the 
22nd  of  November,  1643,  published  the  first  century  of 
Scandalous  Ministers. 2  It  will,  of  course,  be  remembered 
that  when  this  Committee  was  appointed  the  King  was 
still  on  the  throne,  the  Civil  War  had  not  broken  out,  and 
there  was  no  thought  of  the  overthrow  of  either  Episco- 
pacy or  Monarchy.  Within  a  year  or  two  this  Committee 
was  replaced  by  the  Plundered  Ministers'  Committee,  one 
of  the  most  powerful  of  all  the  Committees  which  those 
years  produced.  The  Committee  for  the  Reformation  of 
the  Universities,  more  or  less  operative  since  1646,  exer- 
cised many  of  the  functions  of  the  Plundered  Ministers' 
Committee;  but  the  latter  body  absorbed  the  former  in 
February,  1652-3,  and  the  Plundered  Ministers'  Com- 
mittee itself  was  replaced  by  the  Trustees  for  Maintenance 
of   Ministers    in    1653.     The    powers    of    the    Plundered 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  178.  The  facts  given  here  are  largely 
drawn  from  this  excellent  work.  Dr.  Shaw  has  brought  order  out  of 
chaos,  and  unravelled  the  tangled  skein  in  relation  to  the  various 
Committees  called  into  existence  during  the  Long  Parliament's  life  for 
dealing  with  Church  matters.  He  confesses  that  there  are  still  some 
things  requiring  fuller  light,  but  under  his  guidance  the  reader  may 
walk  confidently,  and  in  the  end  he  will  arrive  at  a  fairly  accurate 
knowledge  of   the  situation. 

2.  "1st  February,  1640-41.  Ordered.  That  the  Committee  for 
Scandalous  Ministers  shall  begin  to  meet  tomorrow."    C.J.,  vol.  ii,  p.  96. 

Committees  83 

Ministers'  Committee  were  at  certain  times  exceedingly 
large,  relating  to  Augmentation  of  Stipends,  Sequestration 
of  Livings,  and  Examination  of  Ministers.  With  regard 
to  the  latter  question  there  were  various  examining  bodies. 
During  the  Presbyterian  regime,  1646 — 1650,  the  Classis 
examined  and  ordained.  The  Plundered  Ministers'  Com- 
mittee, Trustees  for  Maintenance  of  Ministers,  Committee 
for  Reformation  of  Universities  more  or  less  exercised 
this  function.  On  the  20th  of  March,  1653-4,  Cromwell 
and  his  Council  established  the  Commissioners  for  Appro- 
bation of  Public  Preachers,  the  "  Triers,"  as  they  came 
to  be  called.     Says  Dr.  Shaw:  — 

The  Act  was  made  retrospective  as  far  as  related  to  all  presentations 
made  since  1st  April,  1653.  The  Commissioners  were  not  to  grant 
any  such  instrument  of  admission  to  any  who  could  not  produce  to 
them  a  testimonial  or  certificate  of  three  persons  of  known  godliness 
and  integrity,  one  of  them  a  minister,  to  whom  the  applicant  was  to 
be  personally  known.  They  were  not  to  grantadmission  to  sequestered 
or  delinquent  ministers  except  upon  a  signification  from  the  Protector 
and  his  Council.' 

All  this  central  machinery  was,  of  course,  worked  in 
conjunction  with  local  assistance;  but,  in  particular, 
sectional  Committees  were  called  into  existence  on  whom 
very  large  powers  were  devolved,  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant being  the  "  Committee  for  the  Propagation  of  the 
Gospel  in  the  four  Northern  Counties."  In  consequence 
of  a  petition  from  these  four  Counties  in  reference  to  the 
state  of  religion  in  them,  as  early  as  December  20th,  1649, 
a  Committee  was  appointed  to  deal  with  the  matter;  and 
in  the  February  following,  "  Sir  Arthur  Haselrig  was 
ordered  to  bring  in  a  bill  for  settling  ministers  in  the 
northern  counties. "^  It  was  passed  on  March  1st,  1649-50, 
as  "  an  Act  for  the  better  propagating  the  Gospel  in  the 
four  Northern  Counties  of  Northumberland,  Cumberland, 
Westmorland  and  Durham." 

It  is  not  easy  to  arrive  at  the  true  character  of  Sir 
Arthur  Haselrig,  the  prime  mover  in  this  matter,  whose 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  284. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  226. 

84  The    Ejected    of   1662 

personality  made  itself  felt  considerably  in  this  area 
during  these  years.  He  was  one  of  the  "  five  members," 
whom  Charles  I.  impeached  and  attempted  to  arrest  in 
the  House  of  Commons;  and  he  is  generally  regarded  as 
one  of  Cromwell's  most  faithful  supporters.  Appointed 
governor  of  Newcastle,  it  would  appear  that  he  played 
considerably  for  his  own  hand.  In  the  "  Musgrave 
Tracts  "  ^  a  decidedly  unfavourable  character  is  given  to 
him.  He  is  charged  with  advancing  his  own  material 
interests  at  the  expense  of  the  State,  with  appointing  men 
to  livings  irrespective  of  their  character  and  attitude 
towards  the  Government,  and  with  lending  to  the  Govern- 
ment a  very  doubtful  support.  These  charges  were  prin- 
cipally levelled  by  William  Lampit,  an  Independent 
Minister,  and  so  possibly  must  be  discounted  a  little, 
though  his  appointments  suggest  that  he  certainly  did  not 
favour  Independency.  After  Cromwell's  death,  and  while 
Monk  was  arranging  matters  his  attitude  was  doubtful; 
and  at  the  Restoration  along  with  Lambert  he  escaped 
with  imprisonment  for  life. 

It  is  impossible  to  give  the  precise  number  of  men 
sequestered  by  Sir  Arthur  Haselrig  and  others ;  but  so  far 
as  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  are  concerned  it  is  quite 
certain  that  Walker  has  considerably  understated  it. 
The  main  point  to  remember,  however,  is  that  the  Clergy 
at  this  time  were  not  noted  either  for  their  character, 
their  efl&ciency,  or  devotion  to  duty;  and  it  has  already 
been  indicated  that  the  one  thing  which  the  various  Com- 
mittees sought  to  secure  in  all  parts  of  the  country  was 
"  an  able  and  godly  ministry."  There  is  no  reason  what- 
ever to  think  that  where  the  Clergy  faithfully  did  their 
duty,  and  where  they  did  not  make  themselves  obnoxious 
to  the  Government,  they  were  disturbed.  Evidence 
indeed  abounds  that  they  were  not  only  left  unmolested, 
bu-f  that  the  greatest  patience  was  exercised  towards  them, 
even  when  they  proved  to  be  fiercely  "  malignant." 
Richard    Archer    of    Windermere    is    described    as    "  a 

1.  Vide  p.  613. 

Commonwealth    Tolerance  85 

Kon-covenanter  and  disaffected,"  yet  lie  continued  in 
the  living  until  his  death  in  1653;  William  Eichardson 
of  Brough  was  "  a  Non-covenanter  and  disaffected,"  yet 
he  remained  until  Restoration  times ;  Lancelot  Lowther  of 
Kirkby  Thore  is  given  as  "  a  Malignant  and  pluralist 
lately  come  from  ye  Kinges  Quarters,"  but  he  was  dis- 
turbed mainly,  if  not  exclusively,  because  of  his  Plural- 
ism; and  in  like  manner  with  others.  It  is  clear,  there- 
fore, that  the  regime  of  that  period  has  been  greatly 
caricatured.  As  previously  intimated  local  feeling  was 
without  doubt  an  important  factor  in  the  situation,  and 
that  could  not  always  be  restrained  or  properly  directed ; 
but  the  central  authority  endeavoured,  as  far  as  possible, 
to  eliminate  from  its  action  the  element  of  harshness. 
Hence  it  is  disappointing  to  find  the  latest  County  History 
so  seriously  straying  in  this  matter,  and  adopting  a  view 
which  stands  quite  discredited  in  the  light  of  actual  fact. 
In  the  Chapter  on  the  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Cumber- 
land Dr.  Wilson,  the  Editor,  says  :  — 

For  several  yeaxs  little  else  but  anarchy  prevailed  in  the  county, 
as  the  fortunes  of  the  opposing  forces  fluctuated  in  favour  of  the 
King  or  the  parliament.  In  the  sequestrations  which  followed  the 
military  triumph  of  puritanism,  the  leading  clergy  of  the  diocese,  as 
well  as  the  dean  and  chapter,  were  ejected  from  their  livings.  If 
there  was  any  tendency  on  the  part  of  those  with  royalist  proclivities 
to  hold  on,  the  committee  of  "  tryers  "  accepted  the  most  flimsy  charges 
wherewith  to  oust  them  from  their  parishes.  There  can  be  no  doubt 
that  many  of  the  clergy,  specially  those  in  the  poorer  and  more 
secluded  parishes,  bent  their  necks  to  the  puritan  yoke  and  stood 
their  ground.  It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  motives  of  those  who 
accepted  the  directory  and  swore  to  maintain  the  covenant,  but  there  is 
evidence  that  if  some  did  so  from  conviction,  others  acted  from  policy. 
Against  these  may  be  placed  the  example  of  Timothy  Tullie,  rector 
of  Cliburn,  who  became  the  "bright  particular  star"  of  presby- 
terianism  while  the  Commonwealth  lasted,  but  who  altered  his  orbit 
without  dimming  his  lustre  by  becoming  a  Canon  of  York  on  the 
restoration  of  the  church  and  crown.  The  committee  of  "  tryers," 
notwithstanding  the  supposed  leniency  with  which  they  exercised 
their  unpleasant  vocation,  were  quite  unable  to  find  substitutes  of 
their   own   way  of   thinking    for  the  vacant   benefices.     For    fourteen 

86  The   Ejected   of  1662 

years  the  precincts  of  the  cathedral  lay  in  ruins,  aaid  the  floor  of  the 
cathedral  itself  was  common  ground  at  the  disposal  of  all  the  sects. 
The  principal  churches  of  the  diocese  were  supplied  either  by  resident 
or  itinerant  ministers  of  the  presbyterian,  independent  or  baptist 
persuasion,  but  the  presbyterians  predominated  in  number  and 
influence.  If  pluralism  could  be  alleged  with  truth  as  a  defect  of  the 
order  of  church  government,  it  was  repeated  in  an  aggravated  form, 
though  perhaps  from  necessity,  when  the  sequestrators  had  finished 
their  work,  for  it  was  no  uncommon  thing  for  one  minister  under  the 
new  regime  to  be  the  peripatetic  pastor  of  three  parishes.  Some  of 
the  churches  were  shut  up,  and  most  of  the  preachers  admitted  by  the 
commissioners  were  not  ministers  at  all,  not  even  according  to  the 
religious  conceptions  of  the  period.  For  some  time  after  the  fall  of 
episcopacy  there  was  no  ecclesiastical  or  religious  organization  among 
the  ministers  and  no  cohesion  among  the  parishes.  The  vacant 
churches  had  been  allotted  to  members  of  various  sects  as  each  sect 
in  turn  had  gained  the  mastery  of  the  local  committees.  In  any  group 
of  parishes  it  was  possible  to  find  the  ministers  in  charge  belonging 
to  opposing  denominations.  The  presbyterians  endeavoured  to  find 
some  sort  of  church  discipline,  but  every  attempt  at  combination 
created  jealousy  among  the  rest  and  led  to  controversy  and  strife. 
The  first  effort  to  form  an  alliance  between  the  presbyterians  and 
independents  was  begun  in  1653,  "but  it  took  not"  among  the 
brethren  of  the  "congregational  judgment."  It  is  a  singular  coinci- 
dence that  it  was  in  this  year  that  George  Fox  commenced  his 
mission  in  the  county.  There  was  a  cloud  upon  the  horizon,  at  this 
time  no  bigger  than  a  man's  hand,  which  soon  grew  to  such  stupendous 
proportions  that  the  two  principal  denominations  were  forced  to  combine 
in  order  to  preserve  themselves  from  extinction.  Fox  made  a  progress 
from  parish  to  parish  through  the  western  portion  of  the  county. 
At  Brigham  he  converted  John  Wilkinson,  "  who  was  preacher  of  that 
parish  and  of  two  other  parishes  in  Cumberland,'  in  which  neighbour- 
hood "many  hundreds  were  convinced.  Consternation  is  scarcely  the 
word  to  describe  the  state  of  feeling  which  filled  the  hearts  of  the 
religious   leaders   in  that   portion   of   the   county   at   the  missionary 

success  of  Fox The  religious  instincts  of  the  people,  so  far  as 

they  were  represented  by  the  preachers  who  had  supplanted  the  old 
order  of  clergy,  began  to  gravitate  towards  Fox,  who,  in  a  few  years, 
was  almost  universally  accepted  as  the  sovereignpontiff  of  Cumberland. 
The  puritan  teachers  were  so  utterly  forsaken  that  the  churches  in 
some  parishes  stood  empty.  It  can  be  readily  imagined  that  the 
external  pressure  oi  Fox's  preaching  contributed  in  no  small  measure 
to  "the  agreement  of  the  associated  ministers  and  churches  of  the 
counties  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,"  which  was  brought  to  a 
successful     issue     in     1656.  .  •  .  All     scandalous     persons,     such    as 


Pluralism  87 

episcopalians,  papists  and  quakers,   were  rigidly  excluded   from  the 
Association  till  they  had  publicly  recanted  their  errors.^ 

There  is  a  very  considerable  amount  of  literary  em- 
broidery in  that  passage,  permissible,  may  be,  in  even  the 
serious  historian,  provided  it  does  not  entice  him  into 
error;  but  in  this  case  it  has  done  so.  Lengthy  as  the 
quotation  is,  there  is  scarcely  a  sentence  in  it  which  might 
not  be  successfully  contravened.  It  is  far  from  correct, 
for  example,  to  suggest  that  a  person  was  deemed  "scan- 
dalous" because  he  was  an  "Episcopalian  " ;  and  that  the 
"tryers"  accepted  "flimsy  charges"  against  those  who  had 
Royalist  proclivities  with  a  view  to  ousting  them  from 
their  livings.  Enough  has  already  been  said  to  show  how 
little  ground  there  is  for  statements  of  that  kind,  and  that 
many  of  the  Royalist  Clergy  held  on,  though  they  were 
not  careful  to  conceal  their  hostility  to  the  existing 

Still  more  does  the  statement  about  Pluralism  mis- 
represent the  case.  It  has  already  been  shown  that  the 
one  evil  which  the  Puritans  set  themselves  to  remove  was 
Pluralism,  that  the  Clergyman  was  merely  compelled  to 
make  choice  of  the  living  in  which  he  would  serve,  not 
with  a  view  to  his  Sequestration,  though  a  Royalist,  but 
with  a  view  to  a  more  efficient  ministry  among  the  people. 
The  "  peripatetic  pastor "  is  much  of  a  fiction.  With 
the  exception  of  James  Cave,  an  Itinerant  Minister  in  the 
Bassenthwaite  Lake  district,  of  whom  more  presently, 
and  John  Smith,  who  laboured  similarly  in  the  Eskdale 
district,  the  "  peripatetic  pastor  of  three  parishes "  is 
unknown.  Neighbouring  Parishes  were  frequently  linked 
together  and  served  by  one  man ;  that,  however,  is  not  the 
sort  of  Pluralism  which  was  assailed  by  the  Puritans,  but 
rather  where  Parishes  as  wide  apart  as  Workington  and 
Kirkby  Thore,  Grasmere  and  Asby,  Bowness  and  Bramp- 
ton, Barton  and  Asby,  Skelton  and  Ousby,  were  in  the 
hands  of  the  same  Incumbent,  leading,  as  it  did,  to  all 
the  evils  of  non  residence. 

1.  The  Victoria  History  of  the  County  of  Cumberland,  vol.  ii,  pp.  93-97, 
edited  by  James  Wilson,  M.A.,  Litt.D. 

88  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Then,  though  there  is  not  the  slightest  wish  to  minimize 
the  influence  of  George  Fox,  whose  success  was  quite 
phenomenal,  as  will  be  shown  in  the  account  of  the 
Quaker  movement,  the  matter  is  greatly  exaggerated  in 
the   paragraph  just  mentioned. 

Still  further  the  account  of  the  Cumberland  and  "West- 
morland Agreement  is  quite  incorrect.  This  "Agree- 
ment," largely  the  work  of  E-ichard  Gilpin,  was  one  of 
the  earliest  of  its  kind.  It  is  sometimes  regarded  as  the 
fruit  of  the  Worcestershire  Association ;  but  that  this  was 
not  so  E-ichard  Baxter  himself  is  at  pains  to  make  clear : — 

About  the  same  time  that  we  were  thus  associating  in  Worcestershire 
it  pleased  God  to  stir  up  the  Ministers  of  Cuunberland  and  Westmor- 
land to  the  same  Course;  who  though  they  knew  not  what  we  had 
done,  yet  fell  upon  the  same  way,  and  agreed  on  Articles  to  the  same 
purpose  and  of  the  same  Sense  and  Importance  as  ours  were ;  of 
which  Mr.  Richard  Gilpin  (one  of  them,  a  worthy  faithful  Minister) 
sent  me  word,  when  he  saw  our  Articles  in  print;  and  they  also 
printed  theirs  (to  save  the  writing  of  many  Copies  and  to  excite  others 
to  the  same  way)  and  they  found  the  same  readiness  to  Union  among 
the  Brethren  as  we  had  done.' 

In  the  letter  also  of  these  Associated  Ministers  to 
Richard  Baxter,  dated  September  1st,  1653,  addressed 
from  Penrith,  they  say :  — 

Whatever  Advantage  others  may  reap  by  your  Endeavours  we  are 
sure  the  Advantage  that  we  have  by  them  is  double.  We,  before  we 
had  heard  of  your  Book,  had  undertaken  a  Work  of  the  like  nature; 
Several  of  us  meeting  together  to  consult  about  managing  the  Lord's 
Work  in  our  Hands,  were  convinced  that  for  Reformation  of  our 
People,  more  ought  to  be  done  by  us  than  bare  Preaching,  a  brotherly 
Association  of  Ministers  appeared  to  be  the  likliest  course  for  the 
attainment  of  our  Desires,  and  accordingly  was  resolved  on  :  And 
because  we  knew  that  many  of  our  Brethren  in  the  Ministry  differed 
from  us,  we  resolved  to  draw  up  severall  Proposals  wherein  we  and 
they  by  a  mutual  Condescention  might  agree  as  Brethren  in  Love 
and  Peace  to  carry  on  the  same  Work,  and  therefore  required  nothing 
of  them  but  what  we  proved  by  the  Confessions  of  the  Congregational 
Brethren  (their  own  Party)  to  be  of  less  Moment,  and  not  of  absolute 
Necessity.  Wherein  (we  urged)  they  might  and  ought  to  yield  for 
the  Churches  Peace  :  but  our  Endeavours  to  gain  them  were  frustrated, 

1.  Rel.   Bax.,  p.   162. 

The  Association   Movement  89 

they  were  so  resolved  that  they  would  not  so  much  as  read  our 
Proposals  and  Reasons.  We  therefore  set  about  the  Work  ourselves, 
and  made  some  Progress  in  it;  by  this  time  we  began  to  feel  what 
we  expected  at  the  first  setting  out,  viz.  the  Rage  and  Malice  of 
wicked  men  vented  in  Railings  and  Slanders  on  the  cme  hand  and 
bitter  Censures  and  Suspicions  of  the  Brethren  on  the  other-  In  the 
midst  of  all  this  we  received  your  Book  as  a  seasonable  Refreshment ; 
Our  Hands  were  much  strengthened  by  it ;  it  was  a  great  Encourage- 
ment to  us,  to  see  that  other  godly  and  learned  Men  had  walked  much 
what  in  the  same  Steps,  and  had  pleaded  our  Cause  almost  by  the 
same  Arguments  wherewith  we  endeavoured  to  strengthen  it.' 

To  the  same  effect  their  statement  in  "  Explication."  ^ 

The  publication  of  the  Worcestershire  Agreement 
appears  to  have  given  encouragement  and  stimulus  to  the 
Cumbrian  brethren,  but  the  independent  origin  of  their 
Association  is  beyond  question. 

The  letter  just  referred  to,  which  deals  with  a  number 
of  points  in  the  Worcestershire  Agreement  upon  which 
the  writers  desired  fuller  light,  is  signed  by :  — 
"  E-i.  Gilpin,  Pastor  at  Graystock. 

John  Makmillane,  Pastor  at  Odenhall  [Edenhall]. 

Roger  Baldwin,  Minister  of  Penrith. 

John  Billingsley,  Minister  at  Addingham. 

Elisha  Bourne,  Minister  at  Skelton. 

John  Jackson,  Pastor  of  Hutton. 

Thomas  Turner,  Preacher  of  the  Gospel."  3 

From  the  signatures  it  would  appear  that  some,  at  least, 
of  the  brethren  of  the  "  Congregational  way  "  still  stood 
aloof  from  the  movement,  though  shortly  after  they  joined 
it.  George  Larkham  preached  before  the  Ministers 
assembled  at  Cockermouth  on  May  10th,  1654,  and  he 
addressed  them  as  "  Reverend  and  Honoured  Brethren  in 
the  Ministry,  and  you,  my  neighbours  and  friends."  * 

On  the  12th  of  August,  1656,  they  published  their 
"Agreement  with  something  for  Explication  and  Exhorta- 

1.  Rel.  Bax.,  pp.  162,  163. 

2.  Vide  p.   97. 

3.  Rel.  Bax.,  pp.   163-4. 

4.  Lewis's  Hist.,  p.  164. 

90  The   Ejected   of  1662 

tion  annexed."  As  this  pamphlet  is  extremely  rare  ^  and 
most  important  as  a  study  of  the  Association  movement 
and  the  spirit  of  the  men  who  were  its  leaders,  consider- 
able extracts  are  here  appended  :  — 



of  the 


Ministers  and  Chueches 

of  the 


With   something    for 
Explication  and  Exhortation 
Texts.     1  Cor.  1,  10,  11,   12,  13. 
1  Cor.  3,  3,  4. 
Rom.  14,  19. 
Phil.  2,  4. 
Rom.  16,  17,  18. 
London,  Printed  by  T.  L.   for  Simon  Waterson  and  are  sold  at  the 
sign  of  the  Globe  in  PauTs  Church-yard,  and  by  Richard  Scot,  Book- 
seller in  Carlisle,  1656. 

PROPOSITIONS  Agreed  upom  by  the 

Associated  Ministers 

*  of  the 

Counties  of 

Cumberland  and  WAstmorland. 

1.  That  in  the  exercise  of  Discipline,  it  is  not  only  the  most  safe 
course,  but  also  most  conducing  to  brotherly  union  and  satisfaction. 
That  particular  Churches  carry  on  as  much  of  their  work  with  joynt 
and  mutual  assistajice,  as  they  can  with  conveniency  and  edification, 
and  as  little  as  may  be  in  their  actings,  to  stajid  distinctly  by 
themselves  and  apart  from  each  other. 

2.  That  in  matters  of  Church  Discipline,  those  things  which  belong 
onely  ad  melivs  esse,  ought  to  be  laid  aside,  both  in  respect  of 
publication  ajid  practice,  rather  then  that  the  Churches  peace  should 

.  be  hindered. 

1.  A  copy  is  in  the  Jackson  Library,   Carlisle,   and  another  in  the 
British  Museum. 

The   Association   Movement  91 

3.  That  where  different  principles  lead  to  the  same  practice, 
wee  may  joyn  together  in  that  practice,  reserving  to  each  of  us  our 
own  principles. 

4.  That  where  we  can  neither  agree  in  principle  nor  in  practice,  we 
are  to  bear  with  one  another's  differences  that  are  of  a  less  and 
desputable  nature,  without  making  them  a  ground  of  division  amongst 
us.  Yet  notwithstanding,  we  do  not  hereby  binde  up  our  selves  from 
endeavouring  to  inform  one  another  in  those  things  wherein  we  differ, 
so  that  it  be  done  with  a  spirit  of  love  and  meekness,  and  with 
resolutions  to  continue  our  brotherly  Amity  and  Association,  though 
in  those  particulars  our  differences  should  remain  uncomposed. 

Taking  these  four  general  principles  as  "  a  Basis  and 
Foundation  "  tliey  resolve  upon  a  number  of  particulars 
thus :  — 

1.  To  endeavour  the  discharge  of  our  duty  and  trust  herein,  un- 
reservedly, and  with  all  faithfulness,  to  the  utmost  of  our  power, 
though  hereby  we  hazard  reproach,  revilings,  contempts,  injuries, 
loss  of  friends,  and  maintenance,  or  what  so  ever  else  may  be  dear  to 

2.  To  observe  the  temper,  disposition,  and  capacity  of  the  gener- 
ality of  the  people,  and  to  suit  ourselves  not  onely  in  our  matter 
to  the  people's  conditions,  but  also  in  our  expressions  to  the  people's 
apprehensions,  that  so  our  sermons  may  be  plain,  peercing,  seasonable, 
and  profitable. 

3.  To  reprove  the  sins  that  most  abound  in  our  people,  to  convince 
men  of  their  carnal  security,  to  discover  the  rotten  and  deceitful 
props  on  which  it  is  built. 

4.  To  lay  out  ourselves  in  keeping  Lectures  (as  the  seasons  of  the 
year  will  permit)  wherein  we  will  more  especially  have  regard  to 
those  places  that  are  destitute  of  preaching. 

5.  To  Catechise  and  instruct  the  people  committed  to  us,  making 
use  of  the  Assemblies  larger  and  shorter  Catechism. 

6.  Besides  the  work  of  publike  preaching,  and  catechising,  to 
instruct  them  privately  from  house  to  house. 

7.  To  be  as  diligent  in  visiting  the  sick  and  afflicted,  as  other 
labours,  greatness  of  our  charge,  and  ability  to  go  abroad  will  suffer 
us ;  and  that  not  only  the  rich,  and  those  that  desire  us,  but  also  the 
poor  and  those  that  send  not  for  us. 

8.  In  our  Society,  as  well  as  in  dispencing  of  Ordinances,  to  put  a 
difference  between  the  precious  and  the  vile. 

9.  To  reprove  the  Sins  of  Sabbath  breaking.  Swearing,  Fornication 
and  Drunkenness  in  publike  and  private,  and  endeavour  to  bring 
such  Offenders  to  the  punishment  of  the  Law,  in  those  cases  provided. 

92  The   Ejected   of  1662 

10.  To  instruct  our  people  publikely,  Concerning  the  nature  of  the 
discipline  of  Christ  and  press  the  necessity  of  their  submission  to  it, 
according  to  the  Rule  of  Scripture. 

11.  Because  temptations  to  Apostacie  and  backslidings  from  the 
faith  are  strong  and  frequent  and  our  hearts  are  so  ready  to  start 
aside  from  the  Power  of  Discipline  to  require  from  our  people  an 
Assent  to  the  Truths  of  Christ  (contained  in  a  short  Confession  of 
Faith  hereunto  Annexed)  and  a  Profession  of  their  consent  to  submit 
unto,  and  accept  of  the  terms  of  the  Covenant  of  Grace,  and  to 
submit  to  Discipline  and  Government. 


(1)  We  resolve  not  to  satisfie  our  selves  with  the  bare  recital  and 
repetition  of  the  words  of  the  Profession  &c.  but  to  make  the  people 
not  onely  profess  with  the  Understanding  but  (so  far  as  we  can) 
with  feeling  Apprehensions  of  what  they  speak. 

(2)  Neither  do  we  intend  strictly  to  bind  all  to  the  same  circum- 
stances of  professing  their  Consent,  but  (if  any  professing  and 
owning  the  substance)  shall  scruple  at  any  particular  circumstance, 
we  resolve  to  use  towards  such  all  possible  meekness  and  condiscention. 

12.  We  resolve  to  require  an  unblameable  Conversatiooi  in  all  those 
whom  we  shall  admit  to  the  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper. 

13.  In  judging  and  determining  of  peoples  present  fitness  for  that 
Sacrament,  we  resolve  to  set  before  us  these  following  Rules,  both  in 
point  of  Knowledge  and  Scandal  : — 

In  point  of  Knowledge. 

(1)  Resolve  not  to  admit  to  the  Sacraments  of  the  Supper  persons 
with  a  total  ignorance  of  the  Fundamentals  of  Religion. 

(2)  Not  to  reject  as  ignorant  any  that  have  a  Competent  Knowledge 
of  certain  heads  of  Devinity  specified. 

(3)  Must  not  expect  from  the  ordinary  sort  of  people  (who  through 
want  of  breeding,  and  other  natural  defects,  are  usually  unable  well 
to  express  their  minds)  a  distinct  or  continued  discourse  of  these 
things,  and  therefore  we  shall  be  satisfyed  if  we  can  but  perceive 
that  they  understand  the  substance. 

(4)  Must  take  care  not  to  make  a  Question  more  difficult  by  our 
dark  and  cloudy  Expressions ;  but  must  endeavor  to  propound  things 
in  the  plainest  terms  we  can. 

(5)  Though  we  may  propound  higher  and  more  difiicult  Questions 
for  discovery  of  and  provocation  to  growth  in  Knowledge ;  yet  wil 
always  (as  neer  as  we  can)  make  their  Knowlege  or  Ignorance  in 
the  points  mentioned,  the  rule  of  our  discerning  determination. 

(6)  In  case  any  give  not  that  satisfaction  we  desire,  we  will 
endeavour  to  discover  whether  it  be  from  unacquaintedness  with  the 
terms  and  words  of  the  Question,  from  bashfulness  or  shamefacedness, 
from  natural  impediments,  or  from  ignorance  of  the  thing  itself ;  and 

The   Association   Movement  93 

accordingly  we  will  propound  the  Question  in  other  words,  or  fetch  a 
compass  to  see  if  they  can  take  a  hint  from  something  introductory ; 
however  in  case  no  satisfactory  account  can  be  given,  we  wil  not  set 
the  parties  aside,  as  if  we  took  no  further  care,  but  shall  endeavour 
to  instruct  them  with  all  meekness  and  patience. 

(7)  Because  we  finde  by  experience,  that  many  people  speak  of  the 
Fundamentals  of  Religion  in  a  meer  form  of  words  by  roat,  without 
understanding  the  sense  and  meaning  thereof ;  in  propounding  our 
Questions  we  will  of  purpose  forbear  the  words  and  method  of 
ordinary  Catechisms. 

In  point    of    Scandal. 

(1)  Resolve  not  to  receive  any  (of  what  degree,  quality  or  relation 
so  ever)  to  this  Ordinance,  that  can  be  proved  to  be  scandalously 

(2)  We  resolve  in  matters  of  Scandal,  not  to  proceed  against  any 
according  to  our  private  satisfactions,  suspitions,  dis-satisfactions,  or 
rumours ;  but  according  to  outward,  visible,  and  full  proof  of  the 
matter  of  fact. 

(3)  Resolve  to  distinguish  betwixt  Sin  and  Sin;  wherein  that  we 
may  proceed  both  more  unanimously  and  safely,  we  shall  take  the 
Assemblies  direction  for  our  rule,  looking  upon  those  Sins  mentioned 
by  them  in  the  form  of  Church  Government  as  scandalous,  though  but 
once  committed  [Sins  quoted]. 

(4)  Much  tenderness  to  be  used  in  judging  of  less  sins  that  have 
more  than  ordinary  advantage  against  men  by  sudden  surprisal,  as 
Passion,  the  outbreaking  of  sins  formerly  customary  ordinary  failings, 
as  Debt,  &c. 

(5)  In  less  sins  resolve  to  have  regard  to  the  constant  tenure  of 
the  parties  life  and  carriage,  whether  ordinarily  otherwise  strict  or 
careless,  to  the  provocation,  &c. 

(6)  The  party  offending  upon  Reproof  manifesting  repentance  ought 
to  be  received  again. 

(7)  The  party  professing  repentance  returning  to  the  same  sin 
once  and  again;  or  to  any  other  scandalous  sin,  though  again 
professing  repentance  readmission  deferred  until  we  have  trial  of  his 
reformation  for  some  competent  time. 

(8)  That  brotherly  inspection  may  not  degenerate  into  an  unbrotherly 
prying  into,  and  discovering  of  other  men's  actions ;  and  generally  for 
the  avoiding  of  disorder,  and  other  inconveniences,  we  resolve  not  to 
encourage  any  private  Christian,  immediately  to  acquaint  the  Church 
with  the  private  failings  of  a  brother,  till  he  have  first  admonished 
him  privately,  and  (in  case  he  hearken  not)  before  witnesses,  and 
when  the  fruitlessness  of  these  endeavours  shall  necessitate  the 
publication  of  the  Fact,  yet  will  we  not  Countenance  the  bringing  of 

94  The   Ejected   of  1662 

the  matter  before  the  Congregation  until  the  Church  officers  be  first 
acquainted  with  it. 

(9)  Forasmuch  as  in  the  business  of  scandal  it  is  unreasonable  and 
uncharitable  to  rake  up  against  men  old  offences  of  any  considerable 
distance  from  the  time  present;  and  because  in  some  cases  it  will  be 
necessary  to  require  some  testimony  of  humiliation,  even  for  sins  of 
ancient  date ;  and  in  regard  we  cannot  punctually  determine  how  far 
back  into  the  time  past  we  may  look  for  laying  scandals  to  men's 
charges ;  therefore  we  resolve  to  proceed  warily  in  such  cases,  and 
not  to  do  anything  without  the  advice  of  the  Association. 

(10)  We  shall  do  the  like  in  those  sins  that  render  men  obnoxious 
to  the  Law,  either  in  regard  of  life,  liberty  or  estates,  as  also  ia  any 
other  case  not  foreseen,  or  provided  for,  in  the  foregoing  rules. 

14.  Agree  not  to  press  a  declaration  of  the  time  and  manner  of  the 
work  of  grace  upon  the  people,  as  a  necessary  proof  of  their  actual 
present  right  to  the  Lord's  Supper  nor  to  exclude  persons  merely  for 
want  of  that,  yet  will  we  accept  it,  if  freely  offered. 

15.  Agree  not  to  rest  satisfyed  with  bare  exclusion  of  an  obstinate 
scandalous  sinner  from  the  Sacrament  of  the  Supper,  but  to  prosecute 
the  rule  of  Christ.     Matt.,  18.  17. 

16.  Because  members  living  much  distant  from  their  Pastors,  and 
from  one  another,  must  unavoidably  be  (in  great  part)  deprived  of 
the  priviledge,  and  come  short  of  the  duty,  both  of  constant  inspection 
and  mutual  edefication ;  and  also  for  the  preventing  of  disorders  and 
offences,  both  in  Ministers  and  people,  we  agree.  That  we  will  not 
admit  into  any  of  our  churches,  those  that  live  in  other  Congregations, 
except.  They  have  no  Minister  at  all,  or  have  one  that  is  scandalous,  or 
one  that  hath  not  competent  abilities  for  the  work  of  the  Ministry. 


(1)  In  case  afterwards  a  godly  able  Minister  be  established  where 
was  none,  or  such  as  were  scandalous  and  unfit ;  we  will  seriously 
advise  those  whom  in  the  cases  aforesaid  we  have  admitted,  to  joyn 
themselves  to  that  Minister. 

(2)  Resolve  to  consult  with  the  Association  concerning  the  justness 
or  un justness  of  exceptions  in  point  of  scandal,  or  enabilitie  of 
Ministers,  made  by  those  that  desire  to  be  entertained  in  other 
Congregations,  because  we  conceive  that  neither  the  people  that  desire 
to  depart  from  such  Ministers,  nor  the  Ministers  with  whom  they 
desire  to  joyne  are  competent  judges  in  such  an  interested  case;  yet 
if  the  Exceptions  be  such  as  are  approved  of  by  the  Association,  we 
conceive  it  fittest  for  the  Reasons  above  said,  that  they  joyne  them- 
selves to  the  neerest  Congregation,  where  a  godly  and  able  Minister  is 

(3)  We  do  not  intend  hereby  to  debar  people  from  occasional  hearing 
of  other  Ministers  or  from  the  occasional  partaking  of  other  Ordin- 

The   Association   Movement  95 

ances  in  another  Congregation,  so  that  this  liberty  be  not  used  to  the 
apparent  prejudice  of  the  Ministry  and  Discipline  of  their  own 

17.  When  a  INIinister  is  to  be  ordained  unto  a  Congregation  agree 
that  godly  and  able  Ministers  of  neighbor  Congregations  be  called  to 
be  employed  in  the  examination  and  trial  of  the  fitness  of  the  party 
to  be  set  apart  tc  that  weighty  Office,  and  in  the  Act  of  Ordination. 

18.  Though  we  differ  abcut  the  first  subject  of  the  power  of  the 
Keys,  yet  forasmuch  as  we  all  agree,  that  the  affairs  of  the  Church 
are  to  be  managed  by  the  officers  thereof,  therefore  we  conclude  that 
the  examination  and  determination  of  things  in  cases  of  admission  and 
rejections,  and  other  church  acts,  shall  be  permitted  by  the  Officers ; 
yet  so  that  the  people  have  notice  of  what  they  resolve  and  conclude 
upon,  in  matters  of  moment  that  in  case  any  thing  be  done  against 
which  the  people  may  (upon  probable  grounds  at  least)  object  from  the 
word  of  God,  it  may  either  be  forborne,  or  their  satisfaction  en- 

19.  And  forasmuch  as  we  cannot  all  proceed  according  to  the 
ordinary  rules  in  managing  of  the  affairs  of  our  particular  Congrega- 
tions, through  the  want  of  fit  persons  to  be  made  church-officers,  and 
for  other  causes ;  therefore  we  resolve  by  our  mutual  assistance  to 
supply  the  want,  because  we  may  have  (according  to  Scripture 
warrant)  recourse  to  an  extraordinary  expedient,  the  ordinary  rule 
failing,  and  because  this  seems  to  us  to  come  neerest  the  ordinary 


(1)  Intend  not  this  to  be  perpetual,  but  only  during  the  present 
want,  and  in  order  to  the  setling  of  our  Churches  according  to  the 
rules  of  the  Gospel. 

(2)  Neither  intend  we  hereby,  to  put  into  any  Ministers  hand,  a 
superior  power  over  his  Brethren. 

(3)  Nor  would  we  be  understood  as  making  our  many  Churches  to 
be  but  one  particular  Church,  or  giving  the  Pastor  of  one  Church  a 
true  Pastoral!  power  and  charge  over  other  Churches. 

20.  Albeit  we  differ  as  to  the  power  of  associated  Churches  over 
particular  Congregations ;  yet  we  agree  that  it  is  not  only  lawful 
and  useful,  but  in  many  cases  necessary  that  several  churches  should 
hold  communion  and  correspondency  together ;  and  to  that  end  we 
resolve  to  associate  our  selves,  and  to  keep  frequent  meetings  for 
mutual  advice  and  help,  as  occasion  shall  require. 

21.  We  take  our  selves  and  our  churches  bound  to  follow  whatso- 
ever advice,  direction  or  reproof  (being  agreeable  to  the  word)  any  of 
us  shall  receive  from  the  Brethren  in  association  with  us. 

22.  And  in  case  it  should  so  fall  out,  that  our  brethren  in 
asBociatioin  should  advise  that  which  might  seem  less  convenient  in  the 

96  The   Ejected   of  1662 

judgement  of  the  Parties  immediately  and  specially  concerned,  in  the 
advice  or  reproof,  or  to  the  particular  apprehensions  of  any  other  of 
us  (it  being  of  less  moment,  and  not  apparently  contrary  to  Scripture) 
then  we  resolve  to  submit  to  it  rather  then  to  endanger  the  peace  of 
the  churches  and  to  become  examples  and  encouragers  of  disorder  by 
our  dissent  and  refusal. 

23.  Particularly,  Forasmuch  as  the  censure  of  excommunication  is 
of  great  weight  and  concernment,  wherein  we  are  sure  we  can  never 
be  too  circumspect  and  careful  therefore  we  resolve,  first  to  advise  with 
the  association,  before  we  proceed  by  that  sentence  to  cast  any  out  of 
our  particular  churches  :  and  whosoever  shall  thus  be  cast  out  of  one 
Church,  wee  wil  repute  him  equally  cast  out  of  all,  and  avoid 
communion  with  him  accordingly. 

24.  If  it  should  so  fall  out,  that  any  Minister  or  particular  church, 
should  obstinately  and  wilfully,  after  many  endeavours,  and  much 
waiting,  reject  the  direction  and  Counsel  of  the  association,  in  things 
apparently  agreeable  to  the  word  of  Grod,  then  we  resolve  to  draw 
the  right  hand  of  fellowship  from  such  Minister  or  church. 

25.  For  the  better  carrying  on  of  our  intended  association  we 
resolve  : — 

(1)  To  divide  ourselves  into  three  associations,  Carlisle,  Penrith 
and  Cockermouth,  meet  once  a  moneth,  more  or  less  as  occasion  shall 
require,  and  the  major  part  of  the  association  shall  think  fit;  yet  in 
this  we  do  not  intend  to  exclude  any  Minister  (not  being  scandalous) 
from  any  of  the  associations,  that  will  be  pleased  to  take  the  paijis  to 
be  present  there,  nor  yet  the  Ministers  of  other  Counties  that  shall 
desire  to  joyne  with  any  of  them. 

(2)  At  these  meetings  shall  hear  and  determine  things  of  common 
concernment,  endeavour  to  resolve  doubts,  compose  differences,  con- 
sider the  justness  &  weight  of  the  grounds  and  reasons  of  Ministers 
removal  from  any  place,  when  such  cases  shall  fall  out,  Counsell  and 
advise  above  special  emergencies  that  may  happen  to  our  Ministry 
or  Congregations  in  part. 

(3)  Kesolve  to  hear  impartially  complaints  made  against  any  Minister 
in  association  with  us. 

(4)  Eesolve  sometimes  to  meet  all  together,  especially  when  there 
shall  fall  out  any  thing  of  more  extraordinary  and  publike  nature  or 
difficulty,  which  cannot  be  easily  and  satisfactorily  decided  in  any  of 
our  particular  associations. 

(5)  If  any  that  shall  offer  to  joyne  with  us  in  our  associatioin,  lie 
under  the  common  repute  of  scandal,  then  we  will  deferr  his  admission 
till  he  have  cleared  himself,  or  otherwise  given  satisfaction ;  and  for 
the  prevention  of  offences,  we  resolve  not  to  admit  any  into  our 
associations  without  the  consent  of  the  whole  or  major  part  of  them. 


The   Association   Movement  97 

(6)  Lastly,    we   will  endeavour   a  closure   of   affection,    as   well  as 
judgement  and  practise,  and  to  that  end  we  resolve,  wholly  to  lay 
aside,  and  bury  all  names  and  terms  of  difference,  to  carry  our  selves 
each  to  other  as  brethren,  forbearing  (as  much  as  we  can)  whatsoever 
might,  either  in  word  or  action,  occasion  mis-reports  and  offences,  or 
raise  up  grounds  of  iealousie  an4  exception  one  against  another. 
Omnibus  hisce 
The  Ministers  of  Westmerland  gave  their  Coaisent  in  these  words  : 
We  whose  Names  are  here  under-written,   do  subscribe  to  the  fore- 
m,entioned  Propositions,  except  what  concerns  the  County  of  Cumberland 
in  particular 

[Unfortunately  no  names  appear  in  printed  copies.] 

This  is  followed  by :  The  Confession  of  Faith,  and  then 
covaesihe^^Ex'plication  of  some  of  the  foTTner  Propositions," 
which  is  addressed  :  — 


That  profess  the  Name  of  the 




Cumberland,  and  Westmerland, 


Magistrates,  and  People. 

The  Explication  occupies  about  two  thirds  of  the 
document,  and  is  especially  interesting  because  it  throws 
light  upon  the  origin  of  the  movement,  the  difficulties 
which  had  to  be  confronted,  and  the  stages  by  which 
ultimate  success  was  achieved.  In  particular,  it  shows 
that  so  far  from  the  movement  being  due  to  the  "pressure" 
of  the  Quaker  incursion,  as  contended  by  Dr.  Wilson, 
that  was  the  very  thing  which  "  beat  "  the  men  off  from 
their  purpose  and  "  forced  them  to  lay  other  things  aside 
to  quench  those  flames."     Thus  they  write:  — 

We  who  have  engaged  our  selves  in  this  undertaking,  have  (we 
hope)  thoroughly  considered,  what  in  all  probability  it  may  cost  us, 
that  while  we  look  for  reproach  &  contradiction  which  yet  we  would 
not  willingly  finde,  our  opposers  may  find  that  undaunted  courage  in 
our  prosecution  of  this  work  which  they  would  not  readily  have 
looked  for. 


98  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  great  distance  of  this  from  the  first  undertaking,  and  Report 
of  our  Agreement,  doth  necessarily  draw  forth  this  brief  Account  of 
its  Birth  and  Progress.  About  three  yeers  ago  some  of  us  joyned 
together  in  an  Expedient  much  of  this  nature,  which  we  propounded  to 
some  of  our  Brethren  of  different  perswasions  in  these  things,  but  it 
took  not;  whereupon  we  resolved  to  prosecute  it  among  our  selves, 
and  made  some  Progress  in  it :  At  which  time  Worcestershire  Asso- 
ciation, with  Mr.  Baxter's  Explication,  came  forth.  Upon  this  we 
began  to  conceive  more  probability  of  some  reconciliation  (at  least)  of 
different  judgements,  in  matters  of  Church  Government,  then  formerly, 
because  we  hoped  the  prejudice  which  possibly  might  arise  from  our 
single  attempt  (in  a  business  of  that  nature)  would  be  much  removed, 
when  they  saw  we  were  not  alone,  and  that  the  way  was  led  by 
others  of  so  much  worth  and  ability ;  we  therefore  resolved  to  take 
up  our  former  design  again  and  to  propound  it  to  the  whole  Ministry 
of  the  County  in  general.  To  that  end  several  Meetings  were  desired, 
and  at  last  we  agreed  in  these  following  Propositions,  which  were 
cheerfully  subscribed  by  several,  both  of  the  Presbyterian,  and 
Congregational  Judgement.  During  the  agitation  of  these  things,  some 
of  us  were  much  affected  to  observe  : 

1.  The  Assent  of  men  both  able  and  judicious,  and  such  as  had 
throughly  studyed  the  Congregational  way,  and  from  whom  (in 
probability)  opposition  might  have  been  expected,  in  case  these  things 
had  been  inconsistent  with  these   Principles. 

2.  That  Prejudice  (which  like  a  hateful  Monster,  empoysons  the 
best  things,  seeks  Fuel  from  its  own  ignorance  and  blindness,  and 
from  the  very  distance  which  it  self  caused,  like  a  Fiery  Oven  devours 
all  that's  cast  into  it,  and  musters  up  all  the  Passions  to  fight  against 
it  knows  not  what)  hath  the  greatest  hand  in  hindering  the  Unity 
and  Concord  of  Brethren. 

3.  That  the  best  way  to  cure  it,  is  friendly  and  brotherly  debates, 
especially  after  it  hath  tyred  it  self  with  its  own  Activity,  and 
evaporated  something  of  its  Fury. 

4.  That  the  Churches  Peace  (if  by  all  parties  seriously  laid  to 
heart)  is  a  very  forceable  medicine  to  infer  a  conclusion  to  Unity. 

Yet  all  was  not  done  when  we  had  proceeded  thus  far  :  Action  (the 
life  of  all)  was  yet  behinde ;  Satan  is  enraged  (and  surely  that  must 
needs  be  good  which  he  so  furiously  opposeth)  and  endeavours  to 
stifHe  it  in  the  birth  to  effect  which  he  desgorgeth  from  his  hateful 
stomack  a  swarm  of  Quakers ;  these  at  that  very  time,  wheoi  all  things 
were  ready  for  practice,  came  upon  us  like  a  furious  Torrent;  all  is 
on  fire  on  the  sudden,  many  are  unsetled,  the  foundations  shaken,  and 
some  apostatize ;  here  we  are  beaten  off,  and  are  forced  to  lay  other 
things  aside,  that  we  might  more   fully  binde  our  selves  to  quench 

The   Association   Movement  99 

these  flames.  After  a  while  this  storm  abates,  and  we  begin  to  think 
of  our  former  work. 

But  the  last  Parliament  was  then  sitting,  and  because  something 
of  that  nature  was  expected  from  them,  it  was  advised  we  should 
yet  a  little  forbear,  till  we  might  see  the  issue.  The  Parliament 
being  ended,  we  encountered  with  an  other  Demurrer  which  was  this  : 
The  providence  of  God  so  ordered  things,  that  many  Ministers  in  this 
County  were  unfixed,  supposed  they  should  be  necessitated  to  remove ; 
and  several  did  remove  to  other  Counties,  so  that  we  were  again 
forced  to  let  all  alone,  expecting  what  way  things  would  be  cast. 
And  now  all  these  things  being  over,  we  have  once  more  re-assumed 
our  ancient  Resolutions,  casting  our  selves  upon  the  Lord,  and  looking 
up  to  him  for  asistance  that  things  concerning  his  Honor  and  House, 
with  so  much  difficulty  now  brought  to  the  birth,  may  not  miscarry- 

When  these  were  now  ready  it  pleased  the  Lord  to  give  us  this 
encouragement;  Our  Brethren,  the  Ministers  of  our  neighbor- County 
of  W estmerland ,  desired  of  us  a  Copy  of  our  Propositions  and 
Confession ;  and  after  they  had  among  themselves  considered  and 
debated  them,  they  signified  to  us  their  free  consent  to  all,  except 
what  concerned  the  County  of  Cumberland  in  particular. 

It  will  not  be  requisite  to  speak  much  in  Explanation  or  Vindication 
of  what  we  propose ;  because  in  most  things  it  is  fully  done  to  our 
hands,  by  Judicious  and  Learned  Mr.  Baxter  in  his  Explication  of 
the  Worcestershire  Association,  unto  which  we  refer  you  for  satis- 
faccion,  whiles  we  give  a  brief  touch  upon  something  in  the  general. 

L  Know  that  several  things,  as  to  Method,  Phrase,  and  Omissions, 
(which  those  that  are  versed  in  the  Controversies  about  Government, 
will  readily  observe)  were  not  done  altogether  upon  neglect  or 
madvertency,  but  on  design. 

2.  That  these  were  not  calculated  for  every  Meridian;  we  were 
forced  to  have  an  eye  to  the  general  temper  of  our  people,  as  well 
as  the  differing  Judgements  of  one  another.  And  therefore  let  it  not 
be  blamed,  if  it  be  found  not  suitable  in  all  things  to  other  places. 

3.  Let  it  be  carryed  in  your  minde  all  along,  That  through  the 
contexture  of  the  whole  work,  our  Debates  were,  what  we  ought  to 
do  for  the  Churches  peace,  and  not  what  each  of  us  might  do, 
according  to  the  latitude  and  utmost  extent  of  the  usual  practice  of 
different  judgements. 

4.  In  all  this  Agreement  there  are  no  Principles  broken  on  either 
side;  and  nothing  condescended  unto  by  any,  which  hath  not  the 
subscription  and  assent  of  eminent  men  in  both  parties  in  their 
writings-  The  chief  Corner-Stones  of  this  Fabrick,  are  four,  which 
present  themselves  in  the  entrance,  whereof  the  first  and  last  Pro- 
positions neither  fear  opposition,  nor  require  explication ;  if  any  should 

loo  The   Ejected    of  1662 

question  them,  such  evidence  and  general  acception  doth  accompany 
them  that  they  will  finde  advocates  in  every  place. 

It  is  repeatedly  contended  in  this  Explication  that  no 
"  Presbyterian  principle  "  is  crossed  by  any  "  Proposition  " ; 
and  that  there  is  no  need  to  take  exception  "  against  the 
condescention  of  our  brethren  of  the  Congregational 
judgement "  in  relation  to  others ;  that  it  was  a  case  of 
running  up  "  severall  lines "  and  all  meeting  "  in  the 
same  point."  Whether  that  is  really  so  need  not  now  be 
considered,  the  important  point  is  that  it  was  an  "Agree- 
ment," in  the  production  of  which  each  party  had 
accommodated  itself  to  the  other  for  the  "  Churches 
peace."  The  "  Explication  "  ends  with  an  "  Exhortation 
to  all  that  love  the  Lord  Jesus  " ;  and  its  spirit  may  be 
gauged  from  the  following :  — 

Shall  the  Presbyterian  and  Congregational  Brethren  stand  at  a 
distance  still  ?  then  they  mutually  hinder  one  anothers  work,  and 
betwixt  them  endanger  the  interest  of  the  Gospel  :  Would  you  have 
either  of  them  to  drive  on  their  way  to  the  overthrow  of  the  other? 
that's  unchristian,  unbrotherly,  unmerciful  :  Is  there  hope  of  con- 
vincing each  other,  and  so  of  one  party  to  come  over  to  the  other? 
that's  not  to  be  expected.  Is  there  a  probability  of  union  of  affection 
while  the  difference  stands  as  wide  as  before  ?  Experience  teacheth 
the  contrary ;  alienation  of  affection  is  the  onely  issue  of  different 
judgement  and  practice.  What  other  thing  then  can  be  thought  of, 
besides  mutual  condescention  in  less  things?  And  if  both  parties 
would  but  stand  to  what  hath  been  written  on  either  side  and  improve 
their  mutual  concessions,  the  composure  of  the  difference  would  in  a 
great  part  be  effected.  And  as  for  the  remaining  differences,  if  they 
were  put  to  this  issue.  How  far  we  ought  to  yeeld  for  peace?  it  would 
(through  God's  blessing)  be  quickly  compleated. 

Time  did  more  for  ■  those  "  Unionists "  than  was 
anticipated ;  the  "  unexpected  "  happened ;  the  fusing 
process  already  begun  continued ;  the  one  party  did  pass 
over  to  the  other ;  in  point  of  fact,  the  Congregational  rod 
swallowed  up  the  Presbyterian. 

An  interesting  echo  of  the  past  appears  in  the  following, 
which  also  further  illustrates  the  spirit  of  the  men  who 
were  behind  this  movement :  — 

Some  (it  may  be)  think  an  utter  refusal  of  peace  with  the  Presby- 
terians is  but  a  just  requital  of  that  rigour  and  harshness  which  they 

The    Association   Movement  loi 

used  to  others  when  they  had  the  chair.  We  do  not  justifie  the 
failings  and  irregularities  of  any ;  all  parties  (we  think)  have  too 
much  cause  to  acknowledge  themselves  guilty  before  the  Lord,  and  to 
be  humbled  :  but  if  any  make  this  a  ground  of  distance,  let  him  call 
to  minde  that,  in  so  doing,  he  becomes  guilty  of  that  which  he 
condemns  in  them  :  Nay,  let  him  know,  that  whatever  were  the  • 
miscarriages  of  some  particular  men  at  that  time,  yet  the  Assembly 
were  even  then  no  less  desirous  of  concord  with  the  dissenting 
Brethren,  then  others  are  at  this  present :  They  that  will  read  the 
papers  of  Accommodation  annexed  to  the  Reasons  of  the  dissenting 
Brethren  may  sufficiently  satisfie  themselves  in  this. 

One  jarring  note  only  will  be  heard  in  the  document, 
and  it  is  near  the  end,  where  reference  is  made  to  the 
Quaker  movement.  Its  presence  there  is  of  the  highest 
significance;  it  shows  how  men  peacefully  disposed 
regarded  that  movement.  To  them  it  appeared  as  the 
swpreTnum  Tnalum.  The  Quaker  movement  sought  no 
quarter  at  their  hands ;  it  gave  them  none ;  and  they 
gave  none  to  it. 

As  for  the  quakers,  one  would  think  their  actions  and  principles 
would  make  a  man  that  had  any  of  common  reason  left  to  abominate 
and  abhor  them  :  Sure  we  are,  the  prevalency  of  that  madness  is  not 
from  any  strength  of  rational,  or  scriptural  satisfaction,  (we  have 
seen  many  strongly  and  passionately  possessed  with  that,  who  yet 
neither  understood  it,  nor  could  give  a  reason  for  it)  but  prove  an 
€V€pyia  TrX.avr]s  the  efftcacie  and  strength  of  deluswn,  through  divine 
judgement  upon  them  :  Shall  we  need  to  put  you  in  minde  of  that 
which  your  selves  know  so  well,  and  are  eye  and  ear  witnesses  of,  as 
well  as  we  ?  How  visible  is  the  devils  foot  in  the  beastly  nakedness 
of  men  and  women  in  our  Assemblies  :  In  what  a  strange  unchristian 
temper  of  railing,  reviling,  censuring,  and  lying  do  they  appear  in 
publike,  insomuch  that  a  Scold  with  a  stentorian  voice  is  the  fittest 
Antagonist  to  undertake  a  dispute  with  them.  What  gross  principles 
do  they  maintain  ?  as  of  setting  up  their  Conceits  and  Experiences, 
as  being  of  equal  authority  with  the  Scriptures;  and  that  the 
Scripture  bindes  not  them,  if  not  set  on  their  hearts  by  a  present 
impulse  :  Their  denying  interpretations  of  Scripture,  under  the  name 
of  Meanings  and  Additions  :  Their  following  the  Light  within  :  Their 
pleading  for  a  necessity  of  being  saved,  as  Adam  should  have  been, 
by  an  absolute  perfection  :  Their  grievous  conceits  concerning  Christ, 
to  the  subverting  of  the  Doctrine  of  his  Nature,  offices  and  satisfac- 
cion  :  Their  neglect  and  demise  of  the  observation  of  the  Lord's  Day 

I02  The   Ejected    of  1662 

and  Ordinances  as  Baptism,  and  the  Lord's  Supper  &c.  We  might 
tell  you  of  their  ridiculous  interpretation  of  Scripture  (interpretation 
of  Scripture  is  a  fault  in  other  men,  but  none  in  them)  of  their 
placing  their  religion  in  trivial  things,  as  Thou-ing,  and  keeping  on 
the  hat,  when  yet  the  weightier  matters  of  commumion  with  God  are 
neglected.  As  also  we  might  reckon  up  their  self-contradictions,  their 
ignorant  and  sottish  conceits  about  the  unlawfulness  of  using  words 
which  the  Scripture  useth  not  (as  Trinity,  Sacrament,  &c.)  or  habits 
which  the  Scripture  speaks  not  of,  when  yet  they  cannot  excuse 
themselves  from  what  they  condemn  in  others;  neither  is  it  to  be 
forgotten  that  when  they  have  stuffed  a  paper  as  full  of  lying  and 
nonsense  as  it  can  hold,  (and  we  have  many  of  them  in  our  hands) 
they  blush  not  to  father  all  upon  the  Spirit  of  God.  Consider  we 
pray  you  the  case  of  those  that  have  been  entangled,  and  yet  are 
pluck'd  out  as  a  brand  out  of  the  fire-  Consider  the  relation  of  John 
Gilping  well,  (you  see  what  pitiful  shifts  they  are  put  to,  when  they 
would  seem  to  say  something  in  answer  to  it)  observe  what  a 
favourable  aspect  all  their  opinions  have  to  Popery,  and  how  visibly 
those  poor  creatures  are  acted  by  the  Jesuits  as  by  the  relation  of 
the  man  of  Bristol,  and  others,  it  appears.  What  progress  in  grace, 
and  tnie  religious  walking  can  you  observe  in  them  since  their 
Apostasie?  Where  is  now  their  constant  Family  and  private  prayers? 
Where  is  that  conscientious  fear  (which  sometime  they  seemed  to 
have)  of  speaking  evill  of  what  they  know  not?  Lastly,  Doth  not  all 
that  they  say  against  us  (under  the  reviling  terms  Baals  Priests,  or 
Priests  of  the  World)  strike  also  against  all  those  Martyrs,  which  in 
Queen  Marie's  time,  and  before,  have  laid  down  their  lives  for  the 
Testimony  of  Jesus  ?  Oh !  then  beware,  if  you  love  your  own  souls  : 
what  is  there  here  that  can  be  called  Christian  ?  We  could  tell  you 
of  some  Christians  in  Cumberland,  that  have  thought  it  their  duty  to 
humble  themselves  solemnly  before  God  for  their  inclinations  this 
way  (when  the  error  first  appeared,  and  was  not  then  well  known) 
and  also  to  return  thanks  to  God  for  preserving  them  from  the 
infection ;  and  the  reasons  of  their  dislike  of  the  qvakers  (given  in 
writing)  were  most  of  these  that  we  have  hinted  to  you.  'Tis  good 
to  learn  the  danger  of  the  snare  from  other  men's  dear-bought 
experience.  Mark  therefore  them,  which  cause  divisions  and  offences, 
contrary  to  the  doctrine  which  yee  have  learned  and  avoid  them:  For 
they  that  are  such  serve  not  the  Lord  Jesus  but  their  own  belly, 
Eom.  16.  17.  We  shall  conclude  this  with  that  of  1  Tim.  6.  3.  4.  5. 
If  any  man  teach  otherwise,  and  consent  not  to  wholesome  words 
even  the  words  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  to  the  doctrine  which 
is  according  to  godliness,  he  is  proud,  knowing  nothing  <kc.  From 
such  withdraw  thyself. 

The   Association   Movement  103 

A  further  sentence  says  :  — 

These  Counties  of  Cumberland  and  Westmerland  have  been  hitherto 
as  a  Proverb  and  a  by-word  in  respect  of  ignorance  and  prophaneness ; 
men  were  ready  to  say  of  them  as  the  Jews  of  Nazareth,  Can  any 
good  thing  come  out  of  them?  Let  us  now  labour  to  become  a 
blessing  and  a  praise,  that  people  may  say  concerning  us,  Behold  in 
the  Wilderness  waters  have  broken  out,  and  streams  in  the  Desert; 
the  'parched  ground  is  become  a  pole,  and  the  thirsty  land  springs  of 
water;  it  doth  re  Joyce  and  blossome  as  the  rose. 

This  document  thus  -epitomized  is  in  every  way 
remarkable.  It .  bears  upon  every  line  the  stamp  of 
the  highest  scholarship  and  Christian  statesmanship. 
Compromise  is  scarcely  the  word  to  use  in  relation 
to  it,  because  it  so  often  carries  with  it  sinister 
meanings;  while,  whatever  those  men  surrendered, 
and  possibly  they  surrendered  more  than  they  knew, 
it  was  for  them  a  sacred  offering  on  the  altar 
of  Christian  peace.  The  document  reveals  a  singular 
passion  for  the  success  of  the  Divine  Kingdom.  To 
secure  unity,  and  so  efficiency  in  the  Church,  that  it  might 
the  better  accomplish  its  mission,  was  the  inspiring 
motive  throughout.  What  also  impresses  the  reader  is 
the  entire  absence  of  any  authoritative  tone :  advice, 
counsel,  peace,  conciliation,  patience  and  forbearance,  are 
the  outstanding  and  dominant  words  in  it.  Yet  further, 
judged  by  this  document,  the  spirit  of  the  Association 
movement  was  manifestly  inclusive  and  not  exclusive. 
Dr.  Wilson  says :  "All  scandalous  persons,  such  as 
episcopalians,  papists,  and  quakers  were  rigidly  excluded 
from  the  Association  till  they  had  publicly  recanted  their 
errors."  There  is  not  the  slightest  warrant  for  any  such 
statement.  Papists  and  Quakers  were  obviously  inelig- 
ible; but  the  "scandalousness"  which  excluded  referred  to 
moral  and  spiritual  character,  and  not  to  denominational 
sentiment  and  creed.  There  is  not  a  sentence,  or  even  a 
word,  in  the  whole  document,  which  suggests  that  an 
"  Episcopalian  "  as  such  was  regarded  as  "  scandalous," 
and  so  debarred  fellowship  with  the  Association ;  but 
there  is  a  statement  to  the  effect  that  it  was  decided  to 

I04  The   Ejected   of  1662 

propound  the  design  in  the  "  whole  ministry  of  the 
County  in  general."  Episcopalians  are  nowhere  men- 
tioned by  name,  as  are  Presbyterians  and  Congregation- 
alists,  but  it  is  practically  certain  that  not  a  few  joined 
the  Association,  who,  if  any  thing  at  all,  were  Episcop- 

It  will  further  illustrate  the  spirit  of  these  Associations 
if  we  consider  for  a  moment  the  Worcestershire  one. 
This  welcomed  Episcopalians  as  readily  as  representatives 
of  any  other  denomination.     Baxter  says:  — 

In  our  Association  in  this  County,  though  we  made  our  Terms 
large  enough  for  all,  Episcopal,  Presbyterians,  and  Independants, 
there  was  not  one  Presbyterian  joyned  with  us  that  I  know  of  (for 
I  knew  but  of  one  in  all  the  County  Mr.  Tho.  Hall)  nor  one 
Independant,  (though  two  or  three  honest  ones  said  nothing  against 
us)  nor  one  of  the  New  Prelatical  way  (Dr.  Hammond's)  but  three 
or  four  moderate  Conformists  that  were  for  the  old  Episcopacy ;  and 
all  the  rest  were  meer  Catholicks ;  Men  of  no  Faction,  nor  siding  with 
any  Party,  but  owning  that  which  was  good  in  all,  as  far  as  they 
could  discern  it;  and  upon  a  Cooicord  in  so  much,  laying  out  them- 
selves for  the  great  Ends  of  their  Ministry,  the  Peoples  Edification.' 

Again :  — 

The  Ministers  that  thus  associated  were  for  Number,  Parts  and 
Piety,  the  most  considerable  part  of  all  that  County,  and  some  out  of 
some  neighbouring  Counties  that  were  near  us.  There  was  not  that  I 
know  of,  one  thorough  Presbyterian  among  them,  because  there  was 
but  one  such  that  I  knew  of  in  all  the  County,  and  he  lived  somewhat 
remote :  Nor  did  any  Independant  subscribe,  save  one :  for  there 
were  (that  I  knew  of)  but  five  or  six  in  the  County,  and  two  of  the 
weightiest  of  them  approved  it  in  words,  and  the  rest  withdrew 
from  our  Debates,  and  gave  us  no  reason  against  anything  proposed. 
Those  that  did  not  come  near  us,  nor  concur  with  us,  were  all  the 
weaker  sort  of  Ministers,  whose  Sufficiency  or  Conversation  w£is 
questioned  by  others,  and  knew  they  were  of  little  esteem  among 
them,  and  were  neither  able  or  willing  to  exercise  any  Discipline  on 
their  Flocks  :  As  also  some  few  of  better  parts  of  the  Episcopal  way, 
who  never  came  near  us,  and  knew  not  of  our  Proposals,  or  resolved 
to  do  nothing  till  they  had  Episcopacy  restored;  or  such  whose 
Judgments  esteemed  such  Discipline  of  no  great  necessity  :  And  one 
or   two    very    worthy    Ministers,   who  approved    of    our    Agreement, 

1.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.  97. 

The   Association   Movement  105 

subscribed  it  not,  because  they  had  a  People  so  very  Eefractory,  that 
they  knew  they  were  not  able  to  bring  them  to  submit  to  it.  i 

There  is  no  definite  information  as  to  the  extent  to 
which  Ministers  in  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  joined 
the  Association.  It  had  three  districts — Carlisle,  Penrith 
and  Cockermouth, — and  the  District  Meetings  appear  to 
have  been  monthly.  At  a  "  Generall  Meeting"  of  all  the 
Districts  held  at  Keswick  on  May  19th,  1658,  Dr.  Gilpin 
preached  a  Sermon  with  the  following  Title : 

on  Zachary  6.  13. 

Preached  at  a  General  Meeting  of  the  ASSOCIATED  MINISTERS 
of  the  County  of  Cumberland  at  Keswick   May  19. 

By  Richard  Gilpin,  Pastor  of  the  Church  at  Graistock  in  Cumberland. 

Not  by  Might,  nor  by  Power,  but  by  my  Spirit,  saith  the  Lord  of 
Hosts.     Zach.  4.  v.  6. 

— by  E.  T.  for  Luke  Fawne  at  the  [Chu]rch-yard  and  are  to  be  sold 
at — Bookseller  in  Carlisle.^ 

On  the  inside  page  is  the  following :  — 

Wee,  the  Associated  Ministers  of  the  County  of  Cumberland,  do 
earnestly  desire  our  Reverend  Brother,  Mr.  Richard  Gilpin,  to  Print 
his  Acceptable  Sermon,  Preached  this  day  at  our  Generall  Meeting. 

Signed  by 
Ktswick  in   Cumberland  Timothy  Tullie, 

May  20.  1658.  Moderator  Pro  Temp. 

John  Iackson,  Scribe. 

The  Sermon  is  dedicated — 

To  my  Reverend,  Peaceable  and  dearly  Beloved  Brethren,  The 
Associated  Ministers  of  the  County  of  Cumberland,  and  is  from 

Your  unworthy  fellow-servant, 
Graistock  Aug.   2.  Richard  Gilpin. 


1.  Rel.  Bax.,  p.  148. 

2.  There  is  a  copy  in  the  Jackson  Library,  Carlisle.  The  front  page 
is  torn  a  little  at  each  comer,  and  some  of  the  later  pages  seem  to  be 

io6  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  text  is  Zech,  vi.  13,  and  the  Sermon,  which  was 
preached  to  further  the  interests  of  the  Association, 
should  be  read  in  conjunction  with  the  "  Agreement." 
It  is  an  interesting  commentary  upon  it,  and,  while  it 
contains  a  strong  plea  for  peace  in  the  Church,  helps  to 
make  clear  the  purely  voluntary  character  of  the  Associa- 
tion to  whose  members  it  was  delivered.  In  the  dedication 
the  Preacher  says  :  — 

Among  the  many  favours  which  God  hath  bestowed  upon  us  and 
the  County  where  we  live;  this  is  none  of  the  least,  That  God  hath 
poured  upon  us  some  measure  of  his  Spirit  of  peace  and  hath  blessed 
us  thus  far  in  it ;  the  blessed  fruits  of  Concord  which  we  have  already 
tasted  (if  we  should  never  see  more)  together  with  the  sweetness  of 
the  testimony  of  Conscience  (thus  far  acquitting  us  from  the  guilt 
of  Church-Murther)  are  a  sufficient  recompence  for  all  the  trouble  it 
hath  given  us.  Great  are  the  advantages  that  we  and  our  people 
have  from  hence;  united  Counsels  promise  more  safety,  and  justly 
challenge  a  greater  respect  and  reverence  to  our  proceedings  :  our 
joint  concurrence  in  what  we  practice  puts  us  in  a  better  posture  of 
mutual  communication  of  gifts,  graces,  strength  and  assistance  (stones 
in  conjunction  as  in  an  arch,  will  support  one  another  and  bear  up 
the  weight  of  the  whole  Fabrick,  which,  being  divided  and  scattered, 
they  cannot  do)  besides,  it  may  do  much  to  cure  that  itch  after 
novelties,  that  intemperancy  of  roaving,  doubting  and  scepticism  in 
Christians  about  Government,  when  they  see  their  leaders  unanimous 
and  not  so  wedded  to  their  opinions  as  to  undo  the  Church  for 

The  "  Brethren  "  are  urged  to  keep  their  hands  to  the 
good  work,  and  reference  is  made  to  some  who  secretly 
malign,  and  whisper  against  the  "  peace,"  whose  further- 
ance the  Association  had  for  its  "design'.  "We  intend 
not,"  says  the  preacher,  "to  cut  off  the  liberty  of  particular 

It  is  curious  to  note  that  no  attempt  appears  to  have 
been  made  to  introduce  Classical  Presbyterianism  into 
Cumberland,  though  in  closest  proximity  to  Scotland, 
where  it  was  all  powerful.  For  it  ought  to  be  made  quite 
clear  that  the  Association  just  named  was  not  a 
Presbyterian  movement.  Dr.  Drysdale  speaks  of  "  the 
Presbyterian  spirit  and  genius  of  these  Associations " ;  * 

1.  Drysdale,  p.  368. 

The   Association    Movement  107 

but  that  tells  rather  against  than  in  favour  of  their  real 
Presbyterian  character.  They  were  purely  voluntary 
Associations,  care  being  taken  to  make  it  perfectly  plain 
that  no  real  jurisdiction  could  be  exercised  over  any  one 
of  the  Associated  Churches.  It  was  the  appearance  of 
these  Associations,  which,  as  much  as  anything,  checked 
the  growth  of  Classical  Presbyterianism ;  to  their  spread 
must  be  attributed,  in  large  measure,  the  decay  of  the 
very  system  which  it  is  often  contended  they  helped  to 

The  Congregational  Magazine  for  1822,^  referring  to  this 
Association,  says :  — 

The  Baptist  brethren  appear  to  have  had  the  chief  management  of 
its  affairs  during  later  times  :  and  the  late  Rev.  Charles  Whitefield  of 
Hamsterly  is  said  to  "have  drawn  up  for  the  Baptist  Annual 
Register,  an  accurate  account  of  this  Association  from  the  year  1699, 
consisting  of  above  70  close  pages  in  4to."  See  Baptist  Annual 
Register,  Vol.  I,  p.  63,  1790.  In  the  year  1798  it  underwent  some 
alterations,  and  a  Society  was  formed  by  the  name  of  "  The  Northern 
Evangelical  Society  for  the  more  general  diffusion  of  the  Gospel  by 
itinerant  preaching,  in  the  Counties  of  Cumberland,  Durham,  North- 
umberland and  Westmorland."  Id.  iii,  p.  425.  This  Society  having 
declined  another  was  established  in  1810,  which  has  been  since  known 
by  the  title  of  The  Congregational  Union  isi  Cumberland  and  West- 

Only  very  remotely  indeed  can  any  historic  continuity 
be  found  between  the  Cumbrian  Congregational  Union  of 
the  19th  Century  and  the  Association  of  Commonwealth 
times ;  and  the  attempt  to  trace  these  connections  which 
are  more  poetic  and  sentimental  than  real,  is  apt  to  lead 
to  serious  historic  confusion.  It  is  almost  certain  that 
the  greater  part  of  these  Associations  died  after  the 
Restoration,  and  that  the  Unions  of  the  closing  years  of 
the  17th  Century  had  no  connection  with  them,  beyond 
the  fact  that  the  habit  of  associating,  which  those  earlier 
institutions  had  formed,  prepared  the  way  for  the  more 
permanent  Unions  of  later  times. 

The  sister  County  of  Westmorland  did  proceed  a  stage 

1.  P.,  714. 

io8  The    Ejected    of  1662 

farther  than  Cumberland  in  the  direction  of  Presby- 
terianism.  In  1645,  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons  was  authorized  to  send  a  letter  to  the  various 
County  Committees  of  Parliament,  to  ascertain  how  the 
respective  Counties  could  be  divided  for  Presbyterian 
purposes,  and  what  "  ministers  and  others  were  fitt  to 
be  of  each  Classis."  Westmorland  responded  early  in 
the  following  year,  suggesting  "  that  there  shalbe  one 
Classis  within  the  Barony  of  Kendall,"  and  another  "  for 
the  bottome  of  Westmerland  Division."  This  extremely 
interesting  and  curious  document,  containing  the  names 
of  both  Ministers  and  suggested  Elders,  is  still  in  exist- 
ence, and  the  following  is  a  copy  together  with  that  of  the 
letter  attached  to  it:^ — 

Honorable  Sr. 

Wee  received  yor  Honors  lettr  (dated  the  22d  of  September  last) 
the  3rd  of  ffebruary  last  Wherein  is  required  of  us,  with  advise  of 
Godly  Ministers  to  returne  to  yor  Honor  such  Ministers  and  Elders 
as  are  thought  fitt  for  the  Presbiteriall  way  of  Government,  (wch  wee 
much  desire  to  be  established)  and  the  Severall  Classes.  After  wee 
received  yor  Honrs  letter  to  that  purpose  (though  long  after  the  date) 
wee  speedily  had  a  meeting,  and  upon  due  consideration,  nominated 
the  Ministers  and  Elders  which  wee  thought  fittest  (as  yor  Honor 
may  Conceive  by  this  enclosed)  for  the  Presbyteriall  imploymint  as  is 
desired  and  have  devided  the  County  of  Westmerland  into  two 
Classes.  Since  the  expediting  of  this  yor  Honors  derection ;  wee 
have  heard  of  an  Ordinance  of  Parliamt  directing  to  the  Election 
of  such  Persons ;  But  as  yet  neither  Order  nor  Ordinance  hath  come 
unto  us.  Only  yor  Honors  Letter  is  or  [our]  Warrant  and  Instruction ; 
And  accordingly,  we  make  bould  to  send  (here  inclosed)  the  names 
both  of  Ministers  &  Elders  And  if  wee  faile  in  the  Parliaments 
method  in  this  perticular;  wee  shall  willingly  (upon  yor  Honrs 
next  direction)  rectify  any  mistake  for  the  present,  and  shalbe  willing 
to  Submitt  to  yor  Honors  and  Parliamentary  directions ;  which  wee 
shall  daily  expect  that  in  whatsoever  wee  have  missed,  wee  may 
amend  it. 

Thus  with  or  [our]  Service  recomended,  Wee  remaine 
Kendall  10th  Martij. 

1645/6.  Your  Honors  Servants. 

Ric.   Priscoe   Maior. 
Rich.  Brainthwaite.  Tho  :  Sleddall. 

Allan  Gilpin.  Ger.  Benson. 

"Westmorland    Certificate  109 

Thom  :  Sandes.  Rowland  Dawson. 

John  Archer.  Edmund   Guy. 

[Endorsed  on  the  outside] 
10  Martij  1645 

From  the  Maior  &  Comttee  at  Kendall  ffor  the  Hoble  Willm 

with  their  Classes  Lenthall  Esq   Speaker 

of  the  Comons  house 
of  Parliamt.* 

The  Classis  for  the  Division  of  the  Barony  of  Kendall,  in  the 
Countie  of  Westmerland. 

It  is  thought  Convent  by  us  of  the  Comittee  whose  names  are 
Subscribed  wth  ye  Advice  of  divrse  godly  ministrs  for  the 
Setlemt  of  the  Presbiterian  Govermt  that  there  shalbe  one  Classis 
wthin  the  Barony  of  Kendall. 

Mr.   Henry  Masy  mnr  of  Kendall. 

Elders. — Mr.   Nicholas    ffisher, 

Capt.  Roger  Bateman,  Mr.  Gervase  Benson,  Mr. 

Allan  Gilpin,  Mr.  John  Archer, 

Mr.  Thomas  Sandes,  William  Bateman,  William 

Sheepherd,  John  Rowlandson,  and 

Myles  Bateman,  junr. 

Mr.  Samuell  Cole,  mnr.  of  Heuersham. 

Elders. — James  Bellingham,  Esq.  Edward  Wilson,  gent. 

Edward    Brigges,    Myles    Greenwood, 

Willm  Moone,  William  Rawson,  and  Thomas  Benson. 

Mr.  William  Cole,  mnr  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale. 
Elders.— John  Midleton,  Esqr.   Mr.  Myles  Mann, 
Mathew  Atkinson,  John  Garnett, 
Wm.  Garnett,  Wm.  Ward,  and  Edward  Mansergh. 

Mr.  Johnson,  mnr  of  Burton,  one  whoe  hath  formerlie  Complyed  wth  ye 
enemie,  but  hath  since  taken  the  Covent,  and  the  oath  of  the  5th  of    Aprill. 
Elders. — Richard   Pendreth,  John   Cam,   William    Cartmell, 
Robt.  Claughton,  George  Jackson,  and  Richard  Wright. 

Mr.  Moone,  mnr..  of  Bethome,  a  verie  weake  and  unable  mnr. 

Elders.— Richard   Sill,  Roger  Sill,  Robt.    Button, 

Roger  Dickinson,  Rowland  Crosfeild,  &  Nicholas  Borwick. 

1.  Tanner  MSS.,  vol.  Ix,  fol.  532,  Bodl. 

no  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Mr.  Samuell  Harison,  mnr  of  Killington. 
Elders. — James   Madeson,   James  Aykerigg,  Anthony- 
Burrow,  and  Thomas  Priccott. 

Mr.  Richard  Archer,  mnr  of  Winderme,  lately  Come  from  the  Univsity 
at  Oxford.     A  Non  covenantr  and  disafiected. 
Elders. — George  Birkett,  John  CoUinson, 
George  Browne,  and  Adam  Birkett. 

Mr.  Henry  Wilson,  mnr  of  Gressmr,  a  notorious  maUgnt,  and  articled 

agt.  at  Parlt. 

Elders. — Mr.  Thomas  Brathwt,  Michaell  Benson. 

Edward  Knott,  and  Francis  Benson. 

The  Classis  for  the  bottome  of  Westmerland  Division 

Mr.  Thomas  Dodson,  Ministr  of  Ravenstondale. 

Elders — Mr.   Willm  ffothergill,  Anthony  ffothergill, 

Cuthbert  Hunter,  George  ffawcett,  Philip  Bousfell,  Ralph  Milner. 

Mr.  George  fEothergill,  vicar  of  Orton. 

Elders. — Mr.  Bryom  Berkbecke,  Mr.  George  Bindlass, 

John  Thornborrow,  Thomas  Vv  harton,  Robt.  Sharpe,  Edward  Berkbecke. 

Mr.  Joseph  Bousfell,  ministr  of  Crosby  Garratt. 
Elders. — Himiphrey  Bell,  James  Richardson, 
Thomas  Robinson,  James  Richardson. 

Vacancy  of  Kirkby   Stephen. 

Elders — Mr.  John  Covell,  Mr.  Robt.  Scaife,  John  Bracken, 

Christopher  Hindmer,  Peter  Wharton,  Rowland  Shaw. 

Mr.  Willm.  Richardson,  vicar  of  Brough,  a  non  covenantr,  &  disaffected. 
Elders. — Mr.  Thomas  Ewbanke,  John  Munkhouse, 
Robt.  Wardell,  George  ffothergill,  Rogr.  Nicholson. 

Mr.  Willm.  Curwen,  vicar  of  Crosby  Ravenswath. 
Elders. — Mr.  Miles  Berkbecke, 
Thomas  Robinson,  James  Salkeld. 

Dr.  Dawes,  Ministr  of  Barton  &  Parson  of  Asby,  a- pluralist,  &  Mr. 

Thomas  ffawcett,  curate,  of  Asby. 

Elders  for  Asby  par. — Allan  Bellingham,  Esq. 

Mr.  James  Bellingham,  James  Wilson,  Anthony  Parkin, 

Willm.  Richardson. 

"Westmorland   Certificate  1 1 1 

Mr.  Robt.  Simpson,  parson  of  Ormeside,    Vicar  of  Bongate,  a  non 

coventantr  &  a  pluralist. 

Elders  for  Ormeside  par — Willm.   Outhwaite,   Henry  ffawcett. 

Mr.  Thomas  [John]  Vaux,  Parson  of  Musgrave,  a  non  covenantr  & 


Elders. — Thomas  Hall,  Thomas  Breake,  Richard  ffenton. 

Mr.  Edward  Mowson,  Vicar  of  Warcop  p  [arish]. 

Elders. — Johe  Scaife,  Bartholomew  Scaife,  John  Tompson. 

Mr.  Richard  Burton,  parson  of  Dufton,  a  pluralist. 
["  Elders  "  wanting]. — Mr.  John  Hewetson, 
Christopher   Elwood,   John   ffurnace,   Tho.    Walton. 

Mr.   Henry  Hutton,   parson  of  Long   Marton,   a  Non  covenantr  and 


Elders. — Richard    Pearson,    John   Blamire,    Robt.    Richardson. 

Mr.  Lancelot  Lowther,  parson  of  Kirkbythuer,  a  Malignant  & 
pluralist  lately  come  from  ye  Kings  Quarters. 
Elders. — Heugh  Lawson,  Mr.  John  Hall. 

Mr.  Alexander  Bate,  ministr  of  Milburne. 

Elders — Sir  Richard  Sandford,  Kt.,  Mr.  Thomas  Harrison. 

Mr.  John  Moreland,  Minister  of  Nev«rbiggin,  a  non  covenantr. 
Elders. — Henry  Thompson,  Thomas  Gaskin. 

Mr.   Thomas  Robinson,  minister  of  Browham. 
Elders. — Thomas  Winter,  George  Birkbecke. 

Mr.  John  Winter,  minister  of  Clifton,  one  who  formly  complyed  wth 
the  Enemy,  but  since  taken  ye  Covent. 
Elders. — John  Wilkinson,  Thomas  Dawson. 

Mr.    Timothy    Tully,    Minister    of    Cliburne,    a    non    Covenantr    and 
disaffected,  but  hath  taken  ye  oath  of  ye  5th  of  Aprill. 
Elders. — Willm.  Cowp,  Stephen  Robinson,   Henry  Cliburne. 

Mr.   Willm.    Hall,  minister  of   Moreland,   formly  complyed   wth   the 

Enemie,  but  since  taken  the  Covenat. 

Elders.— Mr.  John  Moreland,  Mr.  Wilhn.  Bland, 

Mr.  John  ffallowfeild,  James  Webster,  Junior. 

112  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Mr.  John  Teasdall,  parson  of  Lowther. 
Elders. — Mr.  Christopher  Teasdale. 
Edward    Birbecke,    Robt.    Hudson. 

Doctr.  Dawes,  Minister  of  Barton,  ut  supra. 

Elders. — Willm.    Lancaster,    Willm.    Smith,  John   Harrison,    Thomas 


Mr.  Lancelot  Hutchinson,  minister  of  Askam,  hath  formly  complyed 
wth  the   Enemie,  but  since  taken  the   Covenant. 
Elders. — Thomas   CoUinson,   Edward  Lancaster, 
John  Strafford,   Henry  Winder. 

Mr.   Matthew   Wilkinson,   minister  of   Bampton. 
Elders. — Mr.  John  Bradely,  Thomas  Jackson,  Senr. 
Thomas  Jackson,  Jun.,  Thomas  Murthwait. 

Mr.  John  Dalton,  minister  of  Shap  p-CarishJ. 
Elders. — John  Barwicke,  John   Robinson. 
Thomas  Whinfell,  John  Langhome. 

Mr.  Robt.  Simpson,  Minister  of  Bongate,  a  non  covenantr&  a  pluralist. 

ut  supra. 

Elders. — Lancelot  Machell,  Esqr.,  Mr.  John  Lowson. 

Reginald  Leigh,  Anthony  Harrison. 

Mr.  Edward  Guy,  Minister  of  Appleby,  a  non  covenanfcr. 
Elders. — Mr.   Richard   Branthwaite,  Mr.  Edmond  Guy, 
Mr.  Thomas  Yaire,  Robt.  Nanson, 
John  Smith,  Jan.,  Willm.  Shepheard. 

[Endorsed] — Names   of   the   Classis   in   ye   Barony   of   Kendall   in  ye 
County  of  Westmrland.^ 

A  glance  at  the  ministerial  names  in  this  document, 
with  the  comments  appended  in  each  case,  will  show  how 
remote  was  the  chance  of  success  for  anything  in  the 
nature  of  real  Presbyterianism  in  Westmorland,  even  had 
it  been  adopted.  The  Masy  Letters  ^  are  even  more 
decisive  evidence  still.  The  writer,  who  possibly  had 
much  to  do  with  the  construction  of  the  scheme,  inces- 

1.  Tanner  MSS.,  vol.  Ix,  fols.  526-7. 

2.  Vide  p.  879. 

Conventicles  1 1 3 

santly  bewails  the  lack  of  some  such  Church  system,  and 
describes  the  district  as  "  rotten  "  because  there  was  so 
little  of  the  Presbyterian  sentiment  in  it.  The  plan, 
however,  never  was  adopted,  it  remained  a  purely  paper 
one;  the  simple  fact  is  that  in  this  area  organized 
Presbyterianism  never  obtained  footing. 

The  repressive  legislation,  to  which  the  Uniformity 
Act  was  a  kind  of  prelude,  did  not  put  an  end  to 
Nonconformity.  Meetings  were  held  in  secret  places, 
"  Conventicles,"  they  were  called ;  and  these  illicit 
gatherings  were  a  constant  source  of  trouble  and  anxiety 
to  the  authorities.  The  State  Papers  for  this  period 
throw  a  strong,  clear  light  upon  the  hysterical  condition 
of  the  time.  Rumours  of  plots  occasioned  by  the  gather- 
ings of  the  people  in  secret  places  played  havoc  with  the 
excited  imagination  of  the  authorities.  Sir  Philip 
Musgrave,  writing  to  Sir  Joseph  Williamson,  on  January 
loth,  1662-3,  says: — 

The  nonconformists  have  never  been  so  public  and  impudent  in  their 
meetings  since  they  had  a  king.  There  are  rumours  that  the  writer 
is  turned  out  as  governor  [of  Carlisle]  and  a  Papist  put  in  his  place. 
Sir  George  Fletcher  has  oflered  to  the  King  to  defend  the  place  at  a 
less  charge.' 

Writing  again  to  Williamson  from  his  home  at  Eden- 
hall,  on  October  26th,  1663,  he  says:  — 

Traced  the  plotters  in  Westmoreland,  on  October  12th,  to  their 
meeting  place.  They  said  Lord  Fairfax  would  lead  them,  with  a 
considerable  party  and  the  soldiers  sent  to  Portugal;  and  that  their 
friends  in  Scotland  and  Cumberland  were  in  arms.  Some  are  now  in 
Appleby  Gaol.  Capt.  Atkinson,  their  principal  man,  formerly  a 
pretended  intelligencer,  is  secured.  Hearing  of  the  stir  in  Yorkshire 
went,  although  ill,  to  Appleby,  to  take  examinations  and  view  the 
trained  bands.  Sir  Pat.  Curwen  has  behaved  very  handsomely ;  does 
not  draw  well  with  the  other  [deputy  lieutenants,]'.* 

The  following  is  from  the  pen  of  Sir  Daniel  Fleming 

1.  Cal.  S.  p.  Dom.,  1663-4,  p.  10. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  315.  \ 

114  ^li^   Ejected   of  1662 

of    E-ydal   Hall,    to    Sir    Joseph    Williamson,    and   it    is 
particularly  interesting  on  many  accounts  :  — 

Kendall,   Nov,    14,  '63. 

You  should  have  had  a  returne  long  ere  this  of  my  thankfuUness  for 
your  many  favours  at  my  last  beeing  in  Towne,  had  I  not  been  very 
loath  to  have  given  you  such  a  trouble  amongst  your  more  weigty 
affaires ;  Knowing  very  well,  yt  such  Trash  should  not  take  up  any 
of  your  time,  wch  is  alwayes  imployed  to  a  much  better  purpose ; 
And  since  I  have  hitherto  been  so  spareing,  I  hope  you'l  now  pardon 
ye  trouble  here  brought  you ;  ye  rather  since  its  omely  an  Act  of  my 
duty  to  give  you  some  Account  of  our  Actings  in  this  part  of  ye 
Countrey,  (beeing  a  stranger  unto  Sr  Henry  Bennet,  who  now  supplyes 
ye  place  of  our  Lord  Lieutenant  for  Westmerland)  yt  you  may 
comunicate  so  much  thereof,  as  you  shall  see  cause.  I  need  not  tell 
you,  yt  this  Country  is  divided  into  two  (almost)  equall  parts  (viz. 
Kendall  Barony  &  ye  Bottome  of  Westmerland)  &  yt  in  almost  all 
things  wee  act  severally,  being  divided  by  great  mountanes,  &  yt  in 
ye  former  there's  no  Deputy-Lieutenants  resident,  save  Mr.  Alan 
Bellingham  &  my  selfe,  nor  need  I  acquaint  you  with  ye  pticulars  of 
ye  Deputy  Lieutenants  proceeding  in  ye  Bottome  agt  Captaine  Atkinson 
&  ye  rest  of  ye  Plotters  there ;  since  I  am  confident  you  know  ye  same 
already  much  better  then  I  am  able  to  informe  you  :  But  as  to 
what  hath  been  acted  since  in  this  Countrey  I  shall  make  bold  to 
give  you  some  account,  ye  same  phaps  haveing  not  yet  arrived  at 
your  hand.  The  last  week  Mr.  Bellingham  &  I  received  an  intimation 
from  Sr  Philip  Musgrave,  that  Captaine  Atkinson  (who  not  long  since 
escaped  out  of  Appleby)  together  with  some  other  desperate  disaffected 
psons  (some  of  whom  Sr  Philip  presumed  to  live  here  in  ye  Barony) 
had  a  designe  for  another  riseing  shortly  &  to  release  all  ye  Plotters 
imprisoned  at  Appleby  before  ye  11th  instant  &  to  revenge  himself e 
upon  some  pticuler  gentlemen ;  whereupon  wee  forth  with  raised  all 
our  Train — hand-foot,  who  very  chearfully  &  well  appointed  mett 
us  at  Kendall  upon  Munday  last,  where  I  kept  them  upon  strict  duty 
for  three  dayes  till  I  heard  from  Sr  Philip  and  Sr  Geo.  Fletcher, 
yt  ye  designe  was  quashed  for  ye  present.  Mr.  Bellingham  and  I  then 
secured  about  twenty  psons,  who  had  been  Captaines  or  other  officers 
agt  his  Majesty,  ejected  Ministers,  leading  Quakers,  or  other  dis- 
affected &  suspicious  psons ;  all  whom  wee  dismissed  upon  Wednesday 
last  upon  good  Bond,  excepting  one  Captaine  French  (whom  wee  sent 
unto  Penrith  with  two  Troups  at  ye  instance  of  Sr  Philip)  and  one 
Wallis  an  ejected  Minister  whom  wee  (with  other  justices  of  ye 
Peace  sent  unto  Appleby,  there  to  bee  kept  prisoner  for  three  months, 
upon  a  Certificate   from   ye   Arch-Bishop   of   York  in   pursuance   of 

Captain   Atkinson  1 1 5 

ye  late  Act  of  Uniformity.  If  I  may  here  shoot  my  Bolt,  I  think 
wee  are  pretty  secure  from  any  danger  at  present,  since  wee  have  few 
active  psons  yt  are  disaffected  among  us ;  and  if  here  shall  happen 
any  Mischiefe,  I  dare  say  it  will  proceed  rather  from  ye  non-licensed 
Ministers  (which  if  ye  Ordinaries  will  but  certify,  will  bee  quickly 
made  fast)  of  whom  we  have  but  a  few ;  or  from  ye  Quakers  of  whom 
Wee  have  too  many,  this  part  of  ye  countrey  joyning  upon  yt  pt  of 
Lancashire  where  Geo.  Fox  &  most  of  his  Cubbs  are  &  have  been 
for  a  long  time  Kennel' d.  Tho  at  present  these  psons  are  not  much 
reguarded,  yet  I  am  confident  ye  first  reall  danger  wee  shall  bee 
in  will  bee  from  them;  for  they  are  psons  ye  most  numerous  of  any 
one  opinion  yt  are  here  agt  [against]  us;  of  ye  closest  correspondencies 
(keeping  constantly  their  meetings  weekly  within  eight  miles  one  of 
another  throughout  all  this  countrey,  if  not  england  also)  &  they 
are  such  yt  will  do  mischief  ye  most  resolutely  of  any,  if  Fox  or 
any  other  of  their  grand  Speakers  should  but  dictate  it  unto  them 
wch  sowA  of  ym  halfe  threaten  already.  Sr  Philip  yet  keepes  a 
guard  y.^on  ye  Prisoners  at  Appleby  to  prevent  all  danger,  some  of 
whom  I  heare  are  conveyed  unto  Carlile.  I  heare  from  my  Brother 
who  is  a  Captaine  in  Lancashire  under  Coll  :  Kirkby  yt  all  things 
are  quiet  there  onely  some  of  them  have  ye  same  thoughts  of  ye 
Quakers  there  as  we  have  here.  I  will  not  quite  weary  you  at  ye 
first,  but  have  some  mercy  of  you,  beeing 

your  most  affectionate 
and  obliged  friend  & 
servant  Dan  :  Fleming. 

If  you  please  at  any  time  to  honour  mee  with  a  line,  direct  your 
Letter  to  bee  left  for  mee  at  Kendall  in  Westmerland.' 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  some  of  this  is  very 
highly  coloured ;  and  that  many  of  the  so  called  plots  and 
intended  risings  were  pure  fictions.  It  was  the  oppor- 
tunity of  the  informer,  and  he  did  not  fail  to  use  it;  but 
it  serves  to  illustrate  the  excited  condition  of  the  time. 
Xor  were  all  these  rumours  baseless.  Sir  Philip 
Musgrave  and  Sir  Daniel  Fleming  were  particularly 
aggressive,  and  made  themselves  exceedingly  obnoxious 
to  those  whom  they  so  grievously  oppressed.  It  had 
been  strange,  therefore,  if  reprisals  had  not  been 
thought  of,  and  even  attempted.  Across  the  Tweed,  this 
kind  of  treatment  was  goading  the  Covenanters  into  open 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.,  Car.  II,  vol.  83,  No.   98. 

ii6  The   Ejected   of  1662 

rebellion,  and  Imman  nature  is  much  the  same  every- 
where. Captain  Robert  Atkinson  already  named,  was  no 
fictitious  person.  His  home  was  at  Mallerstang,  to  the 
south  of  Kirkby  Stephen,  among  the  wild  mountain 
scenery  which  is  still  rich  in  traditions  of  a  romantic  past. 
He  had  served  under  Cromwell  as  Captain  of  Horse,  and 
during  the  Commonwealth  had  been  most  active  against 
the  Royalists.  Immensely  popular  in  the  district,  he  had 
as  colleagues  in  his  aims  Captain  John  Waller  also  of 
Mallerstang,  Colonel  Richard  Richardson  of  Crosby 
Garrett,  Thomas  Fawcett  of  Ravenstonedale  and  Captain 
Cuthbert  Studholme  of  Carlisle,  formerly  a  Parliamentary 
Justice  of  the  Peace  in  that  city.^  The  object  of  Atkinson, 
and  those  who  were  in  league  with  him,  was  by  rising 
"  to  force  the  king  to  perform  his  promises  made  at  Breda, 
grant  liberty  of  Conscience  to  all  but  Romanists,  take 
away  excise,  chimney  money,  and  all  taxes  whatever,  and 
restore  a  Gospel  magistracy  and  mercy."  ^  The  meeting 
place  of  the  plotters  was  Kipper  or  Kaber  Rigg,  a  village 
about  two  and  a  half  miles  north  east  of  Kirkby  Stephen ; 
and,  as  previously  indicated,  the  rising  was  fixed  for 
October  12th,  1663.  It  was  alleged  to  be  part  of  a  great 
plan  affecting  a  considerable  portion  of  the  country;  but 
somehow  the  rising  did  not  take  place,  and  Captain 
Atkinson,  with  some  others,  was  captured  and  lodged  in 
Appleby  Gaol.  He  managed,  however,  to  escape,  but  he 
was  ultimately  recaptured,  and  is  "  next  heard  of  as  a 
prisoner  in  the  Tower.  There  he  was  examined  before 
the  Lord  Chancellor,  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  Hyde,  and 
Mr.  Secretary  Bennet  in  tlie  presence  of  Sir  Philip 
Musgrave  and  Sir  Thomas  Gower,  the  Sheriff  of  York- 

Chancellor  Ferguson  says  that  Atkinson  "  appears  to 
have  confessed  somewhat,  lied  a  good  deal,  and  shuffled 
more,    so,    instead   of   the   pardon   he   expected,    he  was 

1.  Vide  pp.  187,  1365. 

2.  Hist,  of  West.,  by  Chancellor  Ferguson,  p.  221. 

3.  Ibid.,  p.  223. 

Indulgence   Licenses  1 1 7 

handed  over  to  Musgrave,  and  hung  either  at  Carlisle  or 
Durham  in  1664;  some  accounts  say  Appleby."  ^ 
In  the  Diary  of  the  Countess  of  Pembroke  is  the 
following :  — 

Aug.  20,  1664.  Robert  Atkinson,  one  of  my  tennants  in  Mallerstang, 
and  that  had  been  my  great  enemy,  was  condemned  to  be  hang'd, 
drawn,  and  quarter'd  as  a  traitor  to  the  King,  for  having  had  a  hand 
in  the  later  plott  and  Consperacy,  so  as  he  was  executed  accordingly 
the  first  day  of  the  month  following ;  and  the  24th  day  of  August 
they  went  away  from  hence  to  Kendal.  [These  were  the  two  Judges 
of  Assize.]  ^ 

In  1669  in  response  to  the  request  of  Sheldon,  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  Returns  of  Conventicles  from 
various  parts  of  the  country  were  furnished.  A  list  of 
those  relating  to  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  is  given 
in  Appendix  V.^  Obviously  the  "  Returns  "  are  too  meagre 
to  represent  the  full  strength  of  Nonconformity  in  the 
two  Counties;  but  they  are  interesting  as  showing  how 
various  areas  were  affected.  The  western  side  of  Cumber- 
land, in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cockermouth,  where  the 
influence  of  Benson  and  Larkham  would  be  felt;  the 
eastern  side  around  Kirkoswald,  where  Atkinson  had 
suffered  Ejection  and  Nicholson  and  Davis  laboured;  the 
northern  side,  in  and  around  Brampton,  where  Burnand 
had  been  outed,  were  the  infected  districts,  while  West- 
morland was  largely  occupied  by  Quakers. 

The  Declaration  of  Indulgence  was  welcomed  as  a 
breathing  time  here,  as  elsewhere.  A  list  of  the  Licenses 
secured  for  this  area  appears  in  Appendix  VII.*  For 
Cumberland  there  were  eight  Licenses  for  Teachers  and 
twenty  one  for  Householders ;  for  Westmorland  there  were 
only  two  for  Teachers  with  eight  for  Householders.  The 
Teachers'  Licenses  for  the  two  Counties  were  all  for  men 
who  had  been  displaced  in  consequence  of  the  Restoration ; 
and  what  strikes  us  is  the  paucity  of  such  Licenses.    Some 

1.  Hist,  of  West.,  p.  223. 

2.  Jackson's  Cumb.  and  West.  Papers  and  Pedigrees,  vol.  i,  p.  50. 

3.  Vide  p.  1329. 

4.  Vide  p.  1365. 

ii8  The   Ejected   of  1662 

of  those  who  had  been  ejected  doubtless  removed  to  other 
districts  and  took  out  Licenses  there;  indeed  we  know 
them  to  have  done  so.  George  Larkham  appears  to  have 
been  the  first  to  move  in  the  matter,  his  License  bearing 
date  May  8th,  1672,  barely  two  months  after  the  Indulg- 
ence had  been  made  public;  and  Gawin  Eaglesfield  was 
the  last,  his  License  being  dated  December  9th,  1672, 
about  two  months  before  the  Indulgence  was  withdrawn. 
The  withdrawal  of  this  Declaration,  and  the  subsequent 
cancelling  of  the  Licenses  which  had  been  issued,  was 
followed  by  a  renewal  of  persecution,  and  Presentments 
for  Nonconformity  in  Ecclesiastical  Courts  became 
common.  In  Appendix  YI.^  again  appears  a  list  of  persons 
so  presented  for  several  years,  copied  mainly  from  the 
Carlisle  Registry.  This  list  gives  a  much  better  idea  of 
the  strength  of  Nonconformity  than  the  Conventicle 
Returns  just  named;  and,  whilst  it  too  shows  that  certain 
areas  were  particularly  affected,  it  also  impresses  us  with 
the  fact  that  Nonconformity,  in  one  form  or  another,  had 
more  or  less  touched  the  whole  of  the  two  Counties. 

A  brief  account  of  the  Quaker  movement,  as  it  relates 
to  this  district,  will  fitly  conclude  this  Chapter.  George 
Fox,  its  great  Founder  and  Apostle,  was  a  native  of 
Leicestershire,  being  born  in  July,  1624,  at  Fenny 
Drayton  in  that  County.  His  father,  Christopher  by 
name,  "  righteous  Christer,"  as  the  neighbours  were 
accustomed  to  call  him,  was  by  "  profession  a  weaver,  an 
honest  man,"  and  his  mother  was  "  upright."  George  was 
piously  brought  up,  intended  by  his  relations  for  the 
Church,  but  ultimately  "  put  to  a  man  who  was  a  shoe 
maker  by  trade."  He  tells  about  having  frequent  inter- 
views with  "  the  priest  of  Drayton,  the  town  of  my  birth, 
whose  name  was  Nathaniel  Stevens."  "^  Probably,  there- 
fore. Fox  spent  his  early  days  amidst  Puritan  influences, 
though  he  says  of  Stevens,  "  this  priest  afterwards  became 

1.  Vide  p.  1330. 

2.  Fox's  Journal  (1765  Edition),  p.  3.  Nathaniel  Stevens  or  Stephens 
appears  in  Calamy's  list  of  Ejected  Ministers,  and  a  high  character  is 
given  to  him.     Vols,  ii,  p.  419 ;  iii,  577. 

The   Quaker   Movement  119 

my  great  persecutor."  As  a  child  he  was  quite  different 
from  others,  being  already  much  of  a  mystic.  "  In  my 
very  young  years,"  says  he,  "  I  had  a  gravity  and  stayed- 
ness  of  mind  and  spirit  not  usual  in  children " ;  and 
William  Penn,  his  most  distinguished  follower  and  friend, 
says  that  "  from  a  child  he  appeared  inward,  still,  and 
observing  beyond  his  Years  " ;  while  Fox  himself  speaks 
about  the  Lord  shewing  him,  when  only  eleven  years  of 
age,  the  things  which  in  after  life  constituted  his  Gospel. 
He  was  barely  in  his  twenties  when,  impressed  with  the 
coldness  and  formalism  which  had  overtaken  all  religion, 
and  disappointed  with  preachers  of  every  type,  he  set  out 
on  his  travels,  journeying  from  place  to  place  in  quest  of  a 
peace  which  for  a  while  he  could  not  find.  "  I  fasted 
much,"  says  he,  "  walked  abroad  in  solitary  places  many 
days,  and  often  took  my  bible,  and  sat  in  hollow  trees  and 
lonesome  places  till  night  came  on ;  and  frequently  in  the 
night  walked  mournfully  about  by  myself :  for  I  was  a 
man  of  sorrows  in  the  time  of  the  first  workings  of  the 
Lord  in  me."  ^  Peace  came,  however,  at  length;  and  he 
found  also  his  Mission. 

George  Fox  held  supremely  to  the  spiritual  character 
of  religion ;  and  what  moved  him  so  mightily,  and  made 
him  so  often  indignant,  was  the  sight  of  religion 
materialised,  as  he  believed,  by  those  in  whose  keeping 
it  was.  Hence  he  called  the  people,  who  were  in  the 
habit  of  attending  the  Churches,  "  professors " ;  the 
Churches  themselves  "  steeple  houses  " ;  and  the  Ministers 
"priests."  He  taught  also  a  kind  of  Perfectionism ;  that 
is,  the  full  conquest  of  sin,  because  the  doctrine  of  human 
depravity,  which  was  then  a  central  part  of  Christian 
Theology,  he  believed  to  be  used  as  an  excuse  for  continu- 
ance in  sin.  In  particular,  he  held  the  doctrine  of  the 
Inward  Light.  He  believed  that  God  speaks  direct  to 
every  man  through  His  Spirit;  and  this  doctrine  he 
emphasized  so  strongly  that  he  came  perilously  near  to 
destroying  the  authority  of  the  Bible. 

1.  Journal,   p.   6. 

I20  The   Ejected   of  1662 

He  began  his  Mission  about  1647  when  he  was  in  the 
early  twenties,  and  went  through  many  Counties  preach- 
ing and  teaching.  His  introduction  to  the  district  with 
which  we  are  concerned  was  due  to  a  visit  to  Lancashire 
in  1652.  "As  we  travelled,"  he  says,  "  we  came  near  a 
very  great  high  hill  called  Pendle  hill,  and  I  was  moved 
of  the  Lord  to  go  up  to  the  top  of  it;  which  I  did  with 
much  ado,  it  was  so  very  steep  and  high.  When  I  was 
come  to  the  top,  I  saw  the  sea  bordering  upon  Lancashire. 
From  the  top  of  this  hill  the  Lord  let  me  see  in  what 
places  he  had  a  great  people  to  be  gathered."  ^  It  is  a 
far  cry  from  Pendle  Hill  to  Wensleydale  and  Sedbergh, 
and  yet  it  would  appear  that  it  was  the  people  in  those 
dales  that  were  to  be  "  gathered."  This  is  made  clear 
by  what  happened  to  him  the  following  night.  "  Here," 
says  he,  "  the  Lord  opened  unto  me,  and  let  me  see  a 
great  people  in  white  raiment  by  a  river-side,  coming  to 
the  Lord.  The  place  that  I  saw  them  in  was  about 
Wentzerdale  [Wensleydale]  and  Sedbergh."  ^  Travelling 
by  way  of  Grisedale,  Dent  and  Sedbergh,  he  went  to 
Firbank  on  the  other  side  of  the  Lune,  about  five  miles 
from  Sedbergh,  and  first  touched  Westmorland  soil  there. 
It  was  in  the  early  part  of  1652  when  he  paid  this  first 
visit  to  Westmorland  and  his  account  of  the  day  is  worth 
inserting :  — 

The  next  first-day  I  came  to  Firbank  Chapel  i^  Westmorland,  where 
Francis  Howgill  and  John  Audland  had  been  preaching  in  the 
morning.  The  chapel  was  full  of  people,  so  that  many  could  not  get 
in.  Francis  said,  He  thought  I  looked  into  the  chapel,  and  his  spirit 
was  ready  to  fail,  the  Lord's  power  did  so  surprise  j  but  I  did  not 
look  in.  They  made  haste,  and  had  quickly  done,  and  they  and  some 
of  the  people  went  to  dinner  :  but  abundance  staid  till  they  came 
again.  John  Blakelin  and  others  came  to  me,  and  desired  me  not  to 
reprove  them  publickly;  for  they  were  not  parish  teachers,  but  pretty 
tender  men.  I  could  not  tell  them  whether  I  should  or  not,  though 
I  had  not  at  that  time  any  drawings  to  declare  publickly  against 
them ;  but  I  said,  They  must  leave  me  to  the  Lord's  movings.  While 
others  were  gone  to  dinner,  I  went  to  a  brook,  got  a  little  water,  and 

1.  Journal,  p.  66. 

2.  Ibid. 

The   Quaker   Movement  121 

then  came  and  sat  down  on  the  top  of  a  rock  hard  by  the  chapel. 
In  the  afternoon  the  people  gathered  about  me,  with  several  of  their 
preachers.  It  was  judged  there  were  above  a  thousand  people ;  to 
whom  I  declared  God's  everlasting  truth  and  word  of  life  freely  and 
largely  for  about  the  space  of  three  hours,  directing  all  to  the  Spirit 
of  God  in  themselves.  .  .  Many  old  people  went  into  the  chapel,  and 
looked  out  at  the  windows,  thinking  it  a  strange  thing  to  see  a  man 
preach  on  an  hill  or  mountain,  and  not  in  the  church,  as  they  called 
it.  .  .  .  Very  largely  was  I  opened  at  this  meeting ;  the  Lord's 
convincing  power  accompanied  my  ministry,  and  reached  home  to 
the  hearts  of  the  people ;  whereby  many  were  coaivinced,  and  all  the 
teachers  of  that  congregation  (who  were  many)  were  convinced  of 
God's'   everlasting  truth.  ^ 

Quite  recently  I  visited  'this  place,  the  gate  through 
which  the  Quaker  movement  entered  Westmorland  and 
thence  Cumberland.  It  is  an  impressive  spot,  away 
among  the  hills  with  not  a  house  near.  The  view  from  it 
is  magnificent,  commanding,  as  it  does,  some  of  the 
wildest  and  most  majestic  scenery  in  the  County.  The 
Chapel  has  entirely  gone,  but  it  would  not  be  difficult  to 
trace  the  foundations  and  it  must  have  been  quite  a 
miniature  structure,  A  strong  wall  surrounds  the 
enclosure,  and  a  few  crumbling  tombstones  together  with 
three  or  four  fir  trees  mark  the  place.  When  George  Fox 
visited  here  one  of  the  main  roads  of  the  district  ran  close 
by  the  Chapel,  but  to  day,  though  the  road  remains,  it  is 
untravelled  and  grass  grown.  On  each  side  of  the 
enclosure  is  a  rock,  either  of  which  would  serve  the 
purpose  to  which  it  was  put  by  George  Fox,  and  each  has 
its  advocates  for  the  honour.  From  Firbank,  Fox  went  to 
Preston  Patrick,  Underbarrow,  and  TJlverston,  where  he 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Judge  Fell's  wife  of  Swarth- 
moor,  whose  husband  he  became  on  the  death  of  the 
Judge.  Swarthmoor,  also,  became  the  chief  centre  of 
Quaker  influence,  and,  doubtless,  it  was  the  fact  that 
George  Fox  had  his  home  so  long  here  which  contributed 

1.  Journal,  pp.  68,  69.  In  "The  First  Publishers  of  Truth"  (p.  243) 
the  people  who  attended  Firbank  Chapel  are  described  as  "  a  seekeing 
and  religeous  people  ther  seprated  from  the  Comon  way  of  National! 

122  The   Ejected   of   1662 

greatly  to  give  permanence  and  increase  to  the  movement. 
It  was  from  Swartlimoor  about  the  beginning  of  1653  that 
he  paid  his  first  visit  to  Cumberland,  selecting  the 
extreme  west  for  the  purpose.  "  Now  were  great 
threatenings  given  forth  in  Cumberland,"  says  he,  "  that 
if  ever  I  came  there,  they  would  take  away  my  life. 
"When  I  heard  it,  I  was  drawn  to  go  into  Cumberland; 
and  went  to  Miles  Wennington's  in  the  same  parish  from 
which  those  threatenings  came;  but  they  had  not  power 
to  touch  me."  ^  He  tells  about  going  into  "  the  steeple 
house  at  Bootle  " ;  thence  to  "  John  Wilkinson's  steeple 
house  near  Cockermouth,  a  preacher  in  great  repute  who 
had  three  parishes  under  him " ;  afterwards  to  "  the 
steeple  house  at  Cockermouth  where  priest  Larkhain 
lived " ;  to  "  another  great  steeple  house  of  John 
Wilkinson's  called  Brigham  " ;  then  to  "  Thomas  Bewley's 
near  Coldbeck " ;  and  thence  to  Carlisle  where  he  was 
imprisoned.  Gilsland,  Langlands,  Abbey  Holm,  Keswick, 
Kendal,  Strickland  Head,  Pardsey  Crag,  and  Wigton  were 
visited  by  him,  and,  in  each  case,  large  numbers  attended 
upon  his  preaching,  and  considerable  conversions  took 
place.  It  has  already  been  said  that  in  taking  exception 
to  Dr.  Wilson's  picture  of  the  Quaker  incursion  there  is 
no  thought  of  minimizing  its  wonderful  success.  There 
cannot  be  any  doubt  about  its  laying  hold  upon  the  two 
Counties ;  but  the  points  to  be  noted  are  that  it  was  not 
the  Puritan  preachers  alone  who  felt  this,  but  all  did; 
and  still  further,  that  the  Association  was  on  the  eve  of 
being  conceived  and  started  on  its  way  when  George  Fox 
first  set  his  foot  in  the  County. 

The  most  remarkable  phenomenon  connected  with  this 
movement  is  that  its  chief  Missionaries,  the  men  who, 
with  eloquent  speech  and  undying  enthusiasm,  went 
everywhere,  undeterred  by  hardship,  suffering,  imprison- 
ment, and  even  the  prospect  of  death,  preaching  this  new 
Evangel,  were  the  product  of  these  parts ;  largely,  indeed, 
Westmorland  men.      The  names  of  a  few  only  can  be 

1.  Journal,  p.  95. 

The   Quaker  Movement  123 

given.  Francis  Howgill  of  Todthorne  near  Grayrigg, 
one  of  the  Fil-bank  Chapel  preachers ;  Edward  Burrough, 
born  in  the  Barony  of  Kendal;  John  Audland, 
horn  near  Kendal,  another  of  the  Firbank  Chapel 
preachers;  John  Camm  of  Camsgil,  in  the  Barony  of 
Westmorland;  George  Whitehead  of  Orton  in  Westmor- 
land; Miles  Halhead  of  Mountjoy,  near  Underbarrow; 
John  Burnyeat  of  Crabtreebeck  in  the  parish  of  Lowes- 
water,  Cumberland ;  John  Banks  of  Brigham ;  Christopher 
Story  of  Righead,  in  the  parish  of  Kirklinton ;  John 
Boustead  of  Aglionby,  near  Carlisle;  James  Dickenson 
of  Lowmoor  House  in  the  parish  of  Dean ;  Samuel  Bownas 
of  Great  Strickland  in  Westmorland,  are  names  written 
large  in  the  history  of  the  Quaker  movement;  and  to 
their  labours  in  various  parts  of  the  country  the  movement 
owes  much  of  the  success  that  attended  it  during  the  17th 

That  the  Quakers  aroused  persecution  goes  without 
saying;  indeed  of  all  the  religious  bodies  in  this  country 
none  have  suffered  more  for  their  principles.  Some 
evidence  of  this  has  already  been  given  in  the  extracts 
from  the  Calendars  of  State  Papers,  and  the  following 
will  serve  to  further  illustrate  the  point :  — 

Aug.  24th,  1663.  Sir  Phil.  Musgrave  to  Williamson.  Those  in 
authority  can  hardly  bear  the  insolence  of  the  Quakers,  who  meet 
200  or  more  every  week ;  they  keep  copies  of  proceedings  against 
them  by  justices  of  peace,  to  be  r^ady  against  a  time  when  they  shall 
call  the  justices  to  account ;  stricter  course  should  be  taken  with  them 
and  a  few  horse  kept  in  constant  pay  at  Carlisle.' 

Nov.  9th,  1663.  Appleby.  Chr.  Musgrave  to  [Williamson].  Capt. 
Atkinson,  who  escaped  from  Appleby  Groal,  is  trying  to  raise  a  party 
to  attack  the  gaol  and  liberate  the  other  prisoners.  A  servant  of  an 
eminent  Quaker,  taken  near  Berwick,  had  suspicious  papers  on  him. 
Corporal  Watson,  now  in  custody,  has  discovered  that  there  were 
Quakers  in  the  late  conspiracy.  The  gaol  is  full  and  weak ;  this 
should  be  considered.* 

Nov.  23rd,  1663.  Appleby.  Sir  Philip  Musgrave  to  Williamson. 
The  prisoners  begin,  to  impeach  each   other.     The  King  owes  much 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  fdr  1663-4,  p.  251. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  332. 

124  The   Ejected   of  1662 

to  Rich.  Braithwaite  for  discovery  of  this  dark  design.  The  Quakers 
have  had  a  deep  hand  in  the  plot ;  the  names  of  those  impeached  must 
not  be  made  public,  as  some  are  not  yet  in  custody,  but  a  proclamation 
against  those  who  are  fled  would  do  goodi 

January  7th,  1664.  Penrith.  Dan.  Fleming  to  Williamson. 
Thanks  for  his  promise  of  a  News-book  weekly.  The  gentry  there 
have  been  together  all  Christmas,  at  the  wedding  of  his  cousin 
Dalston's  eldest  son,  of  Acornbank.  Those  counties  are  quiet  except 
for  frequent  meetings  of  Quakers,  many  of  whom  are  bound  over  to 
the  sessions.  Hearing  of  an  intended  meeting  in  Lancashire,  seait  his 
two  brothers  thither,  who  took  50  of  them,  and  has  sent  the  most 
considerable  to  Lancaster,  to  be  presented  next  Sessions.  2 

January  16th,  1664.  Kendal.  D.  Fleming  to  Williamson.  Pro- 
ceeded smartly  at  Lancaster  assizes  against  the  Quakers ;  Committed 
George  Fox  and  half  a  score  more  to  close  gaol  for  refusing  the  Oath 
of  Allegiance,  and  fined  60  on  the  new  Act,  although  Mrs.  Fell 
(Oliver's  judge  Fell's  w^idow),  did  her  utmost  to  prevent  it.  The 
■  fines  are  to  be  levied,  or  they  carried  to  the  House  of  Correction. 
At  Appleby  many  are  fined.  This  will  soon  stop  their  meetings,  &c. 
unless  they  obtain  favour  at  Whitehall,  which  would  much  encourage 
them.  It  is  thought  that  Capt.  Atkinson,  who  is  reported  to  have 
given  himself  in  prisoner,  will  discover  more  of  the  York  traitors' 
design.  3 

May  12th,  1664.  Rydal.  Dan.  Fleming  to  Williamson.  The 
Westmorland  Quakers  are  so  obstinate  that  Sir  John  Lowther  has  had 
16  indicted  at  the  Quarter  Sessions  at  Appleby,  and  the  Justices  have 
requested  the  Parliament  men  to  press  remedies  for  prevention  of 
danger  from  fanatics.  Col.  Sawrey,  Major  Crisp,  and  Mr.  Gosling 
are  bound  over  to  good  behaviom*  to  keep  from  Conventicles  and  to 
appear  when  required.  Has  examined  Grcorge  Dixon  of  Troutbeck, 
about  a  letter  said  to  be  written  by  him,,  but  thinks  the  accusation 
untrue.  Has  committed  George  Walker  and  Rob.  Wharton  for  a 
share  in  the  late  plot,  but  they  are  obstinate  and  will  not  confess ; 
will  send  them  to  Appleby,  the  gaoler  at  Kendal  being  himself  a 
fanatic.  4 

These  excerpts  might  be  considerably  multiplied,  but 
they  are  sufficient  to  show  that  the  fiercest  anger  of  the 
authorities  was  directed  against  the  Quakers.     Sir  Daniel 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1663-4,  p.  346. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  433. 

3.  Ihid.,  p.  445. 

4.  Ibid.,  Vol.  xcviii. 

The   Quaker   Movement  125 

Fleming  was  especially  aggressive;  he  appears  in  parti- 
cular to  have  kept  a  sharp  eye  upon  Swarthmoor,  where, 
as  he  says,  George  Fox  and  his  "  Cubbs  were  kennel'd." 
Whether  there  is  any  truth  in  the  charge  that  the  Quakers 
were  involved  in  the  rumoured  plots  and  risings,  of 
which  the  times  produced  such  a  plentiful  crop,  is  not 
certain.  Probably  some  of  the  reports  were  fictions,  and 
others  grossly  exaggerated ;  but  it  is  diflScult  to  account 
for  them  all  except  on  the  ground  of  complicity  on  the 
part  of  some.  "Apparently,  at  the  time  of  the  plot,"  says 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  "  the  local  justices  included  under 
the  name  of  '  Quaker '  every  dissentient  from  their  own 
religion  except  Papists.  Westmorland  was  also  full  of 
Quakers  who  had  been  disowned  by,  or  who  had  seceded 
from,  the  Society  of  Friends,  for  in  those  days  of  religious 
excitement  men  roamed  rapidly  from  one  form  of  religion 
to  another."  ^  It  is  not,  however,  necessary  to  resort  even 
to  such  an  explanation.  There  must  have  been  some 
bearing  this  name,  men  made  wild  and  reckless  by  cease- 
less persecution,  whose  thoughts  turned  for  a  remedy  in 
those  directions ;  and  a  few  such  would  be  quite  sufficient 
in  the  popular  judgment,  especially  in  the  excited  state 
of  the  times,  to  involve  the  whole  in  suspicion.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  committals  in  1653,  the  year  that 
George  Fox  was  itinerating  in  the  two  Counties :  — 


George  Fox  committed  Aug.,   1653,  for  saying  he  was  the  Son  of 
God  and  other  words,  which  they  say  are  blasphemy,  and  yet  on  one 
particular  within  the  Act. 

Jo.    Morland    committed   by    the    Judge    of  Assize    at    Apleby   in 
August  last  for  refusing  to  be  sworn  on  a  Jury  and   fined   51. 

Miles  Halhead  :  committed  14  Aug.  1653  for  speaking  in  the  Steeple 
house  after  the  Priest  had   done. 

Margaret  Gilpin  committed  the  same  day  for  speaking  in  the  Steeple 
house  before  the  Priest  had  done. 

Thos.   Casley  committed  the  21  of  Aug.   1653  for  speaking  in  the 
Steeple  house  when  the  Priest  had  done. 

1.  Hist  of   West.,   p.    223. 


The   Ejected   of  1662 

Henry  Ward  committed  the  28  of  Aug.  1653  for  speaking  in  the 
Steeple  house  after  all  was  ended. 

Chrestof.  Atkinson  committed  4  Sept.  1653  for  speaking  in  the 
Steeple  house  after  the  Priest  had  ended  his  prayer. 

John  Aray  committed  the  same  day  for  going  with  him  and  saying 

Francis  Howgill  committed  4  of  Sept.  1653,  for  speaking  in  the 
Steeple  house  after  all  was  ended. 

Mary  Cdllinson  28  Aug.  1653  for  saying  (while  the  Freest  was 
speaking)  Tremble  before  the  Lord. 

11  September  1653. 

Margaret  Smith  committed   for  speaking  to  the   Priest. 
Robert  Newby  for  speaking  to  the  Mayor. 
Dorothy  Waugh  for  speaking  to  the  Priest. 
Agnes  Wilkinson  for  speaking  to  the  Mayor. 
Mary  Dodding  for  speaking  to  the  Priest. 
Edmond  AlUngton  for  speaking  to  the  Preist. 

A  maid  in  Lancashire  whose  name  I  know  not  committed  for 
speaking  to  a  preest. 

Thomas  Holm  28  August  1653 
Alice  Wilson  1  September  1653 
Margaret  Newby  1  Septem.  1653 
Jane  Waugh  4  September  1653 
Mary  Howgill  4  September  1653 
Agnes  Wilson  3  September  1653 
Dorothy  Waugh  6  September  1653 
Mabel  Warriner  6  September  1653 
Anne  Thompson  4  September  1653 
Eliza  Levens  4  September  1653 
Eliza  Bateman  4  September  1653. 

.A.11  these  persons  being  moved  to 
go  to  a  Justice  of  Peace  in  Kendal 
to  speak  to  him  against  his  perse- 
cution and  Tyranny  and  to  warn 
him  of  the  evil  to  come  were  by 
him  committed  to  Prison.  The 
words  spoken  by  them  severally 
to  him  as  also  the  substance  of 
what  the  others  spoke  in  the 
Steeple  houses  might  have  been 
set  down,  but  this  is  not  in- 
tended as  an  accusatio«n  of  any, 
nor  to  shew  forth  their  ignorance 
or  weaknesses.     ' 

Many  of  the  Parish  Registers  furnish  evidence  of  a 
similar  character,  containing  "  Presentments  "  of  Quakers 
for  offences  of  one  sort  or  another,  and  the  literature  of 
the  time  witnesses  to  the  intensity  of  the  feeling  which 
the  movement  had  excited. 

1.  Quakers'   Persecution  in   Northern   England  by  Anthony  Pearson, 
October   3,    1653,   pp.    4,   5.     Copy  in   British   Museum. 

The   Quaker  Movement  127 

Those  were  not  days  of  smooth  speech  and  elegant 
diction.  The  lampooner,  the  rhymster,  and  the  satirist 
were  common.  If  the  pen  was  virile  it  was  often 
vitriolic ;  and  nowhere  did  this  obtain  so  much  as  in  the 
domain  of  religion.  In  an  account  of  Henry  Winder's 
case  by  Samuel  Audland,  the  author  styles  his  pamphlet : 
"  The  Spirit  of  Quakerism  Cloven-footed,"  and  ends  by 
saying  that  he  expects  a  rejoinder  under  some  such  title 
as  this :  "  Truth  once  more  Victorious,  or  Zion  Rearing 
up  her  Glorious  Head  again.  Wherein  S.  A.,  Henry 
Winder  and  all  his  Friends,  are  sent  to  the  Bottomless- 
Pit."  1  William  Browns  word,  also,  of  Kendal,  was  a 
vigorous  Anti-Quaker  writer,  and  very  early  in  his  career 
he  published :  — "  The  Quaker  Jesuite  or  Popery  in 
Quakerisme;  Being  a  clear  Discovery  (1)  That  their 
Doctrines  with  their  Proofs  and  Arguments  are  fetcht 
out  of  the  Council  of  Trent,  Bellarmine  and  others. 
(2)  That  their  Practices  are  fetcht  out  of  the  Rules  and 
Practices  of  Popish  Monks.  With  a  serious  admonition 
to  the  Quakers,  to  consider  their  ways  and  return  from 
whence  they  are  fallen,"  Francis  Higginson  of  Kirkby 
Stephen,  is  said  to  have  written  "  the  first  Book  that  ever 
was  written  against  that  sink  of  Blasphemies  Entituled — 
The  Irreligion  of  Northern  Quakers."  Another  pamphlet 
of  local  interest  is :  "  The  Quakers  Shaken ;  or  a  Fire- 
brand snach'd  out  of  the  Fire.  Being  A  brief  e  Relation  of 
God's  Wonderfull  Mercie  extended  to  John  Gilpin  of 
Kendale  in  Westmoreland  and  Who,  as  will  appeare  by 
the  Sequel  was  not  only  deluded,  but  possessed  by  the 
Devil."  This  pamphlet  printed  July  4th,  1653,  as  the 
title  indicates,  gives  an  account  of  John  Gilpin's  enfran- 
chisment  from  the  bonds  of  Quakerism ;  and  the  truth  of 
the  narrative  is  attested  as  follows  :  — 

I  believe  this  Relation  to  be  true  Edward  Turner  Mayor  of  Kendale. 

By  what  I  have  heard  of  the  carriage  of  John  Gilpin  and  his 
actings  I  do  beleeve  this  Relation  to  be  true — John  Archer. 

I  saw  him  when  he  went  through  the  Towne  declaring  himselfe  the 
way,  truth  and  life,  Ja  :  Cocke. 

1.  A  copy  of  this  rare  and  interesting  book  is  in  my  possession. 

128  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Wee  believe  this  Eelation  to  be  true 

J.  [Thomas]  Walker  Pastor  of  Kendale. 

J.   Myriell  Master  of  the  Free  schoole  there. 

Rich.  Prissoe. 

The.  Sandes. 

Allan  Gilpin. 

John  Washington. 

Rob.  Fisher.^ 

Tlie  Quakers  themselves  were  responsible  for  much  of 
this.  It  was  not  merely  that  they  indulged  in  certain 
harmless  eccentricities;  such  as  refusing  to  uncover  in 
Church,  to  adopt  the  customary  forms  of  speech;  and  to 
take  the  usual  oaths  in  Courts  of  Law,  though  these  things 
counted  for  much  in  that  age,  but  that  they  outraged  the 
common  decencies  of  life.  Their  practice  of  going 
through  the  streets  naked  as  a  "sign"  was  an  unpardon- 
able exaggeration;  while  the  way  in  which  they  disturbed 
public  worship,  and  flung  insulting  language  at  both 
preachers  and  congregation  was  bound  to  excite  deep  and 
bitter  feeling.  It  was  by  no  means  in  every  case  that 
persons  received  their  committals  "  for  speaking  in  the 
Steeple  House  after  all  was  ended  " ;  or  as  another,  almost 
humorously,  remarks  for  "  going  to  the  Steeple  House  and 
doing  nothing  " ;  it  was  much  more  frequently  quite  the 
reverse.  George  Fox  himself  set  a  bad  example  in  this 
respect.  His  language  about  "  Priest  Lampit,"  the 
Ulverston  Minister,  whose  spirit  he  describes  as  "  foul," 
and  whom  he  did  not  spare  even  at  death,  declaring  him 
to  be  "an  old  deceiver,  and  perverter  of  the  right  way  of 
the  Lord,  and  a  persecutor  .  .  an  old  false  prophet,"  ^ 
did  not  err  on  the  side  of  Christian  charity.  The  only 
excuse  for  all  this  lies  in  the  fact  that  in  their  wildest 
deeds,  and  most  senseless  vagaries,  they  acted  from  highest 
motives.  It  was  the  "  voice  within "  which  indicated 
the  way  of  duty,  loyalty  to  conscience,  an  unenlightened 
conscience  possibly,  which  constrained  people,  otherwise 
so  orderly  and  quiet,  to  act  in  such  fantastic  and  objection- 
able fashion;    and  if  it  brought  upon  them  suffering,  it 

1.  Copy  of  pamphlet  in  Brit.  Mus. 

2.  Journal,  p.  495. 

The   Quaker   Movement  129 

was  a  suffering  which  was  cheerfully  borne.  They  were 
sent  to  prison  wholesale;  at  one  time  throughout  the 
kingdom  thousands  were  incarcerated,  yet  they  set  at 
defiance  the  cruel  enactments  which  oppressed  them. 
They  met  openly  for  worship,  and,  as  already  intimated, 
not  one  Quaker  License  was  issued  whilst  the  Indulgence 
was  in  force,  because  not  one  was  sought ;  and  there  can 
be  little  doubt  that  the  Quaker  movement,  despite  all  the 
oddities  and  objectionable  features  of  its  earliest  days, 
contributed  largely  towards  the  inbringing  of  that  greater 
freedom  which  the  closing  years  of  the  17th  Century 

It  is  an  interesting  question,  as  to  how  it  came  about 
that  this  movement  caught  on  so  readily,  and  achieved 
such  phenomenal  triumphs  in  this  district.  In  no  other 
part  of  the  country  does  it  appear  to  have  been  so 
welcomed.  Is  the  answer  to  be  found,  partly  at  least, 
in  the  physical  environment  of  the  people?  George 
Fox  was  an  enthusiast  and  a  visionary.  He  was  always 
seeing  visions  and  hearing  voices  which  he  believed 
to  be  Divine.  He  acted  as  "  the  Spirit  moved  " ;  he 
tells  us  repeatedly  that  he  felt  "  drawn "  to  a  certain 
course,  and  that  the  message  which  he  delivered  had  come 
direct  from  God.  Living  among  the  hills  and  dales  of 
these  two  Counties,  in  daily  communion  with  Nature  as 
she  appears  in  her  wondrous  majesty  and  impressiveness, 
and  with  the  imaginative  faculties  in  consequence  highly 
developed  the  people  would  feel  the  impact  of  such  a 
personality.  To  them  George  Fox  would  appear  as  one  of 
the  old  prophets,  and,  holding  their  meetings,  as  they 
frequently  did,  amid  the  great  silences  of  Nature,  every- 
thing would  conspire  to  make  the  Mission  of  the  preacher 
a  success.  Account  for  it,  however,  as  we  may,  here  is 
the  fact  that  the  movement  gained  its  greatest  victories 
in  this  area;  found  here  its  most  heroic  sufferers;  and 
discovered  the  men,  who,  as  its  Missionaries,  not  only 
tramped  England  through  and  through,  but  even  went  to 
other  countries  with  that  new  Evangel,  which  had  so 
marvellously  conquered  themselves. 



The  Men  and  their  Story. 

While  tlie  main  purpose  of  this  Chapter  is  to  give,  as 
fully  as  possible,  an  account  of  the  "  Ejected  "  Ministers 
of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  using  the  term  in  the 
freer  sense  previously  explained,  it  will  not  by  any  means 
be  restricted  to  that.  No  student  of  17th  Century  eccle- 
siastical history  can  fail  to  be  impressed  with  the  fact 
that,  though  much  has  been  written  upon  it,  there  is  still 
much  left  unexplained.  "  Parochial  histories,"  says  Dr. 
Shaw,  "invariably  break  down  over  the  Commonwealth 
period.  It  is  not,  or  not  merely,  prejudice.  The  period 
is  not  yet  understood  ...  I  really  cherish  the  hope  that 
my  book  will  inaugurate  a  new  era  in  this  matter,  and 
that  both  in  our  county  histories  and  in  the  increasing 
number  of  our  parochial  histories  we  shall  see  an  end  of 
that  '  1640-60 '  blank  system.  The  period  was  by  no 
means  blank. "^  That  statement  errs  on  the  side  of 
generosity  in  relation  to  the  reason  for  this  "  blank 
system."  "Prejudice"  has  played  a  very  large  part  in 
the  matter.  The  County  Histories  of  Nicolson  and  Burn, 
Hutchinson  and  Jefferson  are  quite  disappointing  in  this 
respect.  There  appears  to  have  been  no  really  serious 
attempt  to  put  an  end  to  this  irritating  hiatus.  The 
period  seems  to  have  been  regarded  as  a  "  usurpation  " 
and  the  Ministers  as  "  intruders,"  and,  in  consequence,  as 
deserving  of  little  or  no  attention.  Historically  there  can 
be  no  justification  for  this.  The  years  were  there,  the 
period  was  anything  but  "  blank"  ;  and  whatever  attitude 
may  be  assumed  towards  the  Commonwealth,  whose  rise 
and  fall  it  witnessed,  the  Century  is  incomplete  without 
those  years.     Whatever  view  also  may  be  taken  of  the 

1.  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  i,  preface  xii. 

132  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Ministers,  and  whatever  names  may  be  assigned  to  them, 
the  hard  fact  remains  that  they  held  the  livings,  drew  the 
stipends  and  served  the  Cures,  and  the  history  of  any 
particular  parish  which  ignores  them  is  distinctly  mis- 
leading and  imperfect.  To  meet  this  defect  is  the  purpose 
of  this  work,  and  of  this  Chapter  in  particular.  The  task 
is  far  from  easy,  and  it  has  been  rendered  the  more 
difficult  by  these  long  years  of  neglect.  It  is  not  in  the 
least  intended  to  sketch,  even  in  briefest  outline,  the 
history  of  each  Church  in  the  area.  That  clearly  would 
be  impossible,  besides  travelling  far  beyond  the  purpose 
of  this  work.  Moreover  a  large  number  of  these  founda- 
tions do  not  come  within  the  scope  of  our  enquiries,  from 
the  fact  that  they  are  of  late  date.  As  intimated  in  the 
Preface,  the  idea  is  to  give,  as  far  as  may  be,  a  full  and 
correct  list  of  17th  Century  Incumbents  in  each  case,  so 
that  the  reader  may,  for  himself,  see  what  men  were 
displaced  during  the  Commonwealth  regime,  and  what 
by  the  Restoration  and  the  Uniformity  Act.  In  this  way 
both  Walker's  list  of  "  Suffering  Clergy "  and  Calamy'a 
list  of  "  Ejected  Ministers "  will  be  frequently  tested. 
In  every  case  the  Parish  Registers  have  been  examined 
for  the  purpose.  The  enquiries,  as  already  indicated, 
have  been  restricted  to  the  17th  Century,  liberally  inter- 
preted. By  way  of  further  explaining  what  follows  it 
may  be  added  that  the  divisions  are  purely  arbitrary. 
They  represent  neither  modern  Dioceses  nor  ancient 
Archdeaconries ;  they  are  simply  chosen  for  convenience, 
the  idea  being  to  fix  upon  an  important  centre  in  each 
case  and  then  range  a  number  of  Churches  around  it. 
Purely  again  in  the  interests  of  convenience  and  clearness 
the  term  "  Sequestered  "  is  reserved  for  a  Minister  dis- 
placed during  the  Commonwealth,  and  "  Ejected "  for 
one  displaced  at  the  Restoration,  or  by  the  Uniformity 




St.  Mary's  and  St.  Cuthbert's. 

In  1643,  owing  to  repeated  reverses  in  its  conflict  with 
the  King,  Parliament  decided  to  call  in  the  assistance  of 
the  Scottish  nation.  From  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
this  contingency  had  been  anticipated,  and  negotiations 
had  been  more  or  less  in  progress;  but  it  was  not  until 
September  22nd  of  that  year  that  the  Solemn  League  and 
Covenant  was  adopted  by  both  Houses  of  Parliament. 
The  decision  was  a  most  momentous  one ;  and  it  had  far- 
reaching  issues.  Among  other  things  it  gave  to  these 
two  northern  Counties  a  position  and  influence  in  the  war, 
which  otherwise  they  would  never  have  obtained.  In 
particular,  the  border  City  of  Carlisle,  which  lay  in  the 
direct  line  of  communication  between  the  two  countries, 
frequently  became  transformed  into  the  theatre  of  stirring 
incident  and  even  fateful  battle.  Twelve  months  after 
the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  had  been  accepted,  the 
Scottish  forces,  under  General  Leslie,  appeared  before 
Carlisle,  and  the  City  stood  besieged  from  October,  1644, 
to  June  of  the  following  year.  Isaac  Tullie,  a  young  man 
of  eighteen,  and  brother  to  Timothy  Tullie,  subsequently 
Minister  at  St.  Mary's  Church,  kept  a  Diary  of  the  Siege. ^ 
In  it  is  a  list  of  contributions  towards  the  needs  of  the 
beleaguered  City  from  prominent  people  in  the  district, 
the  names  of  several  of  the  local  Clergy  appearing  in  it. 
The  list  of  the  latter  is  here  appended. 

1.  This  small  Tractate  was  published  by  Jefferson  of  Carlisle  in  1840 
and  is  now  rarely  to  be  met  with.  The  original  MS.  is  in  the  British 

134  The    Ejected   of  1662 

£     s.  d. 
The  dean  and  chapter  of  Carlisle,  viz.,  the  dean  £4 

and  every  prebend  30s. 10     0     0 

Mr.  Usher  of  Kirk  Andrews 3     0     0 

Mr.  Constable  of  Arthuret 3     0     0 

Mr.  Welchman  of  Stanwix -       1     0     0 

Mr.  Head  of  Aikton  .        .        -        -  -        -      3     0     0 

Mr.  Warwick  of  Bowness  and  Brampton    -         -         -       2     0     0 

Mr.  Burton  of  Orton 2     0     0 

Mr.  Priestman  for  Kirklinton       -         -         -         -         -       1     0     0 
Dr.  Sibson  for  Bewcastle  or  the  sequestrators   -        -      2     0     0 

Mr.  Gibson  for  Castle  Carrick 10     0 

Mr.  Morland  for  Graystock 5     0     0 

Mr.  West  for  Addingham    -        -        -        -         -        -       1     0     0 

The  sequestrators  of  Great  Salkeld  parsonage    -        -       1     0     0 
Mr.  Goodwin  of  Lasonby     -        -        -        -        -        -100 

Mr.  Sharpies  of  Croglin 10     0 

Mr.  Milburne  for  Skelton  and  Ouseby   -         -         -         -     2     0     0 
Mr.  Langbaine  for   Keswick         -         -         -  -       2     0     0 

Mr.  Tunstell  for  Caldbeck    - 2     0     0 

Mr.  Hudson  for  Uldale  and  Kirkbride      -  -      2     0     0 

Mr.  Eobinson  for  Torpenhow 200 

Mr.  Fairfax  for  Bolton 2     0     0 

Mr.  Fletcher  of  Plumbland  -        -        -        -        -      2     0     0 

Mr.  Wilkinson  of  Gilcrux 10    0 

Mr.  Beck  of  Brumfield 1  10     0 

Mr.  Cookson  of  Brigham -100 

Mr.  Fletcher  of  Dean 2     0     0 

Mr.  Lowther  of  Workington 2     0     0 

Mr.  Antrobus  of  Egremond 1  10     0 

Mr.  Fletcher  of  Distington 1  10     0 

Mr.   Hudson  of  Harrington  -         -  -         -       2     0     0 

Mr.  Tubman  of  Whitcham 10     0 

Mr.  Braithwaite  of  Lamplugh 10     0' 

The  City  made  a  long  and  brave  defence,  and  the  people 
suffered  much  hardship,  subsisting  for  a  time  on  horse- 
flesh ;  but  eventually  the  besiegers  were  admitted,  certain 
articles  of  surrender  having  been  agreed  upon.  Isaac 
Tullie  writes  not  unfavourably  of  the  terms,  and  of  the 
conduct  of  the  General  in  carrying  out  the  agreement. 
"  The  next  day,"  says  he,  "being  25th  of  June,  the  Articles 
were  agreed  upon,  and  the  Citty  of  Carlyle,  little  in 
circuite,  but  great  and  memorable  for  Loyalty,  received 
1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  236. 


Carlisle    Siege  135 

a  Scots  garrison  upon  the  28th  of  June,  upon  these  noble 
articles,  which  by  David  Leslys  strict  command  and 
p'sonall  conduct  were  punctually  performed,  both  to  those 
that  marched  out,  and  to  the  Cittysons  that  staid  at 
Home."  ^  Chancellor  Ferguson  takes  some  exception  to 
Isaac  TuUie's  generous  view  of  the  conduct  of  the  con- 
querors and  says  :  — 

The  shattered  condition  of  the  nave  of  Carlisle  Cathedral,  and  of 
the  conventual  buildings,  shows  that  Tullie  viewed  very  leniently 
some  of  Lesley's  doings,  if  he  did  not  consider  the  pulling  down  a 
great  part  of  the  nave,  and  of  the  conventual  buildings,  an  infraction 
of  the  3rd  article  of  surrender  "that  no  church  be  defaced." 2 

Chancellor  Ferguson's  own  description   of  matters  is  in 

the  following  terms  :  — 

The  victors,  in  violation  of  the  articles  of  surrender,  played  havoc 
with  the  cathedral ;  they  pulled  down  great  part  of  the  nave,  cloisters, 
and  prebendal  houses,  and  used  the  materials  for  the  repair  of  the 
fortifications.  This  surrender,  indeed,  made  a  clean  sweep  of  every- 
thing   in    Carlisle ;     bishop,    dean,    and    prebendaries    had    all    been 

sequestrated  and  deprived  prior  to  the  siege,   and  disappear 

The  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  of  1643  had  ejected  several  of  the 
Episcopalian  clergy  of  the  diocese,  and  some  that  remained  were 
ejected  on  the  "Vacancy  of  Ministers"  in   1655.3 

The  tendency,  however,  in  these  .matters,  is  to  draw 
largely  upon  the  imagination;  and  it  has  repeatedly  been 
found  necessary  in  this  work  to  take  exception  to  this 
type  of  statement.  The  authority  for  it  is  almost  invari- 
ably either  Walker  or  Todd,  both  of  whom  wrote  greatly 
embittered  against  everything  relating  to  Cromwell  and 
the  Commonwealth.  How  little  reliance  may  be  placed 
upon  the  statement  just  cited  will  be  evident  from  the 
fact  that  the  paragraph  in  Dr.  Todd's  MS.,  upon  which 
Chancellor  Ferguson  bases  it,  ends  with  the  following 
sentence  :  — "  It  was  their  intention  to  have  destroyed  the 
whole  of  the  cathedral,  but  they  were  prevented  by  the 
restoration."  *      Fifteen  years   elapsed  between  the  sur- 

1.  Hist,  of  Cumb.,  by  Chancellor  Ferguson,  p.  261. 

2.  Ibid. 

3.  Diocesan  Histories,  Carlisle,  pp.  138,  139. 

4.  Jefferson's  History  of  Carlisle,  p.  56. 

136  The   Ejected   of  1662 

render  of  the  City  and  the  Restoration,  and,  if  there  had 
been  any  wish  to  destroy  the  Cathedral,  it  is  not  easy  to 
see  how  the  Restoration  could  have  hindered.  Moreover, 
the  request  of  the  Trustees  for  the  Maintenance  of 
Ministers,  in  1658,  to  be  supplied  with  information  as  to 
the  needs  of  the  place,  and  their  grant  of  a  sum  towards 
its  repair,  indicates  no  such  iconoclastic  spirit  as  is  here 
suggested.^  The  truth  is  that  five  years  previously  the 
Cathedral  buildings  were  in  a  condition  calling  for  real 
concern;  and  the  following  letter  from  the  King  in 
relation  to  the  matter  together  with  the  Bishop's  reply  is 
extremely  interesting. 

September  4th. 
The  King  to  Dr.  Cumber,  2  Dean  of  Carlisle  and  Master  of  Trinity 

College,   Cambridge.       We  have   lately   been  informed,   both   at  our 

1.  Vide  p.  166. 

2.  At  this  time  there  was  a  considerable  amount  of  non-residence. 
The  Dean  himself.  Dr.  Comber,  was  an  absentee,  and  judging  from  the 
following,  at  least  most  of  the  Petty  Canons  were  : — 

"  1639. 

Petition  of  Robert  Browne,  preacher  of  God's  Word,  to  the  King. 
The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Carlisle,  in  view  of  service  done  by  petitioner, 
gratified  him  with  a  lease 'of  the  tithes  of  Brisco  in  Cumberland,  and 
parcel  now  of  their  revenue,  but  of  which  they  had  no  profit  until 
petitioner  recovered  the  same  by  law  at  his  great  charge,  soon  after 
which  they  required  him  to  yield  up  his  interest  therein.  In  lieu 
whereof  they  promised  petitioner  that  he  should  have  the  first  petty 
canon's  place  in  the  church  of  Carlisle  which  should  become  void ; 
whereupon  he  surrendered  the  same,  and  soon  after  was  invested  in  the 
said  place,  and  continued  so  for  some  years  past.  Yet,  notwithstanding, 
of  late  they  have  made  an  Act  to  deprive  him  of  that  preferment  with- 
out admonition  or  calling  upon  him  to  show  cause  to  the  contrary,  and 
have  placed  another  in  his  seat  contrary  to  law.  Conceives  no  other 
reason  can  be  shown  for  his  deprivation  but  non-residence,  a  privilege 
which  all  or  most  part  of  the  rest  enjoy,  and  are  allowed  their  substi- 
tutes. Prays  the  King  out  of  his  abundant  clemency  to  restore  him  to 
his  former  place." 

It  is  certified  by  John  Baynes,  Mayor  of  Carlisle,  Sir  William 
Musgrave,  and  two  others.  Justices  of  the  Peace  (Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for 
1639-40,  p.  202).  For  Mr.  Browne,  licensed  preacher  in  1636,  see  the 
Watermillock  preachers,  p.  516. 

Carlisle   Cathedral  137 

being  in  the  North  and  since,  that  our  cathedral  church  at  Carlisle 
is  fallen  exceedingly  into  decay,  and  indeed  so  far  that  if  there  be  not 
present  care  taken  for  the  repair  thereof  it  cannot  be  long  upheld. 
The  government  of  this  place  is  by  us  Committed  to  you  and  the 
chapter  there,  and  we  doubt  your  long  continued  absence  together 
with  some  negligence  of  your  predecessors,  have  hastened  this  fabric, 
which  should  have  been  upheld  both  by  your  charge  &  care,  toward 
the  ruin  in  which  it  is  now  like  to  fall  without  speedy  supply.  And, 
though  St.  Paul's  in  London  has  found  very  good  assistance  and  large 
contribution  from  our  subjects  in  general,  yet  you  must  not  think 
that  the  charge  of  repairing  other  inferior  cathedrals  can  be  put  off 
from  yourselves  upon  the  tState.  These  are  therefore  to  require  you 
by  yourself  or  your  vice-dean  and  chapter  to  take  present  care  for  the 
yearly  repair  of  such  parts  of  that  church  as  are  most  faulty,  that  so 
every  year  somewhat  may  be  done  according  to  your  means  there,  till 
the  whole  church  shall  be  sufficiently  repaired.  And  of  this  we 
charge  you  and  the  chapter  not  to  fail.  We  further  you,  that  these 
oui'  letters  be  registered,  that  in  them  "  succession  "  may  read  our  care 
and  their  duty  in  this  behalf.  We  have  likewise  commanded  one  of 
our  Principal  Secretaries  of  State  to  write  to  the  bishop  of  that  see  to 
require  him  to  take  care  that  these  our  commands  be  obeyed,  and  to 
inform  us  from  time  to  time  if  they  be  not.' 

Dec.  6.  1639. 

Bishop  Potter  of  Carlisle,  to  Sec.  Windebank.  As  soon  as  1  could 
receive  an  answer  from  the  dean,  1  come  to  give  you  account  of  my 
care  to  see  his  ^Majesty's  royal  and  religious  commands  performed, 
for  the  repairing  of  the  cathedral  church  of  Carlisle.  As  soon  as  1 
received  your  letter,  I  sent  for  the  prebends, — -we  have  but  four  in 
all, — and  acquainted  them  with  his  Majesty's  pleasure,  making  it 
plain  to  them  that  if  the  reparation  of  the  church  should  rest  upon 
the  remainder  of  the  rents,  when  all  other  duties  and  officers'  [fees] 
were  discharged,  there  could  nothing  be  done  to  any  purpose  in  many 
years.  Indeed  the  rents  in  divers  years  come  short  to  discharge  all 
claims,  and  therefore  I  entreated  that  out  of  the  fines  which  they  had 
received  the  last  year,  averaging  almost  £300  to  every  prebend,  and 
about  £700  to  the  dean,  they  would  give  something.  Three  of  the 
prebends  who  were  present  promised  £50  apiece  if  the  dean  would 
pay  in  proportion  his  part,  which  they  rated  to  £200.  Thereupon  I 
wrote  to  the  dean  and  acquainted  him  with  the  prebends'  offer.  His 
answer  to  me  was,  that  he  conceived  the  meaning  of  his  Majesty's 
letter  to  be,  that  the  reparations  of  the  church  should  rise  only  out  of 
the  rents  and  not  from  the  fines,  yet  he  would  be  content  to  give 
£100,    towards  the    present    reparations.       This    will    not    please    the 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1639,  p.  478. 


8  The   Ejected    of  1662 

prebends,  because,  they  say,  it  is  but  a  small  proportion  for  the  dean, 
the  prebends  having  barely  Jt;20  a  year  and  the  dean  £120.  As  for 
the  fines,  the  dean  has  a  third  part,  and  the  four  prebends  have  the 
rest,  and  therefore  the  prebends  fall  back  from  their  promise  of  £50, 
unless  the  dean  will  pay  in  his  proportion.  Yet  order  is  taken  for 
providing  some  materials  against  the  spring,  but  if  the  charge  be  laid 
only  upon  the  rents  little  will  be  done,  and  if  there  be  not  something 
yearly  reserved  out  of  the  fines,  I  am  not  like  to  live  to  see  the  church 
sufficiently  repaired.  As  occasion  shall  serve,  1  shall  be  careful  to 
give  his  Majesty  a  true  account  how  his  commands  are  obeyed.' 

Whether  the  work  of  repair  was  taken  in  hand,  and,  if  so, 
to  what  extent,  we  have  no  means  of  knowing. 

That  the  Cathedral  buildings  suffered  during  the  Siege 
may  be  regarded  as  certain;  but  in  all  probability  it  was 
simply  an  accident  of  the  war.  The  truth  is,  that  much 
of  what  is  alleged  in  this  way  was  simply  impossible, 
because  of  the  political  and  religious  complexion  of  this 
area :  it  was  too  preponderatingly  Royalist  for  a  tithe 
of  the  evil  things  to  have  happened,  which  writers  are  in 
the  habit  of  assigning  to  that  period.  Certainly  the 
statement  about  the  Bishop,  etc.,  being  swept  away 
"  prior  to  the  Siege"  is  at  fault :  for  Episcopacy  was  not 
definitely  abolished  until  1646.  Nor  is  there  any  evidence 
of  Sequestrations  in  this  area  as  early  as  1643.  That  the 
Prebends,  at  least,  were  in  existence  in  1644,  the  time  of 
the  Siege,  is  clear  from  the  fact  that  together  with  the 
Dean  they  contributed  £10.  "With  the  fall  of  Episcopacy 
however,  went  the  Cathedral  Hierarchy;  and  a  brief  note 
about  the  respective  persons  affected  is  necessary. 

The  Bishop  at  the  time  was  the  learned  Dr.  James 
TJssher,  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  who  had  the  Carlisle  See 
conferred  upon  him  in  commendavi  on  the  death  of 
Bishop  Potter  in  1641.  The  grant  was  given  to  him  on 
February  16th,  1641-2,  and  he  received  the  revenue  till 
the  autumn  of  1643.  He  was  a  man  of  great  culture  and 
wide  knowledge,  a  large  contributor  to  Biblical  literature, 
of  unstained  character,  of  gentle  spirit  and  liberal  view. 
He  laboured  unsparingly  to  promote  religious  unity  and 
peace  in  his  day;  and  propounded  a  modified  scheme  of 

1.  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  for  1639—40,  p.  149. 

The   Cathedral   Clergy  139 

Episcopacy,  which  Richard  Baxter  and  others  of  his 
school  were  quite  prepared  to  accept.  Bishop  Ussher  was 
non-resident,  and  probably  never  saw  his  Carlisle  Diocese. 
He  died  at  the  age  of  75  years,  on  March  21,  1656;  and 
Cromwell,  who  always  had  the  highest  regard  for  his 
character  and  gifts,  ordered  his  burial  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  which  took  place  on  the  17th  of  the  following 

The  Archdeacon  and  Chancellor  was  Isaac  Singleton, 
M.A.  He  died  in  1643,  and  an  account  of  him  appears 
under  Crosthwaite,  of  which  place  he  was  Vicar. ^ 

The  Prebendary  of  the  First  Stall  was  Dr.  Lancelot 
Dawes  who  was  appointed  in  1619.  He  was  Vicar  of 
Barton  and  E-ector  of  Asby,  and  died  in  1655. ^ 

The  Prebendary  of  the  Second  Stall,  appointed  in  1640, 
was  Frederick  Tunstall,  M.A.,  subsequently  the  Seques- 
tered Rector  of  Caldbeck.^ 

The  Prebendary  of  the  Third  Stall  was  Lewis  West, 
M.A.,  the  Sequestered  Vicar  of  Addingham.  He  was 
appointed  in  1637  and  also  became  Archdeacon.  To  both 
positions  he  returned  at  the  Restoration.  ^ 

The  Prebendary  of  the  Fourth  Stall,  appointed  in  1643, 
was  Henry  Hutton,  M.A.  He  was  Rector  of  Long 
Marton.  ^ 

At  this  time  Carlisle  had  two  Churches ;  and,  respecting 
the  one  dedicated  to  St.  Mary,  Jefferson,  writing  in  1838, 
says : — 

It  is  under  the  same  roof  as  the  cathedral,  the  west  limb  of  that 

venerable   building   having   been   appropriated,   as   it   would   appear, 

from  the  earliest  period,  for  the  performance  of  the  parochial  duties. 

During  the  civil  wars  its  dimensions  were  considerably  curtailed,  two 

arches  only  of  the  original  nave  being  left  by  the  ruthless  spoilers. 

This  fragment  has  been  galleried  and  pewed,  and  the  space  formerly 

occupied  by  the  remainder  of  the  edifice  is  converted  into  a  cemetery.  6 

1.  Vide  p.  649. 

2.  Vide  pp.  1111,  1224. 

3.  Vide  p.  548. 

4.  Vide  p.  349. 

5.  Vide  p.  1149. 

6.  Hist,  of  Carlisle,  p.  268. 

I40  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  Registers  begin  in  1648,  the  earliest  volume  being 
long,  thick  and  narrow.  It  is  of  parchment  and  in  fair 
condition,  the  writing  being  quite  decipherable.  It  begins 
with  "  Weddings  " — baptisms  being  the  same  date.  At  the 
other  end  of  the  book  is  "  the  Parish  Register  of  St.  Maries 
Carlisle,"  commencing  August,  1655,  and  ending  December, 
1732,  "containing  thirty  four  leaves."  An  interesting  feature 
of  these  Registers  is  the  appearance  against  each  person's 
name  of  the  place  name  of  the  district  to  which  he  belonged, 
as  :  "  Castlegate,"  "  Abbeygate,"  "  Richargate,"  etc. 

The  other  Church,  dedicated  to  St.  Cuthbert,  is  only  a 
short  distance  away.  The  Registers  begin  in  April,  1693. 
Bishop  Nicolson,  writing  in  1703,  says  1603 ;  but  whether 
that  is  a  mistake  for  1693  is  not  clear.  The  Transcripts, 
however,  begin  with  May,  1666 ;  and  in  addition,  there  is 
one  folio  occupied  with  baptisms  for  the  years  1604  and 
1605.  This  folio  would  seem  to  indicate  the  existence 
of  earlier  Registers,  which  may  explain  Bishop  Nicolson's 

It  is  extremely  difficult  to  say  how  these  two  Churches 
were  served  during  the  17th  Century.  No  one  of  the 
historians  makes  any  attempt  to  indicate  this,  still  less  to 
construct  a  list  of  Incumbents.  Chancellor  Ferguson 
alone  is  helpful  in  the  matter.  In  his  interesting  and 
valuable  paper  on  the  Carlisle  Lectureship  he  says  :  — 

Up  to  this  time  [1655]  1  have  little  doubt  that  the  incumbents  of 
S.  Cuthbert's  and  S.  Mary's  were  not  licensed  preachers,  and  that  all 
the  preaching  that  was  done  in  Carlisle  was  done  by  the  Bishop,  his 
chaplains,  the  prebends,  and  the  lecturer.  I  have  already  pointed  out 
that  the  sermons  and  the  service  were  at  different  times.' 

From  what  appears  elsewhere  ^  this  surmise  about  the 
Cathedral  Clergy  would  seem  to  be  correct  except  that  the 
date,  1655,  is  late.  Isaac  Tullie  informs  us  that 
the  following  rendered  service  as  preachers  during 
the      Siege: — Frederick     Tunstall      and     Lewis     "West, 

1.  "The  Lectureship  and  Lectures  at  St.  Cuthbert's  Church,  Carlisle," 
by  Chancellor  Ferguson,  reprinted  from  "  The  Transactions  of  the 
Cumberlaind  and  Westmorland  Archasological  Society"  for  1883,  p.  320. 

2.  Vide  p.  142,  &c.,  for  Lecturers. 

Carlisle    Lectureship  141 

Prebendaries ;  Timothy  Tullie,  then  at  Cliburn ;  Jonathan 
Goodwin  of  Lazonby ;  and  Featherstonhaugh ;  from  neigh- 
bouring Counties,  Dr.  Basire,  Prebendary  of  Durham  and 
Archdeacon  of  Xorthiimberland,  Dr.  Marshall,  possibly 
the  Sequestered  Minister  of  Houghton-le-Spring,  Thomas 
Norgate,  B.D.,  Chaplain  to  Sir  Thomas  Glenham,  Gover- 
nor of  Carlisle ;  and  Scotch  Ministers,  Mr.  Thompson  and 
Mr.  Sandulans. 

The  Lectureship,  an  institution  of  Puritan  origin,  was 
highly  popular  at  this  time.  Its  aim  was  to  supplement 
the  work  of  the  Parish  Minister  with  a  view  to  securing 
for  the  people  the  fullest  possible  measure  of  religious 
instruction  and  worship.  It  was  often  resented  as  an 
intrusion  by  the  resident  Incumbent;  but  it  sought  to 
further  the  interests  of  the  people  by  supplying  them  with 
appropriate  services  when  the  Minister  in  charge,  through 
infirmity,  years,  indifference,  neglect,  incompetence,  or 
the  largeness  of  his  Parish,  had  ceased  to  meet  the 
religious  needs  of  the  district.  These  Lectureships  appear 
in  Kendal,  Kirkby  Lonsdale  and  Penrith;  and  precisely 
•how  long  the  institution  had  been  in  existence  in  Carlisle 
we  have  no  means  of  knowing.  In  1625,  however,  an 
Indenture,  dated  August  16  of  that  year,  made  between 
"  Henrye  Baynes  Maior  of  the  Cittye  of  Carlell  &  ye 
Cittizens  of  the  same  of  thone  [the  one]  ptie  [party]. 
And  Edwarde  Aglionbye  Esquyer  Lanclote  Dawes  Thomas 
Fayerfaxe  Clerk  And  Willm  Barwick  &  Mathewe  Cape 
Gentilmen  on  thother  ptie,  Witnessethe  "  that  "  ye  Deane 
&  Chapter  of  Carelile  haue  graunted  by  lease  for  one  & 
twentye  yea'res  the  tythe  corne  of  Briskoe  &  Scugger 
houses  to  ye  sayde  Edwarde  Aglionbye  Lanclote  Dawes 
Thomas  Fayerfaxe  Willm  Barwicke  &  Mathewe  Cape  for 
ye  payment  of  twentye  Marks  by  yeare  to  A  lectorer  or 
preatcher  in  St.  Maries  in  Augmentacion  of  his  former 
Stipend  of  twentye  pounds  so  as  ye  Maior  &  Cittizens  of 
Carelell  woulde  make  up  ye  sayde  some  of  thirtye  three 
pounds  sex  shilling  and  Eight  pence  to  be  fortye  pounds 
by  yeare  to  ye  sayde  lecturer  or  preacher."  ^     It  further 

1.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  327. 

142  The   Ejected   of  1662 

states  that  "  the  sayd  Maior  &  Cittizens  of  Carlell  (un- 
willing to  be  anye  meanes  of  hinderinge  so  good  a  worke 
but  to  sett  forwarde  the  same  by  their  good  example)  Do 
by  thes  presents  for  them  &  their  Successors  geue  & 
graunte  unto  ye  sayde  Edwarde  Aglionbye  Lancelote 
Dawes  Thomas  Fayerfaxe  Willm  Barwicke  and  Mathew 
Cape  one  Anewetie  or  yearely  E-ent  of  sex  poundes  thirtene 
shillings  fower  pence  by  yeare  to  be  issewinge  &  goinge 
oute  of  their  Water  Corne  Mills  belonginge  to  ye  sayd 
Cittye  payable  yearelye  at  ye  seuerall  f  castes  of  ye  purifi- 
cacion  of  or  [our]  blessed  virgin  &  ye  first  daye  of  Auguste 
caled  Lammas  Daye  by  eaven  portions  to  be  by  them 
payde  over  to  ye  sayde  lecturer  or  Preatcher  yearely 
duringe  the  tearme  of  twentye  &  one  yeares."  ^  It  would 
be  quite  a  mistake  to  infer  that  the  Lectureship  was  a 
mere  appendage  to  either  St.  Mary's  or  St.  Cuthbert's. 
It  was  a  separate  office ;  the  Lecturer  was  a  City  official, 
though,  in  this  case,  the  main  movers  appear  to  have  been 
private  individuals,  Fairfax  and  Dawes  being  Preben- 
daries of  the  Cathedral.  These  persons  also  had  the 
privilege  of  nominating  and  the  Dean  and  Chapter- 
^'  alowede  "  the  nomination  as  the  following  shows  :  — "Ye 
sayde  Lecturer  or  preacher  so  nominated  by  ye  sayd 
Edward  Aglionbye  Lanclote  Dawes  Thomas  Fayerfaxe 
Willm  Barwicke  &  Mathew  Cape  And  alowede  by  ye 
Deane  &  Chapter  shall  begine  to  preatche  in  ye  sayd 
Church  of  St.  Maries. "^  Later,  however,  the  City  took 
these  matters  more  into  its  own  hands. 

Roger  Baldwin,  M.A.,  1647. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  name  of  this  early  Lec- 
turer, if  one  was  actually  appointed,  has  not  been 
preserved ;  the  first  person  known  to  serve  in  this  capacity 
being  Roger  Baldwin,  who  is  also  called  Minister  of  the 
"  pish   Church."     The   date  of  his  appointment  has  not 

1.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  328. 

2.  Ihid. 

Roger   Baldwin  143 

been  ascertained  but  he  certainly  was  here  in  1647-8  as 
the  following  show  :  — 

Cuthberts  in 

Carlile.  ffebr  16.  1647-8. 

Whereas  this  Committee  have  the  17th  of  March  1646  Grted  [granted] 
50li  a  yeare  out  of  the  Rents  &  Revenues  reserved  payable  &  belonging 
to  the  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlile  out  of  there  possions  [possessions]  in 
the  sevrall  termes  of  the  psons  [persons]  hereafter  pticulerlie  men- 
coned  vizt.  of  Dame  Annas  Lamplugh  the  yearelie  sume  of  131i  6s  8d 
of  Henry  Lowther  the  yearelie  sume  of  xs  of  Mathew  Cape  &  Mr. 
Barwick  Hi  16s  7d  of  John  Orbell  21i  5s  7d  yearelie  of  Mris  Orbell 
4li  lis  2d  yearelie  of  Mr  Tully  the  yearlie  sume  of  2li  3s  4d  of  John 
Ralph  the  yearelie  some  of  3li  6s  8d  of  Edward  Holme  the  yearelie 
some  of  xxs  &  of  George  Relfe  &  of  George  White  the  yearelie  some  of 
40s  of  Sr.  Richard  ffletcher  the  yearelie  some  of  61i  13s  4d  of  the 
Lord  Wm.  Howard  the  yearelie  some  of  viijli  of  Mr.  Aglionby  the 
yearelie  some  of  Hi  3s  4d  of  Sir  Edward  Musgrave  the  yearelie  some 
of  4li  All  wch  sd  sevrall  Somes  are  payable  by  the  sevrall  tennts 
above  menconed  to  the  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlile  abovesaid  out  of 
sevrall  of  their  possions  in  the  sevrall  ptes  [parts]  of  St.  Cuthberts  in 
Carlile  St.  Maries  Ireby  Heskett  Wetherell  Warwick  &  Stanwix  in 
the  Countie  of  Cumberland  &  are  graunted  as  aforesaid  to  &  for  the 
maintennce  of  such  minister  as  this  Comittee  should  approve  off  to 
officiate  the  Cure  of  the  pish  Church  in  Carlile  aforesaid  the  pnte 
[present]  maintennce  belonging  to  the  sd  Church  being  but  61i  a  yeare 
&  the  sd  pish  Conteyninge  neere  200  Comunicantes  it  is  ordered  that 
the  sd  501i  a  yeare  be  pd  to  Roger  Baldwin  a  godlie  &  Orthodox 
devine  the  pnte  minister  of  the  sd  Church  for  an  increase  of  his 
Maintennce  wch  the  Collector  appointed  by  the  Cotee  of  pliamt  for 
the  said  Countie  to  receive  the  said  Rents  &  Somes  of  money  is  hereby 
required  to  paie  unto  the  sd  Mr  Baldwyn  as  the  said  rents  shall  grow 
due  &  become  payable.' 

Cuthberts  in 

Carlile.  Nov.  7.   1649. 

Whereas  this  Comittee  have  by  ordr  of  ye  17th  of  March  1646 
graunted  sevall  yearly  rents  &  pfitts  of  money  reserved  to  ye  Deane 
&  Chapter  of  Carlisle  out  of  Sevall  possions  within  ye  County  of 
Cumberland  in  ye  said  ordr  pticulerly  menconed  amounting  to  50li 
a  yeare  for  increase  of  ye  maintennce  of  the  Minister  of  the  pish 
Church  of  Carlisle  aforesaid  wch  was  since  by  order  of  ye  16th  ffebr 
1647  Settled  upon  Mr.  Roger  Baldwin  A  godly  &  orthodox  Divine  ye 

1.  Bodl.  MS.,  325. 

144  The   Ejected   of  1662 

psent  Minister  of  the  said  Church  It  is  ordered  that  the  Trustees  for 
Sale  of  Deane  &  Chapter  Lands  doe  &  they  are  hereby  desired  to  issue 
out  their  warrants  to  the  Trears  [Treasurers]  for  Sale  of  Deane  & 
Chapter  Lands  to  pay  unto  ye  said  Mr.  Baldwin  or  unto  Eichard 
Lowry  to  his  use  the  Sume  of  251i  for  one  halfe  yeares  rent  of  the 
pmisses  due  the  29th  of  September  last  pvided  that  the  said  Mr. 
Baldwin  shall  have  first  subscribed  ye  late  engagement  of  ye  11th  of 
October  last.' 

To  this  period  also  belongs  tiie  following :  — 

Carlile.  Nov.  17.  1647. 

Upon  Consideracon  had  of  the  Peticon  of  Thomas  Musgrave,  Master 

6  Thomas  Craghill,  Usher  of  ye  Gramer  Schoole  att  Carlile  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  (A  coppy  whereof  is  hereunto  annexed)  ffor 
that  Complainte  is  made  that  there  beinge  281i  a  yeare  payable  to  the 
Schoole  Mtr  of  the  said  Schoole  &  121i  to  ye  Usher  thereof  out  of  the 
Revenue  of  the  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlile,  the  paymt  whereof  is 
lately  obstructed  in  regard  of  ye  graunts  made  by  this  Comittee,  out 
of  ye  Revenues  of  the  sd  Deane  &  Chapter  for  the  maintenance  of 
Ministers  This  Comittee  doe  declare  That  all  sumes  of  money  allow- 
ances or  Sallaries,  by  lawe  payable  out  of  the  said  Revenue  to  the 
said  Schoole  Master  and  Usher  ought  to  be  Contynued  unto  them 
And  the  orders  of  this  Comittee  ought  not  hinder  or  obstruct  the 
paymt  thereof,  but  that  the  same  must  bee  continued  &  paid  unto 
them  out  of  the  possessions  that  are  by  lawe  chargeable  with 
paymt  thereof  before  any  syme  of  money  bee  paid  to  any  person  by 
vertue  of  any  order  of  this  Comittee  And  this  Comittee  doe  referr  it 
to  the  Comittee  of  pliamt  for  the  sd  County  to  heare  &  Compose  ye 
differences  betweene  all  pties  therein  concerned  if  they  cann  or  else  to 
state  &  Certifie  the  matter  of  fact  to  this  Comittee.  2 

In  the  Chamberlain's  Accounts  ^  for  .1649-50  we  have 
the  following :  — 

For    Mr.    Baldwin's    paines    in    preachinge    at    ye    election    day, 
001  :  00  :  00. 

1650,   for  his  paynes  in  preaching   from   2nd  ffeb  to  ye  25   March 

07  :  00  :  00. 

An  "  Abstract  of  the  Survey  of  the  Eeetories  of  St. 

1.  Bodl.  MS.,  326. 

2.  Ihid.,  325. 

3.  In  the  Custody  of  the  Town  Clerk,  Carlisle. 

Theophilus   Polewheele  145 

Mary's  and   St.   Cuthbert's  in  Carlile  taken  a.d,  1650 " 
gives  the  following  :  — 

Brisco   and    Skuggar   Houses    Tith    Com-To   Edwd.    Aglionby    &c 
Trustees  for  ye  use  of  Mr.  Baldwin  a  Lecturer  of  St.  Mary's  &  of  St. 
Cuthbert's,  Carlile. 
Rent  04  :  06  :  08. 
Clear  Value  23  :  13  :  04. 
To  be  renewed  gratis,  i 

Soon  after  this  Hoger  Baldwin  removed  and  appears  as 
Lecturer  at  Penrith,  becoming  subsequently  Yicar  of  the 
Parish  Church  in  that  town.^ 

HOLDSWORTH,   1650. 

The  entry  in  the  Accounts,  under  date  1650,  is  as 
follows :  — 

For  Mr.  Holsworth  paines  in  preaching  8  weeks  :  007  :  00  :  00. 

Calamy  mentions  among  his  Ejected  Ministers  three 
persons  of  the  name  of  Holds  worth;  but  probably  the  one 
in  question  was  Mr.  Holdsworth  of  St.  Oswald's  in  Elvet, 
Durham,  who  appears  to  have  been  the  chief  difficulty  in 
the  way  of  Roger  Baldwin's  removal  to  that  place.  ^ 
Possibly  also  this  is  the  person  to  whom  William  Lampit 
refers  in  1650,  intimating  that  he  was  anxious  to  secure 
the  Aikton  living.*  It  may  be  that  he  was  only  doing 
temporary  duty  in  Carlisle. 

Theophilus  Polewheele,  M.A.,  1651. 

He  was  born  in  Cornwall,  the  Polewheeles  being  a 
considerable  family  in  that  County.  Foster  mentions 
several  among  his  Oxford  Alumni,  but  these  appear  to 
have  taken  the  Royalist  side.  Theophilus  Polewheele 
was  educated  at  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge;  and 
Hugh  Todd  names  him  along  with  Larkham  and  Madder 

1.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  329. 

2.  Vide  p.  420. 

3.  Vide  p.  427. 

4.  Vide  p.  625. 

I4i6  The   Ejected   of  1662 

of  Mather  as  coming  north  from  the  west  country.'^ 
Previous  to  his  Carlisle  ministry  he  had  been  a  short  time 
at  Egremont,  and  for  a  longer  period  at  Kirkbampton, 
whence  he  removed  to  Carlisle.^    •.  .  :,.  - 

The  following  items  are  from  the  Chamberlain's 
Accounts  :  — 

Aug.  22.  1651.  Item  for  Banqueting  Bestowed  upon  Mr.  Pole- 
wheele  minister  :  00  :  12  :  04. 

Sep.  16.  Item  pd  for  Spices  Bestowed  upon  Mr.  Polewheele  when 
he  set  up  house  :  3  :  00  :  00. 

Oct.  6.  1651.  Item  pd  to  Mr.  Polwheele  for  the  Eleccon  Sermon 
by  Mr.  Maiors  order  01  :  00  :  00. 

Oct.  6.  1652.  Item  payed  to  Mr.  Polewheele  for  his  Sermon 
01  :  00  :  00. 

Jany  1652-3.  Item  pd  to  mr  Polewheele,  Lecturer,  for  one  year 
and  halfe  house  rent  by  order  12  :  00  :  00.' 

His  receipt  for  salary,  dated  December  25th,  1652,  reads 
thus :  — 

Received  off  Thomas  Jackson  Chamberlane  by  order  off  the 
Cittie  ffor  one  yeare  and  a  halfe  sallarie  due  to  Mr.  Powlewheell  ffor 
lecture  sermones  the  some  of  Twelve  poundes  I  saie  Reed  12  :  00  :  00 
ffor  aforesaid  use. 

p.  me  Tho.  Sewell.* 

Theophilus  Polewheele's  acceptance  by  Cromwell's 
Commissioners  is  given  in  the  following  documents 
together  with  an  account  of  his  rental :  — 

New  Castle 
upon  Tyne. 

By  ye  Comrs.  appointed  by  Act  of  Parliamt  bearing  date  ye  first 
of  March  1649  for  ye  ppagacon  of  ye  Gospell  in  ye  fower  Northern 
Counties  of  Northumberland,  Cumberland,  Westmorland  and  Durham 
March  29,  1653. 

1.  Vide  p.  375. 

2.  Vide  pp.  606,  822. 

3.  Chamberlain's  Accounts. 

4.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  328. 

Theophilus   Polewheele  147 


Whereas  jNIr.  Theophilus  Powlewheele  being  recomended  for  a 
godly  &  painefull  Preacher  &  of  able  guifts  &  knowledg  for  ye  work 
of  ye  minestry  &  of  approved  Conversacon  for  piety  hath  come  before 
us  &  upon  triall  &  examinacon  of  his  guifts  by  divers  godly  Minesters 
according  to  ye  direcon  of  ye  Parliamt  is  found  fitt  to  preache  ye 
Gospell  of  Jesus  Chrest  &  to  be  duely  qualified  &  guifted  for  yt  holy 
Imploymt  Wee  therefore  by  vertue  of  ye  power  &  authority  to  us 
given  by  ye  Parliamt  doe  appoint  ye  said  Mr.  Theophilus  Poole- 
wheele  to  preach  in  ye  City  of  Carlile  &  for  his  support  &  main- 
tennce  It  is  hereby  appointed  &  ordered  yt  ye  rents  mencioned  & 
Conteined  in  a  Schedule  hereunto  annexed  be  settled  upon  ye  said 
Mr.  Theophilus  Powlwheele  &  he  is  hereby  invested  in  ye  same  & 
as  lawfully  seized  thereof  to  all  intents  &  purposes  as  if  he  had  been 
instituted  &  inducted  according  to  any  former  Course  of  Lawe  & 
hath  ye  like  remedy  for  ye  recovering  thereof  as  ye  Deane  &  Chapter 
■of  Carlile  formerly  had. 

Jo.     Claffering,    P.    Hobson,    Henry   Ogle,    Robt.    ffenwick,  Cuth. 
Studholme,   Tho.    Cholmley,    Tho.    Langhome,    Edw.    Winter,    Hen. 
Horsley,  John  Ogle,  Tho.   Craister,  Wm.  Shafto,   Hen.  Dawson,  Lu. 
Ant.  Parsons 

Newcastle  Upon 

A  Rentall  of  Tith  rents  Confered  upon 
Mr.  Theophilus  Powlwheele  by  ye  Comrs 
of    ye    ffowre    Northerne    Counties    for 
ppagating  ye   Gospell   dated  ye  30th   of 
March  1653. 
Plumton.     Mr.    Broham  Whitsuntide   &    Martinmas        -     04  :  06  :  08 
Westward.     Mr.  Wm.  Briscoe  St.  Mark  &  Mart.     -        -     06  :  00  :  00 
Wery    Holme.     Mr.    Tully  -        -        -  -        -     02  :  03  :  04 

Keld.     Mr.    Henry  Baxter  of   Sebraham        -  -        -     00  :  12  :  00 

Braithwaite.     Mr.    Kirkbride    of  Ellerton  -  -     01  :  10  :  00 

EUerton.     Idem   for   Ellerton 00  :  06  :  08 

Carlislefeild.     Mr.    Orbell   Mr.    Sewell   ffarmer  -        -     04:11:02 

Calcotebanck.     Mr.    Cuthbert    Studholme   p.    Mr.    Orbell     02  :  05  :  07 
St.   Cuth.  Tithe  Hay.     Mr.  Edw.  Orfeure  of  Turpennow    00  :  02  :  06 

Spittlecrocke.     Mr.   Tho.   Stanwix 00  :  01  :  00 

Rapier   close.     Idem  Christibankes   12d.    p.   rapier   Close 

3s.    4d.  -  00  :  04  :  04 

Wery  Holme.     Mr.  Tho.   Stanwix 00  :  05  :  00 

Botcherby.     Tho.  Musgrave  de  botcherby  p.  tithe  hay      -     00  :  01  :  00 


The   Ejected   of  1662 

Mortonscugh  neere  Hutton.     Tho.   Barrow        -        -        -  01  :  09  :  06 

Sawsary.     Mr.   Tully  00  :  01  :  06 

John  Baptist  &  Purific. 

Eocliffe.     Mr.  Edward  Pierson  late  Barwicks     -        -        -  02  :  14  :  00 

Glasgarth.     John  Robson  &  George  Edger  of  Sebraham  00  :  06  :  01* 

Carlilefeild.     Mr.    John   Stanwix 10  :  00  :  00 

Meal  Garner.     Rich.  Kirkbride  Esqr.  of  Ellerton    -        -  10  :  11  :  09 

Meal   Garner.     Idem  in  eodem  modo        -  -        -        -  03  :  00  :  06 

Meal  Garner,     ffrancis  Sisson  of  Asby  in  Westmorld        -  03  :  08  :  00 

Meal  Garner.     Mr.  Whitfeild 03  :  08  :  00 

Meal   Garner.     Barnard  Robinson 03  :  08  :  06 

Meal   Garner.     Mr.    Extetter 03  :  08  :  06 

p  Tith  Hay.     Sissy  Briscoe  Of  Blackell  Widdow       -        -  00  :  02  :  06 

Mr.  Wm.  Barwicke 01  :  08  :  10 

Mr.  Matthew  Cape       -        -        -        -        -  02  :  01  :  69 

Lamas  &   Purific. 

Braithwaithouses.     Mr.   Kirkbride 00  :  03  :  04 

Idem  2s.   Idem  js.   viijd. 00  :  03  :  08 

Harraby  Tyth-Ensigne  Cauffeiid  his  farmer,  Whitso-martin  00  :  10  :  06 
Eang  Garth  &  Cawgarth.     Thomas  Threlkeld  of  Carlisle 

at  Candlemas  only 02  :  01  :  00 

Wethrell  and  Warwick.     Mr.   Howard       -        -        -        -  06  :  13  :  04 

Idem  Eodem 06  :  13  :  04 

Coatehill.     Idem    p    Coathill 01  :  06  :  08 

Thursby  Tennts  at  Whitsontide  &  Lammas        -        -        -  06  :  13  :  04 

Swifthill.     Mr.   George  Barwick  at  Michelmas  only        -  00  :  01  :  06 

Matthew  &  purific. 

Thursby  Vicker.     p  decimis 00  :  12  :  04 

Matthew  &  Mark. 

Proctor  St.  Maries.     Sr.  Henry  ffletcher      -        -        -        -  18  :  13  :  04 

Carlile  Close    Lord  Howard  Michaelmas  only  -        -  00  :  01  :  06 

Carlile  Mill.     Chamberlaine  p.  mills 00  :  10  :  06 

Michaelmas  &  Annuntiacon. 

Little  Banton.     Mrs.  Lowther 02  :  00  :  00 

for  Tenn  :  Bleckell  p  John  Ladiman 00  :  00  :  Oa 

Andrew  &  Purific. 

Eocliff.     Mr.    Gent 01  :  00  :  06 

Stainton   Houghton.     Sr.  Edward   Musgrave     -        -        -  04  :  00  :  06 

Purific.  only. 

Botcherby.     Mr.  John  Agleonby  of  Drawdyke  -        -  02  :  00  :  06 

Tarraby.     Mr.  John  Agleonby 00  :  13  :  04 

Avarisholme.     Idem  p.  Eodem.     P.   Avarisholme      -  00  :  06  :  08 

Botcherby  Tythe  Hay  Idem  for  Botcherby  Tithe  Hay  -  00  :  03  :  04 

Barrickfeild.     Mr.  Edward  ffairfax  &  Easterde  Coldbeck  01  :  04  :  06 

Theophilus   Polewheele  1 49 

p  Tithe  hemp  &  lynt  Thomas  Kidd  of  Carlile  due  Whit. 

&  Mart. 00  :  13  :  04 

p  leeke  &  onions  Idem 00  :  03  :  00 

Ja.    ClafFering,    P.    Hobson,    Henry    Ogle,    Robt.   ffenwick,    Cuth. 
Studholme,  Tho.  Cholmley,  Hen.  Horsley,  John  Ogle,  Tho.  Craister, 
Wm.    Shafto,   Tho.  Langhorne,  Edward   Winter,  Hen.  Dawson,   Lu. 
Ant.  Parsons,  l 

The  following  concerns  Polewheele's  Augmentation :  — 


The  like  [Approval]  to  Mr.  Theo.  Polewheele  of  Carlisle  in 
Com.  Cumberland  Dated  at  Whitehall  ye  18th  day  of  May  1655. 
Jo.   Nye  Regr.* 

Carlisle.  July  2.   1655. 

Whereas  the  Comrs  for  propagation  of  the  Gospell  in  the  fower 
Northerne  Counties  of  Cumbland  Northumberland  Westmland 
and  Durham  by  their  ordr  of  the  eighth  of  March  1653  Setled  Mr. 
Theophilus  Poolewheele  Ministr  in  the  city  of  Carlisle  &  graunted 
him  for  his  service  there  the  yearely  Sume  of  iiijli  vjs  &  viijd  out  of 
the  tithes  of  Plumpton  the  yearely  Sume  of  vili  out  of  the  tithes  of 
Westward  the  yearely  Sume  of  ijli  iijs  and  iiijd  out  of  the  tithes  of 
Weary  holme  wthin  the  parish  of  St.  Maries  in  Carlisle  the  yearely 
Sume  of  xijs  out  of  the  tithe  of  Keld  the  yearely  sume  of  ili  xs  out 
of  the  tithes  of  Brathwaite  ye  yearely  Sume  of  vjs  and  viijd  out  of 
the  tithe  of  Ellerton  the  yearely  Sume  of  iiijli  xjs  and  ijd  out  of  the 
tithes  of  Carlisle  feeld  the  yearely  sume  of  ijli  vs  and  vijd  out  of  the 
tithe  of  Calcoate  Banck  the  yearely  sume  of  ijs  and  vid  out  of  the 
tithe  hey  of  St.  Cuthbert's  the  yearely  sume  of  vs  and  iiijd  out  of 
the  tithes  of  Spittle  Crooks  within  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthberts  in 
Carlisle,  the  yearely  sume  of  vs  out  of  the  tithe  hey  of  Wearyholme 
the  yearely  sume  of  js  for  the  tithe  hey  of  a  Tenemt  in  Botcherby 
within  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthberts  in  Carlisle,  the  yearely  Sume  of 
js  and  vjd  of  the  tithe  of  Sawsery  within  the  parish  of  St.  ]\Iaries, 
the  yearely  sume  of  ili  ixs  and  vjd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Morton  within 
the  parish  of  St.  Maries  aforesaid,  the  yearely  sume  of  ijli  xiiijs  out 
of  the  tithe  of  Rockliffe  the  yearely  sume  of  vjs  and  viijd  out  of  the 
tithes  of  Glasgarth  within  the  parish  of  Seberham  the  yearely  sume 
of  tenne  pounds  out  of  the  tithes  of   Carlislefeild  in  St.    Cuthberts 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.   Min.),   1006. 

2.  Ibid.,  968. 

I50  The   Ejected   of  1662 

parish  in  Carlisle  the  yearely  Sume  of  xiijli  xis  and  ixd  out  of  the 
tithes  of  Meale  Garner  the  further  yearely  Sume  of  xiijli  xis  out  of 
the  said  tithes  of  Meale  Garner  and  the  yearely  Sume  of  ijs  out  of 
the  tithe  hey  of  Blecketwood  within  the  parish  of  St.  Maries  in 
Carlisle  the  yearely  sume  of  iiijli  vis  &  vijd  out  of  the  tithe  of  Briscoe 
within  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthberts  aforsd  ye  yearely  sume  of  vijs 
out  of  Braithwaitehouses  within  the  parish  of  St.  Maries  in  Carlisle 
aforesaid  the  yearely  Sume  of  xs  out  of  the  tithes  of  Harraby  the 
yearely  Sume  of  xiiijli  xiijs  and  iiijd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Wetherall 
and  Warwick  the  yearely  sume  of  vili  xiijs  and  iiijd  out  of  the  tithes 
of  Thursby  and  the  further  yearely  sume  of  xijs  and  iiijd  due  from 
the  vicar  of  Thursby  for  the  tithe  hey  of  Thursby  aforesaid,  the 
yearely  sume  of  js  and  vjd  out  of  the  tithe  of  Swift  Hill,  the  yearely 
sume  of  xviiijli  xiijs  and  iiijd  arising  out  of  the  proctors  office  of  St. 
Maries  in  Carlisle  aforesaid  the  yearely  sume  of  js  out  of  Carlisle 
Close,  the  yearely  sume  of  Tenne  shillings  out  of  the  Mills  in  the 
City  of  Carlisle,  the  yearely  Sume  of  two  pounds  out  of  the  tithes 
of  Little  Banton  the  yearely  Sume  of  eight  pence  for  a  tenement  at 
Blekell  within  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthberts  in  Carlisle,  the  yearely 
Sume  of  one  pound  out  of  the  tithes  of  Rockliffe,  the  yearely  Sume 
of  flower  pounds  out  of  the  tithes  of  Stanton  &  Houghton  within  the 
■  parish  of  Stannix,  the  yearely  sume  of  ijli  iijs  and  iiijd  out  of  the 
tithes  of  Botcherby  within  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthberts  aforesaid,  the 
yearely  Sume  of  one  pound  out  of  the  tithe  of  Tarraby  within  the 
parish  of  Stannix  aforesaid,  the  yearely  sume  of  ili  iiijs  out  of  the 
tithe  of  Barrisfeeld  in  the  parish  of  Heskett  and  the  yearely  sume  of 
xvjs  and  iiijd  out  of  the  tithe  of  hemp  Lint  Leekes  &  Onions  within 
the  parish  of  St.  Maries  in  Carlisle  aforesaid  :  all  within  the  County 
of  Cumberland  It  is  ordered  that  the  rents  and  profitts  of  the  said 
Tithes  and  pmisses  respectively  not  exceeding  the  said  Severall  Sumes 
yearely  bee  from  time  to  time  continued  and  paid  unto  the  said  Mr. 
Theophilus  Poolewheele  (approved  &c)  during  his  continuing  Minr 
of  Carlisle  aforesaid  or  farther  ordr  of  these  Trustees  to  comence 
from  his  last  receipt  and  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Receiver  is  hereby 
appted  [appointed]  and  authorized  to  pay  the  same  unto  him  from 
time  to  time  accordingly  Provided  that  the  said  Mr.  Branthwaite  doe 
examine  whether  the  particulers  herein  menconed  are  the  perticulers 
granted  by  the  said  Comrs  before  hee  make  paymt  of  the  same  & 
thereupon  pay  him  lOOli  a  yeare  out  of  ye  same  till  further  ordr  Jo. 
Thorowgood,  Jo.  Humfrey,  Rich.  Sydenham,  Jo.  Pocock,  Edw. 
Cressett,  Ra.  Hall.' 

The  question  arises  as  to  the  precise  position  which 
Theophilus    Polewheele   held    in    Carlisle.     Was   he   the 
1.  Lambeth  MSS.    (Plund.  Min.),   972. 

Theophilus   Polewheele  1 5 1 

Lecturer  simply?  Were  the  pulpits  of  the  two  Parish 
Churches  occupied  by  other  men?  That  was  the  usual 
position  of  the  Lecturer.  As  previously  intimated  he  was 
not  intended  to  replace  the  resident  Incumbent  or  Incum- 
bents; but  he  was  simply  to  aiigment  his  labours.  Every- 
thing, however,  points  to  a  somewhat  different  state  of 
things  in  Carlisle.  There  is  not  evidence  to  pronounce 
absolutely;  but  the  probabilities  are  considerable  that 
Polewheele  served  the  two  Parishes.  He  is  referred  to  as 
the  Lecturer  for  both  St.  Mary's  and  St.  Cuthbert's;  and 
the  same  is  said  of  Holdsworth  and  Baldwin,  his  imme- 
diate predecessors.  Not  only  so,  but  in  another  document 
he  is  styled  "  late  Minister  of  both  ye  said  parishes."  ^ 
In  1655,  not  1654,  as  Calamy  says,  Theophilus  Polewheele 
removed  to  Devonshire  being  recommended  for  "  the 
porcns  [portions]  of  Clare  &  Titcombe  in  Tiverton."  ^ 

His  First  Fruits  Composition  for  these  places  is  thus 
given  :  — 

Devon.  July  1658. 


Theophilus   polewheel   cl. 

Bound  ye  said  Theophilus,  „       ,,,  ,   ■  •  • 

Clare  in  Tiverton  „  xt      ^  ^   n^-  inrst  Nov.  I608     xlviijli 

Henry    Newton   of    iiver-  „        , 

E.  Tidcombe,    ^  r^     ^        p       «         •  ffirst  May  1659      xijs 

ton      Gent.       &      nrancis  „       ,^ 

Thomas  of  ye  same  Gent.  3 

ffirst  Nov.  1659 

From  Tiverton  he  was  ejected  after  the  E-estoration, 
and  in  the  Conventicle  Returns  for  1665-6  it  is  said  that 
he  there  "  keepes  seditious  Conventicles."*  In  1672  he 
licensed  the  house  of  Peter  Bere  of  Tiverton  for  "  Cong  " 
worship,  this  being  one  of  the  earliest  Licenses  issued. 
Calamy  devotes  considerable  space  to  this  distinguished 
man.  ^    A    daughter    married    Stephen    Lobb    "  a    very 

1.  Vide  162.  "  ' 

2.  Lambeth   MSS.    (Plund.   Min.),   997. 

3.  Composition  Books  (Record   Office),  vol.   22. 

4.  Lambeth  MSS.   639. 

5.  Calamy,  vols,  ii,  p.  239 ;  lii,  p.  260. 

152  The   Ejected   of  1662 

eminent  Divine   of   tlie   Independent   denomination "   at 
Fetter  Lane,  London,  towards  the  end  of  the  17th  Century.^ 
In    reference  to   what    followed    Chancellor    Ferguson 
says : — 

In  1655  Mr.  Timothy  Tullie  preached  the  Election  sermon,  and 
so  probably  succeeded  as  Lecturer.  But  in  that  year  also  occurred 
the  "Vacancy  of  Ministers"  :  the  few  remaining  Episcopalians  were 
everywhere  ejected,  and  the  ministers  of  the  two  Carlisle  churches 
went,  for  we  have  the  record  of  the  election  of  their  successors  and 
of  the  great  preaching  contest  which  took  place  between  the  candi- 
dates for  the  vacant  berths  in  December,  1655,  and  the  following 
January.  2 

It  is  impossible  to  accept  that  as  a  correct  view  of  the 
case.  The  "  Vacancy  "  would  be  caused  by  the  removal 
of  Theophilus  Polewheele,  and  not  by  the  ejection  of  the 
"  few  remaining  Episcopalians,"  of  which  there  is  no 
evidence.  Nor  is  it  appropriate  to  speak  of  what  followed 
as  a  "  preaching  contest."  In  all  probability  most  of  the 
preachers,  whose  names  are  here  appended,  were  simply 
"  pulpit  supplies." 

December  ye   16th  1655. 

A  note  ffor  the  Ministers  charges  when  they  preached  here  in  the 
time   of   the   Vacancy  of   Ministers  : — 

ffor  the  Ministers,  Mr.  Studholme  and  myne  own  charges  at 
Keswicke  01  :  09  :  09. 

Dec.  24.  Item  paid  to  Mr.  Craister'  for  his  charges  to  London, 
10  : 00  :  00. 

Itm.  pd  for  Mr.  Caves  4  charges  at  Edward  James  GO  :  05  :  00. 
[For  James  vide  p.  156.] 

Itm  paid  for  wine  and  beare  when  Mr.  Tully  and  INIr.  Starr  and 
others  came  to  Towne  00  :  12  :  04. 

Itm  paid  for  Sacke  &  beare  bestowed  on  Mr.   Tomer  6  00  :  04  :  08. 

1.  Wilson's  "Dissenting  Churches,"  etc.,  vol.  iii,  pp.  142,  436. 

2.  "The  Lectureship,"  etc.,  p.  317. 

3.  Thomas  Craister,  Mayor  of  Carlisle.     He  and  Cuthbert  Studholme 
were  Magistrates. 

4.  James  Cave,  Ejected  Minister  of  Thornthwaite,  vide  p.  660.  * 

5.  Thomas  Turner,  of  Crosby  and  Stanwix.     Ejected  from  Torpenhow, 
vide  pp.  191,  201,  581. 

Pulpit   Supplies  1 5 . 

Jan.  7th.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Larkim's  i  charges  at  Edw.  Craisters 
00  :  05  :  04. 

14.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Benson  2  at  Edward  Craister  00  :  04  :  03. 

21.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  flallowfield  3  and  his  man  at  Mrs.  Monks 
00  :  07  :  06. 

28.     Item  pd  for  Mr.  Warwicke  4  at  Robt.  Colyers  00  :  03  :  00. 

ffebr.  4.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Harrison  5  and  an  other  at  Ed.  Craister 
00  :  05  :  00. 

11.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Ardrey  6  and  his  man  at  Mr.  Pattinsons 
00  :  09  :  06. 

18.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Gilpin  7  and  his  man  at  Edward  James 
00  : 10  :  06. 

Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Tomlinson  [Corporation  Official]  for  his  charges  to 
Penrith  00  :  01  :  00. 

Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Croxile  8  horse  charges  00  :  01  :  08. 

March  3.  Itm  paid  for  Mr.  Jackson  9  at  Edward  James 
00  :  06  :  09. 

March  10th.  Itm  pd  ffor  Mr.  TibbaldslO  at  Edward  James 
00  :  06  :  08. 

March  17.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Davis  n  at  Edw.  Craister's  00  :  07  :  06. 

31.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Grainger  12  at  George  Martin's  00  :  02  :  06. 

April  8.  Itm  pd  to  Ralph  Beckwth  for  Ires  [letters]  to  Mr.  Starr 
00  : 00  :  09. 

April  14.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Newton  13  at  Mrs.  Monks  00  :  03  :  09. 

21.     Itm  pd   for  Mr.  Macmilion  W  at  Edw.  James  00  :  05  :  02. 
28.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  if orwath  15  at  Edw.  Craisters  00  :  05  :  02. 

1.  George  Larkham,  Ejected  Minister  of  Cockermouth,  vide  p.  684. 

2.  George  Benson,  Ejected  Minister  of  Bridekirk,  vide  p.  709. 

3.  Henry  Fallowfield,  of  Uldale,  vide  p.  555. 

4.  Thomas  Warwick,  possibly  of  Aspatria,  vide  p.  643. 

5.  John  Harrison,  probably  the  Ireby  Minister,  vide  p.  559. 

6.  William   Ardrey    of    Bassenthwaite    or   John  Ardrey    of    Cliburn, 
vide  pp.  673,  1243. 

7.  Richard  Gilpin,  ejected  from  Greystoke,  vide  p.  459. 

8.  Randolph  Croxall  of  Kirkland,  vide  p.  393. 

9.  John  Jackson,  probablv  of  Hutton-in-the- Forest ;  or  Peter  Jackson 
of  Castle  Sowerby,  vide  pp.  488,  495. 

10.  George  Tibbold  of  Skelton  and  Great  Asby,  vide  pp.  481,  1113. 

11.  John  Davis,  doubtless,  of  Kirkoswald,  vide  p.  334. 

12.  William  Grainger  of  Brcmfield,  vide  p.  638. 

13.  Possibly  Samuel  Newton,   ejected   from  Rivington,  LaJicashire. 

14.  John  Macmillan  of  Edenhall,  vide  p.  441. 

15.  John  Forward,  probably,  of  Boltongate,  vide  p.  565. 

154  The   Ejected   of  1662 

May  12.  Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Hamilton  i  and  his  man  charges  at 
Mr.   Pattinson  00  :  05  :  08. 

19.     Item  pd  for  Mr.   Courtney  2  at  Mrs.  Menkes  00  :  05  :  04 

26th.     Itm  pd  for  Mr.  Bumand   3  at  Mrs.  Menkes  00  :  05  :  04. 

Itm  pd  for  Lres  going  to  Mr.  Starr  [Comfort  Starr]  00  :  02  :  06. 

June  2.     Item  pd  for  Mr.  Wood  *  at  Edward  James  00  :  04  :  00. 

Item  pd  to  Mr.  Sewell  for  Ires  to  Mr.  Bramphwhaite  °  00  :  06  :  04. 

May  26.  Item  pd  for  wine  and  sacke  bestowed  upon  the  ministers 
00  :  03  :  00. 

The  two  men  appointed  were  Timothy  Tullie  and 
Comfort  Starr,  the  former  to  St.  Mary's  and  the  latter  to 
St.  Cuthbert's.  The  State  Papers  let  in  considerable 
light  upon  the  character  and  policy  of  many  of  the  prin- 
cipal men  in  the  City  at  this  time,  showing  that  the  so- 
called  "  Malignant "  party  were  far  from  being  the 
suppressed  party  they  are  commonly  represented  to  have 
been.  Cuthbert  Studholme  petitioned  the  Protector  on 
January  17,  1655-6  stating  that  the  City  was  governed 
by  a  "mayor,  11  aldermen  and  24  citizens" ;  that  all  the 
Aldermen  served  against  Parliament  before  1647  and 
were  ejected  except  E-ich.  Barwise  along  with  some  of  the 
more  active  citizens;  but  that  the  rest  were  retained  in 
the  hope  that  they  would  change  their  principles  and 
comply  at  least  outwardly.  "  Since  the  Act  of  Oblivion," 
he  continues,  "  Peter  Norman  has  animated  the  Malig- 
nants  and  these  elected  him  Mayor  in  1654,  and  again  for 
this  year  since  which  time  efforts  at  public  good  have  been 
fruitless."  The  articles  against  Norman  were  that  he 
joined  the  King's  party;  opposed  the  reformation  of  ale- 
houses; secured  election  for  the  disaffected  Aldermen; 
and  countenanced  Thos.  Musgrave  a  "  Malignant  School- 
master and  opposed  a  pious  one  settled  there  (Dec.  26, 

1.  John  Hamilton  of  Kirkbride  and  Thursby,  vide  pp.  597,  536. 

2.  Thomas  Courtney,  ejected  from  Kirkandrews-on-Esk,  vide  p.  297. 

3.  Nathaniel  Bumand,  ejected  from  Brampton,  vide  p.  255. 

4.  —  Wood,  not  identified.     Not  certain  whether  should  be  Wood 
or  Ward. 

5.  Edmund  Branthwaite,  Treasurer  for  the  County,  vide  p.  1083. 

Illuminating   Documents  155 

1655)."      Instructions  were  given  to  remove   disaffected 
persons  and  carry  out  the  order  of  September  21,  1655.^ 
The  following  also  is  illuminating  :  — 

A  certificate  of  the  well  affected  of  the  Citty  of  Carlile  on  the 
behalfe  of  Isaac  Tullie  and   Edward  James. 

Wee  whose  names  are  under  written,  do  certifie  That  wee  know  & 
have  taken  notice  of  the  Petrs  [Petitioner^  since  the  yeare  1648,  to 
be  such  as  have  walked  unblameablely,  lived  peaceablely ;  and  their 
Godly  and  Religious  Conversation  have  clearely  and  convinceingly, 
evidenced  to  us,  not  onely  (as  good  Chrestians)  their  piety  to  god- 
warde,  but  also  (as  good  Subjects)  their  fidelity  to  the  psent  Govermt, 
and  it  doth  clearely  appeare  to  us  that  the  informrs  have  prosecuted 
them  meerely  upon  malice  Upon  the  account  of  honest  and  faithfull 
men  (what  ever  other  grounds  they  may  prtend  to  lay  their  informa- 
cons  upon)  And  although  the  mformers  have  onely  publiquely  appeared 
agt  them,  yet  wee  verily  beleive  and  some  of  us  assuredly  know, 
that  they  were  advised  unto,  and  put  upon  that  businesse  by  & 
through  the  encuragment  of  Severall  mallignant  and  disaffected  psons, 
amongst  us  endeavouring  thereby  not  onely  the  ejectment  of  the 
petrs,  but  also  to  make  that  a  p'sident  of  discouragmt  to  others  from 
whom  wee  might  (through  the  blessing  of  God)  expect  the  like 
conversion,  being  apparent  to  us,  that  because  the  petrs  have  wholely 
and  altogether  deserted  the  mallignant  party  &  interest,  and  given 
such  Sattesfaction  concerning  their  good  affection  to  the  psent  power, 
therefore  the  informrs  and  the  mallignant  party  through  them  have 
malHciously  appeared  against  the  petrs  maskeing  their  mallignant 
designe  under  cullour  of  the  late  declaration,  that  so  they  might 
walke  the  more  obscurely,  act  the  more  insensibly,  and  by  so  faire 
a  p'tence,  might  with  more  facillity  acomplish  their  designe,  and  so 
by  this  meanes  over  throw  and  subvert  the  true  intent  and  meaneing 
of  his  Highnesse  Declaration,  endeavoring  to  make  that  wch  was 
p'incipally  intended  to  the  discouragmt  weakening  and  subvertion  of 
the  mallignant  partye  and  interest,  and  to  the  encouragmt  strength- 
enijig  and  Securement  of  the  well  affected,  to  produce  the  contrary 
effects,  contrary  to  the  intent  and  purport  of  the  aforesd  Declaration, 
.  and  contrary  to  the  primary  intention  of  his  Highnesse  and  Councell 
in  the  makeing  thereoff.  Wherefore  knowing  the  pmisses  to  be  as 
afforesd  wee  held  it  our  Duty,  &  conceived  or  selves  obliged  to  give 
yor  Honr  Sattisfaction  in  this  matter,  and  to  desire  the  petHionrs  may 
have  yor  Honnrs  assistance  &  encouragemt  to  tlie  retaineing  of  their 
places  and  imployments,  as  also  to  the  discouragmt  of  mallignant  & 
disaffected  psons  from  things  of  the  like  nature. 

1.  Cal.   S.P.   Dom.  for  1655-6,  pp.   118,  121,  122. 

156  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Tho.  Craister,  Tho.  Sewell,  Cuth.  Studholme,  Thomas  Turner, 
Schoolemaster,  Willm  James,  John  Robinson,  Antho.  Craister, 
ffrancis  Woods,  Pet.  Todd,  Thomas  Dixon,  Thomas  Brisco,  Richard 
Scott,  Isaac  Millnr,  Rob.  James,  William  Langshaw,  William  Briscoe, 
Tho.  Holme. 

The   names   of   some   Majistrates   off   Carlisle  whoe   forbore  acting 
upon  his  highnes  proclamation. 
Isacke  Tully  alderman. 

A  godly  man  for  whom  ye  good  party  of  ye  Towne  of  Carlyle  hath 
Edward  James,   Common  Coimsell  Man. 

A  godly  man  approven  also  by  ye  sd  good  ptie  mentioned  in  the 
Certificate  anexed. 
Richard  Moncke,  Comon  Councell  Man. 

An  ingenious  younge  man  in  ye  time  of  danger  a  Complyer  wth  ye 
Parliamts  partye,  what  was  done  Agst  us  was  done  by  Com- 
pulsione  hath   since   Caried  himself  well. 
John  Harrison,  Comon  Counsell  Man. 

Hee  was  under  age  And  an  apprentice  when   he  acted   Agst   us, 
but   since   hath   carried   himselfe   well. 
John  Robbinson,   Comon  Counsell  Man. 

He  was  imprisoned   before  he  did  anythinge,  and  now  is  Looked 
upon  as  a  Godly  man. 
Robert  Jackson,  Comon  Counsell  Man. 

He  was  Compelled  to  act  what  he  did  for  ye  Enymie — hee  since 

hath  Testiffied  his  affectione  to  us. 
This  is  ye  Accompt  that  1  receaved  when  I  was  at  Carlile  from  ye 
godly  partye  there  And  therefore  it  is  desired  that  they  may  Act  as 

[Endorsed  behind] 

Concerning  ye  Magistracy  Ord.  &  Ref.  3  Ap.  1656. 

Thursday,  3  Aprill  1656. 

Upon  reading  a  certificate  from  Sevall  Welaffected  psns  in  the 
Citty  of  Carlisle  on  behalfe  of  Isaac  Tully,  Alderman  of  the  Said 
Citty,  and  Edwd  James,  Comon  Counsell  man,  these  testyfying  their 
godly  Conversation  and  good  affection  to  the  psent  Governmt  Ordered 
by  his  Highness  ye  Lord  Protector  and  the  Councell  That  the  said 
Isaac  Tully  and  Edwd  James  be  Contynued  in  their  respective  offices 
and  places  of  Alderman  and  Comon  Councellman  in  the  said  Citty 
and  that  they  doe  Act  accordingly  notwthstanding  his  Highness  Late 
Proclamacon  and  that  the  Major  Genii  there  take  notice  thereof. 

Upon  reading  a  paper  from  Col.  Howard  Depty  Major  Genii  for 
some  of  the   Northerne  Countyes  on  behalfe  of  Rich   Monke,   John 

Timothy   TuUie  157 

Harison,  John  Robinson  and  Robert  Jackson,  Comon  Counsel!  men 
of  the  Citty  of  Carlisle  to  be  Contynued  in  their  respective  places 
being  at  present  suspended  upon  the  late  Proclamation  Ordered  That 
it  be  referred  back  to  the  said  Col.  Howard  to  advise  wth  the 
honest  Godly  and  welafected  people  of  the  said  Citty  and  if  thereupon 
they  shall  think  it  fitt  and  necessary  for  the  good  of  the  Towne  that 
ye  said  psns  be  contynued  in  their  sd  Offices  and  places  that  then 
he  doe  pmitt  them  to  Act  therein  notwthstanding  the  said  procla- 
macon.  i 

Timothy  Tullie,  M.A.,  1656. 

He  received  the  St.  Mary's  appointment  and  was  the 
son  of  George  Tullie  of  Carlisle,  by  his  wife,  Thomazine 
Heckstetter.  She  belonged  to  the  Heckstetters  of  Kes- 
wick, her  marriage  with  George  Tullie  taking  place  at 
Crosthwaite  in  1613.  Timothy  Tullie  matriculated  at 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  November  21,  1628,  at  the  age 
of  15  years.  He  took  his  B.A.  October  25,  1632  (incor- 
porated, Cambridge,  1633),  M.A.  June  16,  1635,^  and 
became  Rector  of  Cliburn  in  1639,  having  charge  of 
Milburn  also.  In  1641  he  received  the  sum  of  £1  0  0  for 
preaching  a  mayoral  election  Sermon  at  Carlisle.  A 
younger  brother,  Thomas,  graduated  M.A.  in  the  same 
University,  subsequently  became  D.D.,^  was  Rector  of 
Grittleton  in  Wilts,  in  1658,  and  compounded  in  that  year 
for  his  First  Fruits  as  witness  the  following :  — 

May  1658. 
Gritleton.         Thomas  Tully   CI.   Bound  p.  manibus      xijl  xiiis 

Wilts.  R.  Humphrey    Robbinson    of  ffirst  Oct.  1658 

ye    pish    of    St.     ffaithes  ffirst  Apr.  1659 

Staconer  &  Thomas  Yonge  ffirst  Oct.  1659 
of  ye   same   Staconer.  4 

Thomas  Tullie  held  Grittleton  along  with  the  Principal- 
ship  of  St.  Edmund  Hall,  and  a  threatened  breach  in  Sir 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.,  I.  77,  p.  21. 

2.  AI.  Ox. 

3.  Ibid. 

4.  Composition  Books  (Record  Office),  vol.  22. 

158'  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Joseph  Williamson's  friendship  drew  forth  the  following 

somewhat  obsequious  letter  :  — 

My  good  Friend  (for  so  I  hope  you  are  still). 

Since  my  returne  out  of  ye  Countrie  I  have  been  so  employed  in 
settling  some  matters  of  concernment  here  by  occasion  of  our  late 
Butler's  decease  (who  has  left  things  in  some  disorder  and  entangle- 
ment), that  I  have  hitherto  wanted  a  convenient  opportunitie  to 
wait  upon  you  (though  I  have  exceedinglie  desir'd  it)  &  besides  1 
know  your  hours  are  precious. 

To  shorten  the  trouble  of  the  paper  what  I  can,  give  me  leave  to 
expresse  my  great  unhappinesse,  that  having  so  long  enioyed  the 
honour  of  you  reall  heartie  friendship  (which  I  ever  plac'd  amongst 
the  bounties  of  your  obliging  nature,  not  your  debts)  I  should  on  a 
sudden  be  struck  to  ye  heart  (I'm  sure  the  wounds  no  Jesse)  with  the 
report  and  sense  of  your  displeasure.  Good  Sr  be  not  offended  at  ye 
question,  qua  merui  culpam?  It  must  certainlie  not  onlie  be  a  fault, 
but  in  your  account  a  verie  great  one  which  calls  for  this  severitie  to 
an  old  acquaintance,  and  (I  blesse  God  I  can  speake  it  heartilie)  to 
one  that  never  in  his  life  had  either  an  unkind  or  a  disrespectful 
thought  of  you  to  this  day — utinamque  oculos  in  pectora  posses  inserere. 
I  write  this  Sr  with  some  passion  (I  mean  of  griefe,  wch  runs  over 
at  my  eyes,  as  well  as  at  my  pen).  Deare  Sr,  in  short  one  thing 
troubles  me  most,  that  you  should  looke  upon  me  as  an  ungrateful! 
person,  for  heu  omnia  dixti.  I  hope  I  hate  that  monster  of  vices, 
and  shall  wait  your  leisure  with  all  thankfulnesse,  might  I  but  know 
you  would  some  time  afford  me  the  libertie  to  receive  your  instruc- 
tions in  that  particr.  As  for  Mr.  Prov,  I  am  sorrie  you  should  suspect 
he  has  any  such  influence  upon  me,  which  I  hope  shall  never  be 
allowed  by  me  to  any  creature  upon  earth.  Our  acquaintance  you 
know  is  not  of  yesterday's  date  :  He  has  bin  alwaies  kind  &  civill 
to  me,  &  I  need  not  tell  you  that  that  religion  which  binds  me  to 
love  my  enemyes,  is  far  from  obliging  me  to  qarrell  with  my  friends. 
If  indeed  I  had  ever  since  I  knew  him  done  ye  least  ill  office  in  word 
or  deed  to  any  he  has  not  (to  my  griefe)  the  like  favour  for  I  should 
snatch  the  hot  iron  out  of  my  worst  enemies  hand  (if  any  such  I 
have)  to  brand  my  selfe  withall ;  but  of  anie  such  iniquitie  I  trust 
God  &  my  own  Conscience  will  acquitt  me.  Dear  Sr  I  give  you  too 
much  trouble,  but  indeed  in  regard  to  ye  holie  time  approaching  (when 
I  purpose  God  willing  to  receive  ye  Sacrt)  I  thought  it  expedient  to 
indeavour  your  satisfaction  in  this  (to  me  verie  unexpected  &  most 
unhappy)  business,  assuring  you  that  however  you  may  have  mistaken 
me  or  I  may  have  been  misrepresented  to  you  by  others,  I  am  ever 
(what  your  merit  that  made  me) 

Your  most  reall  friend  &  affectionatelie  humble  servt, 


Comfort   Starr  1 59 

10  ber  23. 

Would  to  God  Sr  I  knew  when  I  might  wait  upon  you  with  ye 
least  trouble  to  you  for  one  minute  of  private  discourse  with  you. 

To  my  bond  friend  Joseph  Williamson  Esqr.  at  Court  [in  pencil, 
"1665  Dec.  23"].^ 

Thomas  Tullie  was  Dean  of  Ripon  at  the  time  of  his 
death,  which  took  place  January  14,  1675-6.  Isaac  Tullie, 
previously  named  as  the  youthful  historian  of  the  Siege 
of  Carlisle,  was  also  brother  to  Timothy,  being  Mayor  of 
the  City  at  the  time  of  the  Restoration.  The  Tullie 
House  Library,  in  Carlisle,  is  an  abiding  memorial  of  the 
importance  and  influence  of  the  family. 

Comfort  Stake,  M.A.,  1656. 

He  was  appointed  to  St.  Cuthbert's  and  respecting  him 
Calamy  says :  — 

CARLISLE  :  Mr.  Comfort  Starr.  He  was  born  at  Ashford  in 
Kent  where  his  Father  was  Physician.  He  was  Educated  in  New- 
England  where  in  1647  he  took  the  Degree  of  M.A.  and  was  some 
time  Fellow  of  Harvard  College.  He  was  Ejected  from  this  place 
[Carlisle] ;  and  afterwards  perform'd  laborious  Service  in  several 
places  in  the  County  of  Kent ;  and  was  at  last  Pastor  of  a  Church 
at  Lewes  in  Sussex,  where  he  died  October  the  30th  1711,  In  the 
87th  Year  of  his  Age.2 

Starr  was  not  an  uncommon  family  name  in  Puritan 
circles,  especially  in  Kent  and  Devon.  Thomas  Starr  of 
Canterbury,  yeoman,  and  Susan  his  wife,  with  one  child 
took  passage  from  Sandwich  for  the  New  World  shortly 
before  June  1637.^  Joy  Starr  was  one  of  the  Churchwardens 
of  Ashford  Church,  Kent,  in  1644,  and  with  his  brother 
warden  he  removed  the  altar  from  the  Parish  Church.  On 
March  3rd,  1657,  "some  differences  having  arisen  between 
Brother  Reinolds  and  Brother  Starr  "  in  relation  to  the 
accounts    of    the    Church    then    assembling   in    Dancing 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II.  vol.  139,  fol.  100. 

2.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  150 ;  vol.  iii,  p.  226. 

3.  Boys's  "  History  of  Sandwich,"  p.  752. 

i6o  The   Ejected   of  1662 

House  Yard,  Canterbury,  the  Church  considered  the 
matter,  and  the  record  proceeds  "  that  Brother  Starr  had 
in  him  very  much  of  that  wch  was  the  root  of  all  evill — 
the  love  of  money — and  that  thence  proceeded  the  evill 
of  his  carriage  in  the  case."  On  September  7th,  1658,  it 
is  stated  in  the  Church  Book  that  "  Or  [our]  Brother  Starr 
declared  his  sorrow  and  repentance  for  the  offence  of  wch 
hee  was  formerly  admonished,  and  the  church  was  recon- 
ciled to  him."  Richard  Starr's  name  was  appended  to  an 
application  by  a  "  Church  of  Christ "  in  Exeter,  in  1672, 
that  one  "  Mr.  Lewes  Stuckley  be  allowed  to  be  or  [our] 
Teacher."  Thomas  Bernard  Starr,  who  was  a  Noncon- 
formist Minister,  at  Topsham  in  Devonshire,  was  on 
August  25th,  1687,  ordained  with  seven  others  at  Lyme. 
Thomas  Starr,  in  1672,  signed  a  memorial  of  thanks  for  the 
Declaration  of  Indulgence  from  "  a  licensed  Congregation 
in  Dartmouth,"  Devon. 

The  following  inscription  on  a  black  marble  tablet 
placed  in  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  Cranbrook,  Kent,  in  1909, 
in  memory  of  Dr.  Comfort  Starr,  father  of  Comfort  Starr 
of  Carlisle,  contains  some  interesting  information :  — 

In  memory  of  Dr.  Comfort  Starr,  baptized  in  Cranbrook  Church, 
6th  July,  1589.  A  warden  of  St.  Mary's  Ashford,  Kent,  1631.  Sailed 
from  Sandwich  for  New  England,  1635.  One  of  the  earliest  benefac- 
tors of  Harvard,  the  first  college  in  America,  1638,  of  which  his  son, 
Comfort,  was  one  of  the  Incorporators,  1650.  Died  at  Boston,  New 
England,  2nd  January,  1659.  A  distinguished  surgeon,  eminent  for 
Christian  character.     Erected  by  his  American  descendants,    1909. 

The  entry  on  the  "  Register  of  those  who  sailed  from 
Sandwich  in  the  "  Hercules  "  in  March,  1634/5,  gives  :  — 

"  Comfort  Starre  of  Ashford,  chirurgion,  with  three 
children  and  three  servants."  Those  signing  his  Certi- 
ficate, and  testifying  that  he  was  "  in  conformity  to  the 
orders  and  discipline  of  the  church,  and  that  he  had  taken 
the  oath  of  allegiance  and  supremacy"  were  "Edm.  Hayes, 
Yicar  of  Ashford,  21  Mar.,  1634,  Jno.  Honnywood,  Tho. 
Godfrey,  Justices."  It  will  be  noted  that  no  mention  is 
made  of  his  wife,  neither  is  he  described  as  a  widower. 

Comfort   Starr  i6i 

Comfort  Starr  would  be  only  some  ten  years  old  when 
he  crossed  the  Atlantic,  and  in  the  University  of  which 
his  father  was  a  benefactor,  he  became  a  distinguished 
scholar.  In  his  "  Magnalia"  Cotton  Mather  gives  a  list  of 
Harvard  students  in  which  appears  the  following :  — 

1647  Consolantius  Starr.     M.  Socius.^ 

How  he  came  to  be  introduced  to  the  Church  at 
Carlisle  we  have  no  means  of  knowing;  and  at  the  time 
of  his  appointment  he  would  be  about  31  years  of  age. 
The  Cockermouth  Church  Book  notes  the  baptism  of 
"  Comfort  ye  son  of  Comfort  Starr,"  and  "  Hannah  ye 
da.  of  Alex.  Auvelins,"  at  Carlisle,  by  George  Larkham, 
on  May  28th,  1657 ;  and  it  appears  that  Comfort  Starr's 
wife,  "  Grace,"  was  a  member  of  the  Cockermouth  Church. 
In  the  Church  Book  appears  a  note  of  her  dismissal. 
Whether  she  belonged  to  the  Cockermouth  district  is  not 

Comfort  Starr  was  of  the  "  Congregational  way." 
George  Larkham,  in  the  Cockermouth  Church  Book,  under 
date  September,  1658,  refers  to  a  "  letter  being  sent  to 
ye  church  at  Carlisle  from  Mr.  Griffith,  PastDr  of  a 
Church  in  London,  appointed  to  write  to  ye  churches  in 
the  country  by  the  churches  in  &  about  London,  for  a 
generall  meeting  of  the  churches  in  England  of  ye 
Congregaonall  way  at  the  Savoy  in  London  the  29th  of 
ye  same  month,  to  draw  vip  a  confession  of  their  faith, 
&  declaraon  of  their  order  &c."  Some  of  the  replies  to 
Mr.  Griffith's  letter  have  been  preserved  in  Peck's  "Desid- 
erata Curiosa,"  and  among  them  is  Comfort  Starr's,  the 
only  one  for  the  area  with  which  we  are  concerned.  It  is 
as  follows  :  — 

Comfort  Starr  of  Carlisle  to  the  same  [Henry  Scobell] ;  signifying 
his  Receipt  of  Mr.   George   Griffith's  Letter.     Dated   1.   Sept.    1658. 
An  original  (once  Mr.  Oudart's)  now  in  the  Hands  of  the  Editor. 
"Sir  Sep.,  1658.  10.  c.  U. 

There  came  to  my   Hands  by  the  last  Post,   a  Letter  which   Mr. 

1.  Book  iv,  p.    136. 


1 62  The   Ejected   of  1662 

George  Griffith  wrote  to  mee  in  the  Name  &  by  the  Appointment  of 
the  Congregational  Elders  in  &  about  London.  This  much  I  am 
desired  by  the  first  opportunity  to  signify  unto  you ;  which  accordingly 
being,  done,  1  shall  (without  further  troubling  of  you)  take  Leave  & 
Subscribe  my  Selfe  as  I  am 

Sir    Your  Worships  himible  Servant     Comfort  Starr. 
Carlisle  Sept  1. 

For  the  Worshipfull  Henry  Scobell  Esq.  Clerk  of  the  Countell  at 
Whitehall  :  These,  London." 

[The  Seal,  a  PhcEnix  burning  in  her  nest.]l 

The  Church,  at  Cockermouth  "  did  make  choice  of  their 
Pastour  to  go  there  as  a  Messenger,  who  began  his  iourney 
Sept.  20."  George  Larkham  probably  sufficed  for  the 
district  in  the  important  gathering. 

The  following  documents  give  a  full  and  continuous 
story  of  events  in  Carlisle,  up  to  the  time  of  the 
Restoration,   which  led  to  such  large   changes :  — 

Maries  & 
Cuthberts  in 

Carlisle.  January  11.   1655. 

Upon  Consideracon  had  of  the  peticon  of  the  parishioners  of  the 
Severall  parishes  of  Maryes  &  Cuthberts  within  and  without  the  city 
of  Carlisle  &  of  the  Severall  Chappelryes  thereto  belonging  &  of  the 
allowance  of  one  hundred  &  twenty  poundes  a  yeare  alleadged  to  bee 
granted  by  the  Comrs  for  propagating  the  Gospell  to  Mr.  Polewheele 
late  Minister  of  both  ye  said  parishes  In  regard  there  is  noe  other 
maintennce  to  the  ^linrs  of  the  said  Churches  belonging  the  same 
being  from  tyme  to  tyme  supplyed  by  the  Deane  and  prebends  of 
Carlisle  aforesaid  Ordered  that  in  Case  it  shall  appeare  upon  report 
from  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr.  of  the  State  of  the  Revenue  of 
that  County  &  how  the  same  stands  charged  and  that  forty  poundes 
a  yeare  may  bee  Advanced  over  and  above  the  said  one  hundred  & 
twenty  poundes  a  yeare  for  the  maintennce  of  the  Ministrs  of  the  said 
Towne  the  Trustees  will  take  into  Consideracon  the  setling  of  Mr. 
Timothy  Tully  Min^str  of  St.  Maryes  &  Mr.  Comfort  Starre  Minr  of 
St.  Cuthberts  &  of  eight  score  poundes  a  yeare  for  their  maintennce 
Jo.  Thorowgood  Ri.  Sydenham  Jo.  Pocock  Edw.  Hopkins  Ri.  Yong.2 

1.  Vol.  ii,  Liber  xiii,  p.  29. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  1008. 

Comfort   Starr  163 

Carlisle.  April  22.  1656. 

Ordered  that  Mr.  Timothy  Tully  and  Mr.  Comfort  Starre  bee  setled 
Ministrs  in  the  parishes  of  St.  Cuthberts  &  St.  Maries  in  the  City  of 
Carlisle  with  the  Chappells  thereto  belonging  And  that  the  yearely 
Sume  of  ffower  score  poundes  a  peice  bee  setled  upon  them  for 
increase  of  their  jNIaintennce  during  theire  Continuance  there  upon 
theire  producing  Certificates  of  theire  respective  Approbacons  from 
the  Comrs  for  Approbacon  of  publique  preachers. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Ra.  Hall  Jo.   Humfrey  Jo.  Pocock.  1 

Cuthberts  in 

Carlisle.  April  24.  1656. 

Whereas  the  Rectories  of  the  pish  Churches  of  Maries  &  Cuthberts 
wthin  the  City  of  Carlisle  being  impropriat«  to  the  late  Deane  & 
Chapter  ot  Carlisle  the  cures  of  the  said  Churches  were  under  the 
care  &  provision  of  the  said  Deane  &  Chapter  there  being  foure 
Chappelries  thereunto  Belonging  &  the  said  City  pishes  and  Chappel- 
ries  are  now  destitute  of  any  Minister  It  is  ordered  That  Timothy 
Tully  a  godly  &  Painefull  preacher  of  the  Gospell  be  &  he  is  hereby 
appointed  Minister  of  the  said  pish  Church  of  Cuthberts  &  yt  he  take 
care  of  the  cure  thereof  by  preaching  &  diligently  instructing  the 
pishioners  of  the  said  pish  &  the  Chappelries  thereof  &  yt  he  shall 
have  for  his  said  Service  all  ffees,  Salaries,  Stipends  &  Allowances  to 
the  Minister  of  the  said  Church  due  or  of  right  accustomed.  And  it 
is  further  ordered  that  ye  yearely  sume  of  fourscore  pounds  be  from 
time  to  time  paid  unto  the  said  ilr.  Tully  (approved  according  to  the 
Ordinance  for  Approbacon  of  publique  preachers)  out  of  the  rents  & 
profitts  hereafter  menconed  (vizt)  the  yearely  sume  of  Eight  poundes 
iijs  &  ixd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Meal  Garner  the  further  yrly  sume  of  iiijli 
viiijs  &  vijd  out  of  the  tithe  of  hay  of  Meal  Garner  the  further  jrrly 
sume  of  vijs  out  of  Braithwaite  houses  wthin  the  pish  of  St.  Maries  in 
Carlisle  aforesaid  the  further  yrly  sume  of  10s  out  of  tithe  of  Harraby 
the  further  yrly  Sume  of  ijli  js  out  of  the  tithes  of  King  Garth  &  Caw 
Garth  the  further  yrly  sume  of  jli  vis  &  viijd  out  of  the  tithes  of 
Coate  hill  the  further  yrly  sume  of  vjli  xiijs  &  iiijd  out  of  the  tithes  of 
Thursby  the  further  yrly  sume  of  js  &  vjd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Swift 
hill,  the  yrly  tenth  of  xijs  &  iiijd  issuing  out  of  the  viccarage  of 
Thursby  the  further  yrly  Sume  of  xviijli  xiijs  &  iiijd  arising  out  of 
the  Proctors  office  of  St.  Maries  in  Carlisle  aforesaid  the  further  yrly 
sume  of  js  out  of  ye  tithe  of  Carlisle  close  the  further  yrly  Sume  of 
10s  out  of  the  Mills  wthin  the  City  of  Carlisle,  the  further  yrly  sume 
of  ijli  out  of  the  tithes  of  Little  Banton  the  yrly  Sume  of  8d  for  a 
tenemt  at  Bleckett  wthin  the  pish  of  St  Cuthberts  in  Carlisle  the 
further  yrly  sume  of  jli  out  of  ye  tithe  of  Rocliffe  the  further  yrly 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  972. 

1 64  The   Ejected    of  1662 

sume  of  iijjli  out  of  the  tithes  of  Stainton  Houghton,  the  further  yrfy 
sume  of  ijli  out  of  the  tithes  of  Botcherby  the  further  yrly  sume  of 
viijs  &  iiijd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Tarraby  the  further  yrly  Sume  of  vjs 
&  viijd  out  of  the  tithes  of  Avaresholme,  the  further  yrly  sume  of  iijs 
&  iiijd  out  of  the  tithe  hay  of  Botcherby  the  further  yrly  Sume  of  one 
pound  iiijs  out  of  the  tithe  of  Barrisfeild  the  further  yrly  sume  of 
xvjs  &  iiijd  out  of  the  tithe  of  hemp  Lynt  Leeks  &  Onions  of  Barris- 
feeld  all  wthin  the  County  of  Cumberland  &  the  further  yrly  Sume  of 
foure  &  twenty  poundes  vijs  &  ijd  out  of  the  pfitts  of  Tenthes  arising 
wthin  the  said  County  amounting  in  the  whole  to  the  said  yrly  Sume 
of  fourescore  poundes  the  same  to  be  accoted  [accounted]  from  ye  23 
of  Aprill  instant  &  to  be  from  time  to  time  continued  and  paid  unto 
the  said  Mr.  Tully  for  such  time  as  he  shall  discharge  the  duty  of  the 
Minister  of  the  said  place  or  untill  further  order  of  these  Trustees  The 
said  24li  viijs  &  ijd  arising  out  of  the  tenthes  aforesaid  to  be  paid  the 
25th  of  March  yrly  out  of  the  profitts  thereof  due  &  payable  the  25th 
of  December  preceding  and  Mr  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr  is  hereby 
appointed  and  authorised  to  pay  the  same  accordingly  Provided  That 
his  order  be  first  entered  wth  the  Auditor. 

Edw.  Cressett  Ra  Hall  Jo.  Humfrey  Jo.  Pocock  Ri.  Yong.* 

To  His  Highnesse  ye  Lord  Protector  of  theComon  wealth  of  England 
and  Scotland.  The  humble  peticon  of  the  Maior  Aldermen  BaylifFes 
and  Comon  Councellmen  of  the  City  of  Carlile. 

Humbly  shew  That  the  Cure  of  the  two  Parishes  within  ajid  without 
the  liberties  of  the  said  Citty  of  Carlile  being  of  a  very  large  extent 
were  heretofore  supplyed  by  two  able  Ministers  who  had  their  respec- 
tive Salaries  allowed  and  payed  out  of  the  Revenues  belonging  to  the 
Deane  and  Chapter  of  the  Cathedral  Church  there. 

That  yor  petrs  now  furnished  with  two  able  Ministers  are 
Constreyned  notwthstanding  what  is  setled  upon  them  by  the 
Trustees  to  give  a  considerable  allowance  out  of  the  Publicke  Stocke 
*  of  the  said  Citty  for  their  better  support  and  maintennce. 

Yor  petrs  humble  desire  is  that  the  sume  of  120li  p.  ann.  may 
be  setled  to  either  Minister  out  of  the  Tithes  of  either  pish  when 
the  Leases  expire  (wch  will  be  about  two  yeares  hence)  for  supply 
of  the  respective  Cures  of  the  sd  Parish  and  they  shall  pray  &c. 

Edmond  Craister.  Edward  James. 

Thos  :  Dixon.  '  Tho  :   Caister. 

Hen.  Vaile.  Tho  :  Sewell. 

Thomas  Sed.  Isaac  Tullie. 

Robert  Collier.  Jo  :  Pattinson. 

Ri.  Lowry,  Maior.  Richard  Moonke. 

Cuth  :  Studholme.  Edw.  Lowrie 
Willm  James. 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  972. 

Augmentation  165 

Oliver  P. 

We  recomend  this  Peticon  to  or  Councill  to  allowe  an  Augmentacon 
of  Twenty  pounds  per  ann  to  each  of  the  Parishes  in  Carlisle  over  & 
above  that  wch  is  at  present  allowed. 

[Endorsed.]    Whitehall  31st  December  1657.* 

Carlisle  Peticon 
ord  23  March  1657. 

Carlisle.  Tuesday  23rd  of  March  1657. 

Att  the  Councell  at  Whitehall. 
Upon  consideracon  of  the  humble  peticon  of  the  Maior  Aldermen 
Baylifes  and  Councell  of  the  City  of  Carlisle  ordered  by  his  High 
nesse  the  Lord  Protector  and  the  Councell  That  it  bee  recomended 
to  the  Trustees  for  maintenance  of  Ministers  to  setle  upon  the 
Ministers  of  each  of  the  pishes  in  Carlisle  an  additional  Augmen- 
tacon of  Twenty  pounds  p  Annu  over  and  above  the  Augmentacons 
already  Graunted  unto  them  for  their  better  maintenance  and  incour- 

William  Jessop  CI.  of  the  Councell.' 

Carlisle.  April  23.    1658. 

Ordered  that  ye  State  of  the  parishes  within  the  city  of  Carlisle  and 
of  the  Maintennce  of  the  Ministry  thereof  bee  taken  in  consideration 
when  the  Trustees  shall  have  received  an  account  of  the  same  from 
their  Recr  and  what  is  done  concerning  the  unity  of  any  of  the  said 
parishes  or  any  other  parish  with  any  of  them  to  the  end  that  such 
Augmentation  may  bee  setled  according  to  former  order  and  the  order 
of  his  Highnesse  and  Councell  now  produced  as  shall  be  fitt  and 
requisite.  3 
Cuthberts  in 

Carlisle.  Nov.  16.  1658. 

Ordered  that  the  yearely  sume  of  ten  poundes  be  and  the  same  is 
hereby  graunted  to  &  for  further  increase  of  maintennce  to  the 
minister  of  Cuthberts  in  Carlisle  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  His 
Highnes  &  Councell  having  approved  thereof  and  that  the  same  be 
from  time  to  time  paid  unto  ]Mr.  Timothy  Tully  Minister  there 
approved  by  the  Comrs  for  approbation  of  publique  preachers  To  hold 
for  such  time  as  he  shall  continue  minister  of  Cuthberts  aforesaid  or 
further  ordr  of  these  Trustees.  And  that  Mr.  Lawrence  Steele  Trear 
doe  pay  the  same  accordingly  to  bee  accounted  from  ye  25th  day  of 
March  last. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Edw.  Cressett  Jo.  Humfrey  Ri  Sydenham  Ra  Hali.4 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.,  vol.   180. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.)  977. 

3.  Ihid.,  980. 

4.  Ibid.,  995. 

1 66  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Mary's  in 
Carlisle.  Nov.  16.  1658. 

Ordered  that  the  yearely  sume  of  ten  poundes  bee  and  the  same  is 
hereby  graunted  to  and  for  a  further  increase  of  the  maintennce  of 
the  minister  of  Marys  in  Carlisle  in  the  County  of  Cumberland,  His 
Highnes  and  Councell  having  approved  thereof  and  that  the  same  bee 
from  time  to  time  paid  unto  Mr.  Comfort  Starr  minister  there 
approved  by  the  Comrs  for  approbation  of  publique  preachers  To  hold 
for  such  time  as  hee  shall  continue  Minister  there  or  further  order  of 
these  Trustees  And  that  Mr.  Lawrence  Steele  Trear  doe  pay  the  same 
accordingly  to  bee  accounted  from  the  25th  day  of  March  last  past. 
Jo.  Thorowgood  Ka  Hall  Edw  Cressett  Ei  Sydenham  Ri  Yong.  i 

Monday  ye  7  of  March  1658,  Carlisle  Mr.  Craister  peticons  for 
repaire  of  ye  Quire  of  Maryes,  Carlisle. 

Maries  Carlisle,  referre  it  to  Mr.  Atkms  or  let  the  regr  state  case  that 
Maries  being  Cathedral  &  parish  Church  Whether  it  be  in  the  power  of 
ye  minister  to  repaire  it  &  what  repaires.^ 

Maries  in  Carlisle.  By  the  Trustees  for  Maintennce  of  INIinistrs. 

March  7.  1658. 
Whereas  the  Cathedrall  church  of  Maries  in  Carlisle  is  also 
parochiall  &  the  Chancell  of  the  said  Church  is  much  out  of  repaire  & 
the  Tithes  of  the  rectory  of  INIaries  aforesd  pcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye 
late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  (by  whom  the  said  Church  was 
heretofore  repaired)  is  now  vested  in  these  Trustees  Ordered  That  it 
be  referred  to  Mr.  Atkins  of  Councell  with  these  Trustees  to  consider 
whether  ye  sd  Trustees  are  bound  by  Law  to  repaire  the  said 
Chancell  and  how  farre  &  therein  to  report  his  opinion  to  ye  said 
Trustees  with  all  convenient  speed.  3 

Maries  Carlisle.  March  23.  1658. 

Whereas  ye  Cathedrall  Church  of  Maries  in  Carlisle  is  parochiall  & 
ye  Rectory  &  tithes  of  the  sd  parish  Church  are  parcell  of  the 
possions  of  the  late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  &  ye  Chancell  & 
Quire  of  ye  sd  parish  Church  hath  been  from  time  to  time  repaired  at 
the  care  &  Charge  of  ye  sd  Deane  &  Chapter  And  whereas  ye  West 
end  of  ye  sd  parish  Church  was  demolished  in  ye  late  Warrs  &  the 
body  of  the  sd  Church  thereby  rendred  uselesse  &  unfit  to  receive  ye 
pishioners  of  ye  sd  parish  at  times  of  publique  worship  whereby  they 
are  necessitated  from  time  to  time  to  meet  in  ye  sd  Chancell  or  Quire 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  995. 

2.  Ihid.,  1003. 

3.  Ihid.,  989. 

Augmentation  167 

for  ye  ends  aforesd  which  sd  Chancell  is  also  very  much  out  of  repaire 
And  it  is  offered  in  behalfe  of  ye  sd  parish  that  they  will  contribute 
something  towards  ye  repaire  thereof  for  ye  Ease  of  ye  Revenue  of  ye 
Trustees  It  being  prayed  that  ye  Trustees  would  therefore  likewise 
forthwith  advance  a  sum  of  money  to  that  purpose  &  appoint  some 
yearely  allowance  towarde  ye  same  It  is  ordered  that  the  sume  of 
Twenty  pounds  bee  forthwith  payed  by  Mr  Edmund  Branthwaite 
Recr  for  &  toward  ye  sd  repaire  unto  ye  Mayr  &  Aldermen  &  Comon 
Councell  of  the  said  City  who  are  thereupon  to  cause  the  sd  Church 
to  be  forthwith  repaired  &  after  such  repaires  to  deliver  unto  the  sd 
Mr.  Branthwaite  sufficient  bills  under  Workmen's  hands  for  the 
proofe  of  the  necessary  expense  of  the  said  sum  upon  the  pmisses. 
Jo.  Thorowgood  Ra  Hall  Rich  Yong  Jo  Pocock  Edw.  Cressett' 

D.  Mar.  1.  ffebr.  24th  1659. 

Whereas  the  Rectory  of  ye  psh  Church  of  Maries  in  ye  City  of  Carlisle 
being  impropriate  to  ye  late  Bishop  &  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  & 
ye  Cure  of  ye  said  Church  formerly  under  ye  care  &  provision  of  ye 
sd  Bpp  &  Deane  &  Chapter  being  now  devolved  upon  these  Trustees 
The  Trustees  have  heretofore  ordered  the  makeing  up  of  ye  maintennce 
of  Mr.  Timothy  Tully  Ministr  of  Maries  aforesd  lOOli  a  yeare  out  of 
severall  tithes  "within  ye  sd  pish  &  in  ye  psh  of  Cuthberts  parcell  of  ye 
possions  of  ye  sd  Bishop  &  Deane  &  Chapter  for  ye  setlin^  whereof 
Ordered  that  the  said  yearly  sume  of  lOOli  be  paid  out  of  ye  perticulars 
hereafter  menconed  vizt  the  yearly  sume  of  fforty  shillings  out  of  ye 
rents  &  profitts  of  ye  tith  ffishing  of  Kingarth  the  further  yearly  sume 
of  6li  out  of  the  rents  &  profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Newbyfeild  &  Burn- 
thwayte  both  in  ye  sd  psh  of  iMaries  24li  a  yeare  out  of  ye  rents  & 
profitts  of  ye  tithes  Harraby  Graunge  wthin  ye  sd  psh  of  Cuthberts  & 
of  Coatfeild  &  Swift  within  ye  sd  psh  of  Maries  131i  6s  8d  a  yeare  out 
of  ye  rents  &  profitts  of  y^  tithes  of  Come  of  Wearyholme  35s  a  yeare 
out  of  ye  rents  &  profitts  of  ye  tith  hay  of  Wearyholme  &  Grumble 
Meadow  131i  Is  6d  a  yeare  out  of  ye  rents  &  pfitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Meale 
Garner  being  part  in  ye  sd  psh  &  part  in  other  pshes  &  are  pcell  of  ye 
possions  of  ye  late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  aforesaid  23li  a  yeare 
out  of  ye  rents  &  pfitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Cumersdale  &  Browne  Elston 
and  91i  a  yre  out  of  ye  rents  &  profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Calcoatebanke 
both  wthin  the  sd  pshe  &  pcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye  late  Bpp  of 
Carlisle  to  hold  to  ye  Minister  for  the  time  being  of  ye  sd  psh  Church 
being  duely  setled  &  appved  of  as  by  Authority  of  parliamt  is  directed 
&  that  ye  sumes  be  from  time  to  time  paid  from  ye  29th  day  of 
September  last  unto  ye  sd  Mr.  Tully  for  such  time  as  he  shall  continue 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.)  995. 

1 68  The   Ejected   of  1662 

in  ye  faithfull  discharge  of  ye  duty  of  ye  Minestr  of  Maries  in  Carlisle 
aforesaid  And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr  doe  pay  the  same 
unto  him  accordingly. 

Jo  Thorowgood  Wm  Steele  Geo  Cowper  Jo  Pococke  Ri  Yong.  l 

d.  Mar.   1.  ffebr.  24  1659. 

Whereas  the  Rectory  of  ye  pish  Church  of  Cuthberts  in  Carlisle  in 
ye  County  of  Cumberland  being  improproiate  to  ye  late  Bishop  & 
Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  &  ye  Cure  of  ye  sd  Church  formerly  undr 
the  care  &  pvision  of  ye  said  Bishop  &  Deane  &  Chapter  being  now 
devolved  upon  these  Trustees  the  Trustees  have  heretofore  ordered  the 
makeing  up  of  ye  maintennce  of  Mr.  Comfort  Starre  Ministr  of 
Cuthberts  aforesd  lOOli  a  yeare  out  of  severall  tithes  within  ye  said 
psh  &  in  the  parish  of  Maries  parcel  1  of  the  possions  of  ye  sd  Bishop 
&  Deane  &  Chapter  Ordered  that  ye  sd  yearly  sume  of  lOOli  be  paid 
out  of  ye  perticulars  following  vizt  the  yearly  sume  of  71i  out  of  the 
rent  &  profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Botcherby  Tarraby  ( ?)  and  Avariceholme 
the  further  yearly  sume  of  23  pounds  out  of  ye  rents  &  profitts  of  the 
tithes  of  Briscoe  and  the  further  yearly  sume  three  score  &  ten  pounds 
out  of  ye  tithes  of  Cuthberts  psh  aforesd  All  in  ye  sd  pshe  of  Cuth- 
berts &  parcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye  late  Deane  &  Chaptr  of  Carlisle  to 
hold  to  ye  Ministr  for  ye  time  being  of  ye  sd  psh  Church  of  Cuthberts 
beinge  duely  setled  and  approved  of  as  by  authority  of  parliament  is 
directed  and  that  the  same  bee  from  time  to  time  pd  from  the  29th  day 
of  September  last  unto  the,  said  Mr.  Starre  for  such  time  as  he  shall 
continue  in  ye  faithful  discharge  of  ye  duty  of  ye  Ministr  of  Cuthberts 
aforesd  And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr.  doe  pay  the  same 
unto  him  accordingly. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  W  Steele  George  Cowper  Jo  Pococke  Ri  Yong.  2 

To  these  may  be  appended  the  following,  which  deals 
with  a  Petition  for  additional  sums  to  various  places,  for 
the  repairing  of  the  Parsonage  or  Vicarage  house,  the 
smallness  of  the  grant  to  Carlisle  being  an  indication  of 
the  slightness  of  the  need.  :  — 

Proceedings  of  Council,  Thursday,  Feb.  18,  1657. 
Appr  6  March. 

Whereas  by  an  himible  peticon  directed  to  his  Highnes  from  ye 
Members  that  lately  served  in  pliamt  for  the  County  of  Cumberland, 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.   Min)  987. 

2.  Ibid.  MS.  989  has  an  entry  for  St.  Cuthbert's  much  similar  to 

Augmentation  169 

on  behalf  of  Sevall  able  Godly  Ministers  It  was  Sett  forth  that  in 
pursuance  of  the  late  Act  for  Propagateing  the  Gospel  in  the  4 
Northerne  Countyes,  there  was  appoynted  one  Edward  Winter,  Threr 
[Treasurerj],  since  deceased,  who  reed  Sevall  sumes  of  money  to  be 
imployed  for  the  undermenconed  in  yt  Act  and  that  the  sayd  Act 
being  expired,  there  remaynes  of  the  sayd  money  undisposed  of  about 
200  li  wch  they  pray  may  be  called  for  from  the  Executor  of  ye  sayd 
Threr  or  any  other  in  whose  hands  it  is  and  distributed  to  the  sayd 
Ministers  (for  repaireing  such  of  their  Parsonage  or  Vicarage  houses  as 
were  totally  ruined  or  decayed  at  the  tyme  of  their  entering  into  their 
liveings),  which  peticon  his  Highness  w^as  pleased  to  referr  to  the  Lord 
Charles  Howard,  Wm  Briscoe  Thomas  Craister,  Cuthbert  Studholme 
Esqrs  and  others  or  any  2  of  them  to  take  an  accompt  of  the  moneys 
Soe  reed  and  remayneing  undisposed  and  to  state  a  Divident  thereof 
among  such  Ministrs  as  they  shall  thinke  most  meete  and  just  and  to 
Secure  the  sayd  Moneys,  and  transmitt  their  proceedings  under  their 
hands  to  his  Highness  for  his  Highness  further  Consideracon  and 
direcon.  And  whereas  the  sayd  referrees  before  named,  havein  pursuiance 
thereof  Certifyed  the  distribucon  following,  That  is  to  say  To  ye 

Carlisle       05  00  00 

Dalston      35  00  00 

Kerkbride      03  00  00 

Orton      35  00  00 

Graystocke        30  00  00 

Penrith       25  00  00 

Addingham       06  00  OU 

Ousby     10  00  00 

Brampton      30  00  00 

Castle  Carrock    ...  30  00  00 

In  toto...     209     00     00 

wch  his  Highness  was  pleased  to  referr  to  ye  Consideracon  and  order 
of  the  Councell  Ordered  by  and  with  the  advice  of  the  Councell  that 
ye  sume  of  2091i  be  distributed  among  the  sayd  Ministrs  according  to 
the  proporcons  aforesayd,  And  it  is  referred  to  the  Lord  Howard  and 
to  the  rest  of  the  sayd  Certifiers  or  any  two  of  them,  to  call  for  the 
sayd  money  from  the  Executors  or  Admrs  of  the  sayd  Threr,  or  such 
other  pson  or  psons  in  whose  hands  the  same  or  any  pt  thereof  remaynes 
and  to  see  the  same  distributed  accordingly  and  the  sayd  Executor 
Admrs  or  other  psons,  are  hereby  empowered  and  required  to  pay  the 
same  according  to  such  direcions  as  they  shall  receive  from  the  sayd 

170  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Certifyers  or  any  2  of  them,  which  with  this  order  and  the  acquittance 
of  the  ptyes  [parties]  Soe  directed  to  receive  the  same  shalbe  their 
Sufficient  Warrt  and  discharge  in  yt  behalf e.' 

In  the  foregoing  documents  it  will  be  noted  that  the 
scribe  has  considerably  confused  names.  The  same  thing 
occurs  in  the  Augmentation  Lists. ^  Timothy  Tullie, 
however,  had  the  Cathedral  Church  of  St.  Mary's,  which 
carried  the  larger  salary;  while  Comfort  Starr  was  at 
St.  Cuthbert's.  Chancellor  Ferguson  thinks  that  Timothy 
Tullie's  higher  salary  is  an  indication  that  he  also  held 
the  Lectureship;  but  that  is  not  sufficient  evidence.  The 
probability  is  that  the  duties  of  the  office,  whatever  they 
may  have  been,  were  divided  between  the  two.  Certainly 
the  election  Sermon  for  the  Mayor  appears  to  have  been 
preached  by  each   in  turn. 

What  the  City  directly  contributed  towards  their  main- 
tenance is  indicated  in  the  following :  — 

1656-7,  Salaries. 

It.  to  jNIr.  Tully  Ministr  by  2  acquittances. 
£28     0     0. 

It.  to  Mr.  Starr  Ministr  by  2  acquittances. 
£20     0     0. 3 

Timothy  Tullie  had  also  £8  a  year  for  rent  and  Comfort 
Starr  £5.  4s.  The  following  is  Comfort  Starr's  receipt  for 
his  half  year's  salary  :  — 

December  2d   1658. 

Eeceived  then  of  Chamberlaine  Jackson  ye  sume  of  ten  pounds  wch 
was  due  to  mee  on  ye  23rd  day  of  October  last. 
I  say  received  £10     0     Op  me 

Comfort  Starr.  4 

It  would  appear  that  the  Brisco  and  other  Tithes  went 
direct  to  the  coffers  of  the  General  Eund  for  Augmenta- 
tion of  Minister's  stipends,  Edmund  Branthwaite  being 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.   I.  78,  fol.  460. 

2.  Vide  p.  1313,  &c. 

3.  Chamberlain's  Accounts. 

4.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  329. 

TuUie   and    Starr  171 

the     Official    Eeceiver    for    the     County.        Hence    the 
following :  — 

April.  28.  1659. 

Reed,  then  for  the  use  of  the  Hoble.  Trustees  for  Maintenance  of 
Ministers  of  Thomas  Jackson  Chamberlaine  the  sume  of  fower  pounds 
six  shillings  eight  pence  for  one  years  rent  for  Brisco  Tyth  ended  at 
Candlemas  last  past.     I  say  reed,  by  ye  order  of  Mr.  Edmond  Branth- 

waite  the  sum  of £4     6s.     8d. 

by  me  John  Tomlinson. 
May  12.  1659. 

Reed,  then  for  the  use  of  the  Hoble.  Trustees  for  Maintenance  of 
Ministers  of  Thomas  Jackson  Chamberlaine  of  the  Citty  of  Carlile  the 
sume  of  two  pounds  eighteen  shillings  for  one  yeares  rent  for  Cargo 
Tyth  due  at  Midsomer  1658.     I  say  reed,  by  the  order  of  Mr.  Edmond 

Branthwaite  the  sume  of -     £2     18s.     Od. 

by  me  John  Tomlinson.' 

Timothy  Tullie  and  Comfort  Starr  began  their 
ministry  in  Carlisle  together,  and  together  they  ended  it. 
As  already  intimated  the  Restoration  brought  the  return 
of  the  Cathedral  Clergy  and  consequent  Ejection  of 
Comfort  Starr;  whether  he  remained  some  time  in  the 
neighbourhood  is  not  clear.  The  Episcopal  Register  at 
Carlisle  gives  the  ordination  of  "  Ludovicus  Starre 
Iratus  "  as  Deacon  on  September  20th,  1663.  The  name 
is  interesting,  though  there  is  nothing  to  indicate  rela- 
tionship with  the  Ejected  Minister.  Eventually,  as 
Calamy  states,  Comfort  Starr  found  his  way  back  to  his 
native  County. 

In  the  Conventicle  Returns  for  1669  he  appears  as  a 
Nonconformist  teacher  or  preacher  at  Cranbrook,  Kent.  ^ 
In  1672  he  was  living  at  Sandwich ;  and  a  few  days  after 
the  Declaration  of  Indulgence  he  made  application  for 
preaching  Licenses.     The  following  were  requested:  — 

Mr.  Comfort  Starre  in  Saundwieh  in  Kent  teacher. 
Mr.  John  Watts  his  house  in  the  same  place.      [There  is  no  date 
but  it  was  before  April  2,  1672.    Vide  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II.  320,  No.  20.] 
Comfort   Starr   Congregationall  Teacher   desires   the   Old   Chappell 

1.  The  Lectureship,  &e.,  p.  329. 

2.  Lambeth  MS.  639. 

172  The   Ejected   of  1662 

belonging    to    the    Hospitall    of   St.    Bartholomews   Sandwich.        [In 
pencil,  "April  19."     Vide  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II.  320,  No.  88.] 

Comfort  Starre  of  Sandwich  in  Kent  Teacher  Congregational]. 

Their  Meeting  Place. 

The  Old   Chapell   belonging  to  ye   Hospitall   of  St.   Bartholomeaw 
near  &  without  ye  walls  of  Sandwich. 


[In  pencil,  "Ap.  19."     Vide  Ibid  No.  93.] 

The  town  of ich  in  ye  

Mr.    Comfort    Starre   Teacher   of    ye    Perswasion    Comonly    Called 
Congregational . 

Their  Meeting  Place. 

The  Old  Chappell  belonging  to  ye   Hospitall  of  St.   Bartholomewe 
wthout  ye  walls  of  Sandwich.     [Vide  Ibid  No.  94.] 

This  second  application  is  on  a  torn  piece  of  paper,  but 
tlie  handwriting  is  the  same  as  the  other,  and  both  are 
the  same  as  the  receipt  which  was  given  by  "  Rob. 
Mascall."  At  first  it  was  diflGlcult  to  secure  a  License 
for  anything  approaching  a  public  building,^  and  Comfort 
Starr  only  managed  to  obtain  one  for  himself  and  house 
as  follows  :  — 

Starre  Congr  Sandwich. 

Licence  to  Comfort  Starre  to  be  a  Congreg.   Teacher  in  his  owne 
howse  in  Sandwich  17  Apr  72. 

Sandwich   Congr   Starr's  howse. 

The  howse  of   Comfort   Starre  in   Sandwich   licensed  for  a  Congr. 
Meeting  place  17  Apr.  72.2 

The  receipt  for  these  is  here  appended :  — 

Eeceived  for  Mr.  Comfort  Star  his  Maiesties  Licence  &  allowance 
of  his  dwelling  house  in  Sandwich. 
White   Hall  Apr  20th  1672. 

ROB.  MASCALL.    3 

John  Watt's  house  was  licensed  May  1st,  1672.^  Two 
or  three  other  houses  in  Sandwich  were  also  licensed  at 
which  he  doubtless  preached. 

1.  Vide  p.  55. 

2.  Vide  S.  P.  Dom.  Entry  Book  38a,  p.  29  (Record  Office). 

3.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II.  320,  No.  167. 

4.  Vide  Entry  Book,   38a,   p    63. 

TuUie   and   Starr  ly;^ 

Under  date  August  12th,  1687,  there  is  the  following 
entry  in  the  Church  Book  of  the  present  Guildhall  Street 
Church,  Canterbury,  the  Church  originally  of  Dancing 
House  Yard :  — 

"  The  Church  kept  a  day.  To  Begg  direction,  in  ye  great 
affayer  of  a  pastor  ...  at  which  Tyme  or  [our]  Church 
Elected  Mr.  Comfort  Starre  To  be  our  Pastour." 

Two  years  later,  in  a  list  of  the  officers  and  members  of 
the  Church,  his  name  appears  at  the  head  as  "  Pastor." 
He  continued  here  until  1691,^  when  he  went  to  Lewes, 
in  Sussex,  where  he  ministered  the  rest  of  his  life.  For 
quite  a  succession  of  years  beginning  with  April  18th, 
1698,  the  Minutes  of  the  Congregational  Fund  Board 
contain  the  entry  :  — 

Ordered  that  Mr.  Starr  of  Lewes  in  Sussex  bee  allowed  £6  0  0. 

In  reference  to  Timothy  Tullie  it  is  difficult  to  say 
exactly  what  happened.  Probably  it  was  felt,  as  in  the 
case  of  so  many  others,  to  be  in  every  way  desirable  that 
a  new  sphere  should  be  found  for  him.  He  would  not  be 
a  persona  grata  to  the  new  men  because  of  his  recent 
conduct.  Always  an  Episcopalian  at  heart,  described  in 
the  Westmorland  Certificate  for  1646  as  "  Minister  of 
Cliburne,  a  non  Covenantr  and  disaffected,'  ^  that  he 
considerably  modified  his  attitude  in  relation  to  these 
matters  is  clear  from  the  further  statement  in  the 
Certificate  that  "  he  hath  taken  ye  oath  of  ye  5th  Aprill." 
Subsequently  he  joined  the  Cumberland  Association  of 
Ministers,  and  actually  became  "  Modr  pro  Temp."  ^  in 
1658.  He  invariably  acted  with  the  Commonwealth 
Ministers  and  his  name  appears  repeatedly  among  theirs 
certifying  men  for  the  ministry.  He  had  even  committed 
a  still  more  grievous  offence  in  accepting  a  place  among 

1.  For  several  of  the  items  relating  to  Comfort  Starr's  life  in  Kent 
I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  J.  Watkinson  of  Heme  Bay  who  is  busy  upon 
a  work  on  Kent  Congregationalism. 

2.  Vide  p.  111. 

3.  Vide  p.  105. 

174  The    Ejected   of  1662 

the  Sequestration  Commissioners  for  the  County,  as  the 
following  shows  :  — 

Thursday  ye  7th  of  Aug.    1656. 

Persons  hereafter  named  be  added  to  ye  Comrs.  appoynted  by  the 
Ordinance  for  ejecting  of  scandalous,  ignorant  &  insufficient  Ministers 
&  Schoolemasters. 
For  ye  County  of  Cumberland 

Mr.  Thomas  Sewill. 
For  ye  County  of  Westmorland 

Mr.   Thomas  Fletcher. 
For  ye  County  of  Cumberland 
Mr.  Atkinson. 
Mr.  Tulley. 

Mr.  Joseph  Nicholson.^ 
[No  Minister's  name  for  Westmorland.] 

The  Restoration  does  not  seem  to  have  brought  an 
actual  Ejection;  it  led  to  a  convenient  removal  to  another 
sphere,  where  he  would  be  free  from  the  opprobrium, 
which  almost  certainly  would  have  clung  to  him  had  he 
remained  in  Carlisle.  He  became  Rector  of  Middleton- 
in-Teesdale  and  Canon  of  York  in  1660.  It  was  late  in 
the  year  when  he  removed  as  the  following  shows :  — 

Dec.   30,    1660,   paid   for   pottell   of   Sack  when  you   [the   Mayor 
George  Barwick]  tooke  leave  of  Mr.   Timothy  Tully,  00  :  04  :  00.2 

Probably  for  the  same  reason  the  Master  of  the 
Grammar  School,  with  the  somewhat  ominous  name  of 
"Death,"  was  moved  about  the  same  time,  the  new  con- 
ditions calling  for  a  new  set  of  men  all  round.  Hence 
the  following  :  — 

Pd  to  Mr.  Death  when  he  went  away  20  :  00  :  00.3 

The  following  letter  belonging  to  this  period  throws 
light  upon  movements  in  the  City :  — 

Deare  bro. 

I  send  you  Inclosed  a  bill  of  Exchange  for  xxli  to  be  pd  to  my 
bro  Miller,  there  is  5li  more  to  pay  him  and  if  you  have  not  reed  511 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.  I.  77,  pp.  322,  323. 

2.  Chamberlain's   Accounts. 

3.  Ihid. 

The   TuUie   Family  175 

of  Sam.  Herbert  I  doe  earnestly  desire  you  to  doe  me  the  favor  to 
pay  it  and  you  shall  have  it  the  next  tearme  or  before.  Pdon  me 
this  tyme  on  not  Inlargeinge  my  selfe,  I  have  sent  a  Letter  to  my 
Lo.  genrall  Concereneinge  the  2  Monthess  assess,  I  pray  disere  my 
bro  Miller  to  delivr  it  I  will  write  to  him  by  my  next,  there  is  now 
more  reason  to  Looke  to  ye  quakers  and  Anabaptist  then  formerly, 
and  god  willinge  I  will  Lie  my  selfe. out  to  doe  what  service  I  am 
able  for  his  Matie  whome  I  hope  the  Lord  will  Continue  wth  Longe 

Life  in  dispite  of  all  his  foes  in  hast  I    re [torn]. 

Carlile  24th  Yors  till  death 

Dec.   1660.  Geo.  Williamson. 

I  pray  you  Seale  the  Inclosed  Letter  wth  yor  Seale. 
To  Mr.  Joseph   Williamson  at   Secretary   Sr.   Edward   Nicholas  his 
Lodginge  in  Whitehall,  London. — these.  ^ 

Timotliy  Tullie's  son,  Thomas,  an  Oxford  graduate, 
afterwards  LL.D.,  became  Cliancellor  of  the  Carlisle 
Diocese  in  1683,  Yicar  of  Crosthwaite,  Cumberland,  in 
1710,  and  Dean  of  Carlisle  in  1716. '-  He  died  in  1726-7. 
He  also  held  the  living  of  Aldingham  in  Lancashire  from 
1694  to  1726-7,  the  year  of  his  death;  and  was  succeeded 
at  the  latter  place  by  Thomas  Tullie,  who  may  have  been 
the  son  baptized  in  1701.^ 

The  following  are  some  of  the  Tullie  entries  in  the 
St.  Mary's  Registers:  — 

Abbeygate,  Geo.  ye  sonne  of  Isaac  Tully  bapt.  ye  5th  Sept.  1656. 

Abbeygate,  Joseph  ye  sonne  of  Mr.   Timothy  Tullie  ye  9th  day 

of  Novembr,  1657. 
Abbeygate,    philip    ye    sonne   of   Timothy    Tully    clerke  ye    13th 

March  1659/60. 
1691-2  ffebr,  Abbeygate,  Eliz.  ye  daughter  of  Mr.  Thomas  Tullie 

Chancelr.   and  Prebend  of  Carlile  bapt.  ye  2d  day. 
1692-3   ffeb,   Abbeygate,    Mary   daughter   of  Mr.    Thomas   Tullie 

baptiz'd.  , 

Judith  Tullie  bapt.   ffebr  18th  1693-4. 
Jerom  Tullie  31  march   1695. 
William  do.   Sept.    16,   1697. 
Tho.  do.   Sept.  25,  1701. 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II,  vol.  24,  fol.  35. 

9.  Al.   Ox. 

3.  Baines's  "  Hist,  of  Lancashire  "  (Croston's  Edition),  vol.  v,  p.  576. 

176  The    Ejected   of  1662 

1694,  Abbeygate,  Mr.  Tho.   Tullie  Chancelour  Child  Buried  ye  23 

of  May. 
Abbeys   Street   Dr.   Thomas  Tullie   Deane  of   Carlile  died  ye   16th 

of  January  1726  and  was  buried  ye  Eighteenth. 

With  the  E-estoration  Episcopacy  returned,  and  the 
first  of  the  Cathedral  Qlergj  to  take  office  was  Guy 
Carleton.  He  was  a  native  of  Gilsland;  graduated  M.A. 
of  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  January  29th,  1628-9,  and 
became  CD.  August  2nd,  1660.^  He  petitioned  for 
restoration  to  his  living  at  Bucklebury,  Berks.,  in  June, 
1660  ;2  and  was  instituted  Dean  of  Carlisle,  June  29th  the 
same  year,  just  one  montli  after  the  King's  entry  into 
London.  This  office  would  appear  to  have  been  vacant  since 
1642,  its  last  occupant  being  Thomas  Comber,  S.T.P.,  who 
was  presented  to  it  August  28th,  1630.  Becoming  Master  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  in  1642,  "concerned  (amongst 
the  rest)  in  sending  the  plate  of  that  university  to  the 
king  Dr.  Comber  was  deprived  of  all  his  preferments, 
and  died  in  1653."  ^  Jefferson  says  that  Guy  Carleton, 
his  successor  in  the  Deanery,  was  "  an  active  and  bold 
asserter  of  the  royal  cause,  in  the  time  of  the  civil  wars; 
and  in  consequence  he  was  ejected  from  his  livings  by  the 
'  Presbyterian  visitors,'  and  was  imprisoned  at  Lambeth, 
and  treated  with  great  severity;  after  having  suffered 
many  hardships,  he  made  his  escape,  and  joined  the 
exiled  king  on  the  continent."  *  Doubtless  we  are  to  see 
the  influence  of  his  strong  personality  at  work  in  the 
active  measures  taken  almost  immediately,  which  resulted 
in  the  displacement  of  a  considerable  number  of  men. 
Towards  the  end  of  1660,  he  became,  in  addition,  Canon 
of  Durham,  and  in  1672,  Bishop  of  Bristol.  Against 
Nonconformists  he  was  exceeding  bitter.  Both  at 
Durham  and  Bristol  he  did  his  utmost  to  render  nugatory 
the  benefits  of  the  Indulgence  Declaration ;  and  the 
Calendars  of  State  Papers  for  that  period  tell  a  striking 

1.  Al  Ox. 

2.  H.M.C.  Eeport,  vii,  pt.  i,  p.  105. 

3.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  304. 

4.  Hist  of  Carl.,  p.  249. 

The   Cathedral   Clergy  177 

story  of  his  unresting  activity  with,  a  view  to  the  supres- 
sion  of  all  Conventicles  and  Conventiclers.  Subsequently 
he  was  Bishop  of  Chichester.  He  died  at  Westminster, 
July  6th,  1685.  The  Mayoral  visit  to  him.  in  his 
"  Chamber"  at  Carlisle  is  thus  noted  in  the  Chamberlain's 
Accounts ;  and  it  must  have  been  an  occasion  of  consider- 
able conviviality  to  have  proved  so  costly:  — 

Nov.  23,  1660,  paid  for  sack  and  wine  to  Mrs.  Monke  when  you 
[the  Mayor  George  Barwick]  went  to  visett  the  Deane  in  his  chamber 
01  :  03  :  08. 

Bishop  Sterne  was  consecrated  December  2nd,  1660. 
A  notice  of  this  man's  character,  who  is  somewhat  of  a 
puzzle  to  historians,  appears  elsewhere.  ^  He  became 
Archbishop  of  York  in  1664. 

Lewis  West,  M.A.,  who  had  been  sequestered  from  the 
Prebendship  of  the  Third  Stall  and  the  Archdeaconry 
of  the  Diocese,  returned  to  both  these  positions  in  1660. 
He  was  the  only  one  of  the  old  Cathedral  Clergy  who 
lived  to  see  the  Restoration  and  return  to  his  former 

Robert  Lowther,  B.C.L,,  became  Chancellor  in  1661. 
He  was  Rector  of  Bewcastle.  ^ 

Dr.  Thomas  Smith  became  Prebendary  of  the  First 
Stall  in  1660.  He  retained  the  position  only  a  short  time 
becoming  Dean,  and  subsequently  Bishop  of  the  Diocese. 
He  died  in  1702,  and  the  St.  Mary's  Registers  have  the 
following  in  reference  to  him :  — 

The  Reverend  ffather  in  God  Thomas  Smith  Id  Bpp  of  Carlile 
Buried  in  the  Cathedral  Near  the  Alter  Aprill  ye  17,  1702  A  worthy 
Benefactor. — J.   P. 

His  successor  in  the  Prebendship,  in  1661,  was  Thomas 
Canon,  B.D.,  who  died  in  1668. 

Arthur  Savage,  M.A.,  became  Prebendary  of  the  Second 
Stall  in  1660.     He  was  Rector  of  Brougham  and  after- 

1.  Vide  p.  76. 

2.  Vide  pp.  349,  355,  361. 

3.  Vide  p.  293. 



The   Ejected   of  1662 

wards  of  Caldbeck.^     His  Petition  for  the  preferment  in 
June,  1660,  reads  as  follows:  — 


of  To  the  Kings  Most  Excellent  Majestie 

Arthur  Savage.       The  humble  peticon  of  Arthur  Savage 
Humbly   Sheweth 

That  a  prebendary  of  Carlisle  is  now 
void  by  the  death  of  ffrederick  Tunstall 

and  now   in  yor   ISIaties  Guift 
May  it  therefore  please  yor  Sacred 
Matie  Gratiously  to  Conferre  the 

same  upon  yor  petioner 
And  he  (as  in  duty  bound)  shall 
ever  pray  &c.^ 

George  Buchanan,  the  Sequestered  Yicar  of  Kirkby 
Lonsdale,  became  Prebendary  of  the  Fourth  Stall  and 
also  Yicar  of  Stanwix.^  His  Petition,  dated  June,  1660, 
is  in  the  following  terms  :  — 

To  the  King's  Most  Excellent   Majesty 

The  humble  Peticon  of  George  Buchanan  Clerk. 

That  your  Peticoner  hath  been  a  deep  sufferer  in  the 
late  troubles  both  for  his  Alleageance  to  yr  ^lajestye's  Royall  ffather 
of  blessed  memory,  and  his  Constancy  to  the  Church  in  the  worst  of 
times,  having  lost  his  living  in  Scotland  of  200]i  Sterling  pounds  for 
refusing  the  first  Covenant  &  since  been  sequestred  of  the  Vicarage 
of  Kirkby-Lonsdale,  Westmerland  in  England  16  yeares  agoe  In  which 
time  hee  was  Chaplaine  in  Severall  beseiged  Garrisons  of  his  late 
Majesty,  and  endured  many  Imprisonments  Now  forasmuch  as  there 
are  three  of  the  Prebends  of  Carlisle  now  void  by  the  death  of  Doctor 
Lancelott  Dawes,  ilr.  ffrederick  Tunstall  and  Mr.  Henry  Hutton 
Yor  Petitioner  humbly  begs  one  of  the  said  Prebends. 
And  (as  in  duty  bound)  hee  shall  ever  pray  &c.  * 

The  Lectureship  continued  after  the  Restoration;  and 
as  the  Chamberlain's  Accounts  contain  many  interesting 

1.  Vide  pp.  553,  1247 

2.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  11,  vol.  6. 

3.  Vide   pp.    194,    1011. 

4.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II,  vol.  6. 

Interesting   Items  179 

items  along  with  the  names  of  several  who  served  in  this 
capacity,  the  following  further  excerpts  are  given :  — 

Aug.    4,    1635   bestoued   upon   Mr.    Moor   preacher  in   p'sence   of   ye 

brethren   0:2:8. 
Itm  given  the  3  Novem  to  Mr.  Ogle  a  blind  preacher  00  :  05  :  00. 
8.  Nov.   1636  given  to  a  preacher  Mr.  Porcas  00  :  11  :  00. 
1637  Itm  given  to  a  minister  called  Gray  brown  the  3  of  Julij  beinge 

blind  00  :  02  :  06. 
It  to  Joseph  Thurell  a  minister  0 — 2 — 0. 
It  to  Simond  Banks  a  minister  0 — 1 — 6. 
1642.     Bestowed  in  wine  upon   Mr.   Anderton  and  other  Lancashire 

Gent,  officers  to  the  Lord  of  Newcastle  &  the  Aldermen  1 — 5 — 8. 
June  28.  1643  to  a  distressed  Minister  &  wife  &  childn  00  :  04  :  00. 
August  20.  for  carrying  of  a  Ire  [letter]  to  Mr.  West  00  :  01  :  00. 
June  6.  1650.     Item  bestowed  upon  Mr.  Tully  in  wine,  sack  &  Sugar 

00  :  11  :  10. 

13.  Item  pd  to  Mr.   Houldsworth  07  :  00  :  00. 

1650  It.  pd  Mr.  Baldwin  for  preaching  at.  ye  Ellection  day  01:0:0. 
1649 — 50.     For  severall  post  letters  about  ministers  &  other  businesses 

01  :  13  :  06. 

1651  September  13.     Item  in  wine  &  sack  bestowed  upon  Mr.  Larcam 
Minister  00  :  05  :  00. 

Sept.  15.     Item  in  Sack  &  wine  bestowed  upon  Sr.  Arthure  Haslerigg 

00  :  13  :  10. 
1651,  December  21,  Received  of  Mr.   Collyer  4  :  00  :  00. 
July  5.  1652.     Item  Bestowed  in  Banqueting  upon  Mr.  Benn  01  :00  :06. 

9  Item  pd  for  a  Scots  minister  00  :  01  :  00. 
August   14.   1652   Item   pd   to   a   Scots   Minister  called   Mr.    Roel(?) 

00  :  02  :  00. 
March    1652-3.       Item    given    to    Mr.    ffallowfeild    for    his    opinion 

00  :  10  :  00. 
August  22.    1653.     Item  payed  to  one  for  going  to  Mr.    Nichols  to 

preach  on  the  thanksgiving  day  00  :  01  :  00. 
September  20.  1653  Given  to  ye  iudges  clarke  p.  drawing  a  conviction 

of  Geo.  fTox  comonly  called  a  quaker  00  :  05  :  00. 
October  4.  1653  It  pd  to  Mr.  powlewheele  for  his  Sermon  01  :  00  :  00. 
Item  pd  to  Tho.  Thomlinson  for  the  oracon  00  :  10  :  00. 
October  5.  1654.     Imprs  to  Mr.  Polewheele  for  the  Sermon  upon  the 

Eleccon  day  01  : 00  :  00. 
Otober  1.   1655.     To  Mr.  Tully  for  a  Sermon  01  :  00  :  00. 

,,       12.     Item  pd  to  a  boy  for  going  to  Mr.  Nichols  00  :  00  :  08. 
1655-6  Jan.   30.       Item  pd  to  Ralph  Beckwith  for  4  beds  to  Sev'all 

Ministers  00  :  01  :  00. 

i8o  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Septemb  the   2.    1656.     Itm   bestowed   upon   Mr.   Thomas   Tullie  for 

Sacke  wine  Sugar  and  Bisketts  00  :  06  :  08. 
1656  March  25.     Itm  given  to  Mr.  Hadger  an  Irish  minister  00  :02  :06. 

1656  October  13.     Imprs  to  Mr.  Tully  for  a  sermon  on  ye  Election 
day  1—0—0. 

1657  August  pd  to  Mr.  Craister  and  Mr.  Studholme  for  the  Ministers 
house  rent  1 — 6 — 0. 

October    5th.    1657    payed    to    Mr.    Stare    for    ye    election    Sermond 

01  :  00  :  00. 
December   7    1658.     pd   for   1   quert   Sacke   to   Mr.    Tully   when   the 

towell  was  letten  00  :  02  :  00. 

1658  July  8.  pd  for  Sacke  and  wine  to  Mr.  Death  00  :  04  :  00. 

1658  December  1st.      Pd  Mr.  Tully  by  Aquitance  14—00—00.      pd  to 

Mr.   Stare  by  Aquitance  10—00—00. 
pd  to  Mr.  Creastor  for  Mr.  Stars  house  01—06—00. 
June  10  pd  to  Mr.  Creastor  for  Mr.  Stars  house  01—06—00. 
Payd  Mr.  Tully  and  Mr.  Starr  3  July  24—0—0. 

1658  October  the  4  day  pd  to  Mr.   Tully  for  the  election  Sermond 

November  10.   1658  Given  to  three  Scottsmen  by  Mr.   Tullys  orders 
by  a  note  made  from  him  ^u — 02 — 06. 

1659  May  24  more  yt  he  [Mr.   Craister]  payd  for  2   orders  to  our 
ministers  00—07—06. 

pd  to  Mr.  Timothy  Tully  014  :  00  :  00. 

pd  to  Mr.   Comfort  Starre  OjO  :  00  :  00. 

May  24.   pd  to  Mr.   Anth.  Death  for  j  quarters  Sallary  ending  the 

25  of  March  1658  p  Receipt  OjO  :  00  :  00. 
ffor  2  orders  for  ye  Ministers  Augmentation  000 — 12 — 00. 
pd  Mr.  Collyer  and  Mr.  Wilson  for  their  traverse  000  :  05  :  00. 
pd  for  2  orders  for  ye  Ministers  Augmentation  000 — 12 — 00. 

Octo.  4  pd  to  Mr.  Starr  for  ye  Election  Sermond  1 — 0 — 0. 

pd  to  Balife  Scott  for  Mr.  Starres  House  1 — 6 — 0. 

Pd  to  Mr.  Tullie  and  Mr.  Starr  024—00—00. 
pd  to  Mr.  Tully  for  a  whole  years  rent  008—00—00. 
pd  Mr.   Starr  for  a  years  rent  002—12—00. 

Imp.  paied  to  Mr.  Tully  for  the  EUection  Sermon  October  2.   1660, 

Among  tlie  disbursements  is  the  following  for  the 
King's  "  Corronacon  Day  beinge  the  23rd  of  Aprill 
1661":  — 

Geven  to  Mr.   Nicholls  for  preachinge  01 — 00 — 00. 

Interesting   Items  i8i 

Oflier  items  read  thus  :  — 

Aug.  17.  1661.     Pd  to  Mr.  Thompson,  Lecturrer,  for  his  halfe  yeare 

sallery  dew  at  Lady  day  last  03  :  06  :  00. 
Aprill  2.  1662  pd.  Mr.  Thomson  lecturer  his  halfe  yeares  sallery  due 

at  Lady  day  last  past  03  :  06  :  08. 
1662    July    6.     It.    to    a    distressed    minister    by    Mr.    Maiors    order 

00  :  02  :  00. 
Aug.  18.  1662.     It.  Mr.  Thomson  lecturer  his  halfe  yeare  sallery  due 

at  St.  Mathew  day  03  :  06  :  08. 
June   1662   It.    pd   Mr.    Hecksteter   Scoole   maister   due    at    sd   time 

10  :  00  :  00. 
October  1662  to  ye  Lecturer  by  Order  of  ye  Corporation  one  whole 

yeare  06  :  13  :  08. 
Jan.  31.  1661-2.     It.  Mr.  Maior  &  ye  rest  in  visiting  Mr.  Buchanans 

son   in   Sacke   00  :  04  :  04. 
July  16.   1662.     It.  in  visiting  Mr.  West  at  Mr.   Hecsteters  in  sacke 

&  wine  00  :  03  :  08. 
October  16.  1662.     It.  to  Mr.  Hecshtter  ye  Schoole  master  a  gift  from 

ye  Corporation   10  :  00  :  00. 
A  note  of  what  Salleryes  is  paid  for  the  Cettyes  use  1663-4. 
pd  to  Mr.   Hetchstetter  for  the  Grammer  Schoole  10  :  00  :  00. 
pd  to  Mr.   Wargent  being  Lector  06  :  13  :  i. 
November  1664. 

paid  to  ye  Lector  06  :  13  :  04. 
April  6.   1665.  paid  to  Mr.   Crow  by  order  01  :  00  :  00. 
1665.     Itm.  To  Mr.  Wargt  being  Lectorer  for  one  yeare  06  :  13  :  04. 
1665-6  To  a  Minister  wch  was  Comitted  to  Hugh  Hodgson  00  :  11  :  00. 
To  Mr.  Brooham  an  Acquaintance  of  Mr.  Wargents  being  a  minister 

formerly  in  Ireland  00  :  05  :  00. 
Imps.  Paid  to  Mr.  Constable  for  his  first  quartrs  Sallary  00  :  10  :  00. 

Octob.  18.     It.  the  Lecturer  his  whole  yeare  Sallary  06  :  13  :  04. 
ffeb.    1st.     Upon  old   Mr.    Warwick. 
To  Mr.  Constable  for  1  whole  year  [pensioner]  02  :  00  :  00. 

After   this    date   regular   payments    are    made   to    the 
Lecturer  without  name  until  about  1676. 
The  following  also  appear :  — 

1671-2  pd  to  Mrs.   Pattinson  for  wine  Ale  and  Tobaccoe  when  you 

took  leave  of  Mr.  ffrankland  01  :  16  :  00. 
1673-4  Given  to  Mrs.   Hugisson  being  distressed  by  ordr  00  :  00  :  04. 
May  20.     Bestowed  upon  Docter  Carter  Mr.   Savage  &  Mr.   Nelson 

&   others  at  John   Howes  00  :  05  :  00. 
1675-6.     To  Mr.  fforas,  Clark  00  :  01  :  00. 

1 82  The   Ejected   of  1662 

1683  December  20.     To   Mr.   Rich.   Shepherd  late  Schoolmr  for  one 

year   teaching   School   ended   at   Easter   '82.    as  Acquitt   appears 

08  :  00  :  00. 
May  25.     To  Mr.  Roland  Nicols  Lecturer  for  his  half  y.  Salary  due 

Lady  day  last  as  by  2  Acquitt  app.  05  :  00  :  00. 
June  24.     To  Mr.  Robt.   Harrison  for  half  y.   Salary  due  Lady  day 

last  for  teaching  ye  ffree  School   10  :  00  :  00. 
1686.     Imprs  To  Mr.  Nicols  Due  Lady  Day  '86,  05  :  00  :  00. 
To  Mr.   Lamb   Lecturer  for  2  quarters  Salary  due   Michaelmas  last 

5—0—0.     [No  date  to  this  but  about  1687.] 
1687  September  23.     Payed  to  Mr.  Lamb  Lecturer  10  :  00  :  00. 
1688-9.  Aug.  9.     Pd  Mr.  Coale  a  distressed  Irish  minister  01  :00  :00. 

A  few  sentences  in  explanation  of  these  names  may  be 
appropriately  appended :  — 

John(?)  Thompson,  1661—1662. 

No  information  about  bim  is  forthcoming,  unless  the 
following  from  the  St.  Mary's  Registers  may  be  regarded 
as  such :  — 

1660    Septemb    ffrances  ye   wife   of  John  Thompson   Clerk  ye   24th 

In  the  Commonwealth  Survey  for  1649  is  a  reference  to 
John  Thompson,  Clerk  and  Petty  Canon ;  and  a  person  of 
this  name  also  appears  among  the  preachers  in  the  City 
during  its  Siege.^ 

John  Wargent,  B.A.,  1663—1665. 

Probably  the  person  of  that  name  who  matriculated, 
Wadham  College,  Oxford,  June  1st,  1621,  at  the  age  of 
18  years.2  He  took  the  Engagement  May  16th,  1650.^ 
In  August,  1654,  he  received  Augmentation  as  Yicar  of 
Thornton-in-Lonsdale.*  There  seems  to  have  been 
trouble    with    him    here.       He    wanted    the    living    at 

1.  Vide  p.  141. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 

3.  Rawlinson  MSS.  D711  (Bodleian  Library).  This  is  a  register  of 
such  Ministers  as  took  the  Engagement  to  be  "true  and  faithfull  to 
the  Commonwealth  of  England  as  the  same  is  now  established  without 
a  King  or  House  of  Lords." 

4.  Lambeth  MSS.    (Plund.   Min.),   968. 

John   Wargent  183 

Leighton  Buzzard;  but  the  Trustees  for  Maintenance  of 
Ministers,  before  whom  he  appeared  March  19th,  1657, 
refused  it,  and  charged  him  with  being  a  swearer.  In 
his  letter  to  Walker,  John  Aykrigg,  his  successor,  at 
Thornton,  says  :  — 

In  answer  to  the  Queries  sent  to  the  Clergy  from  the  visitation 
holden  at  Lancaster  24  ^lay,  1705  :  These  are  to  Certifie  whom  it 
may  concerne  that  Mr.  John  Wargent  in  the  year  1662  was  Vicar  at 
Thornton  in  Lonsdale  in  the  Arch-Deaconry  of  Eichmond  and  Diocess 
of  Chester ;  by  presentacon  froni  the  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Worcester ; 
which  Mr.  Wargent  was  no  suiferer  in  his  place  in  the  times  of  the 
Grand  Rebellion  but  of  his  owne  accord  in  the  year  1662  left  the 
liveing  for  a  better  benefit  in  a  Church  in  the  City  of  Carlile,  where 
he  continued  peaceably  till  he  dyed. 

This  is  part  of  the  letter  only.  It  is  signed  "  John 
Aykrigg,  Vicar  of  Thornton  in  Lonsdale,  and  addressed 
to  Clavell,  Bookseller,  in  London."  ^ 

It  should  however  be  said  that  the  Lambeth  MS. 
(Plund.  Min.)  995,  under  date  March  12th,  1657,  gives 
John  Wargent  as  "  late  Minister  of  Thornton  in 
Longsdale,"  and  contains  the  order  that  he  be  paid  "  all 
arreares  of  the  augmentation  to  him  due  for  the  time  hee 
officiated  the  cure  of  the  said  place."  In  1663  he  obtained 
the  Bishop's  license  to  preach,  being  ordained  Priest  on 
the  same  day  :  — 

Eodem  die  [Dec.  21.  1663]  Licentia  pradicandi  concessa  Johanni 
Wargent  Clerico  in  Artibus  Baca. 

Eodem  die  Licentia  ad  inserviendum  curae  animarum  concessa 
eidem  Johi  Wargent.  2 

He  died  at  the  end  of  1666,  his  burial  entry  reading  thus : 
"  1666  Decemb.  Abbey,  John  Wargent,  Lecturer  ye  20th 
buried."  ^  Dr.  Smith,  writing  to  Daniel  Fleming  of 
Rydal  Hall,  under  date  December  21st,  1666,  says:  — 
"  Mr.  Wargent  Lecturer  is  now  at  ye  point  of  death  of  a 
Consumption."     He  was  also  a  Minor  Canon.'* 

1.  Walker  MSS.  C.  1,  No.  242  (Bodl.  Library). 

2.  Episcopal  Register.     Dean  and   Chapter  Library,   Carlisle. 

3.  St.   Mary's  Registers. 

4.  "The  Flemings  in  Oxford"  by  Dr.  Magrath,  pp.  163,  555. 

184  The   Ejected    of  1662 

John  Brooke,  1669. 

The  following  are  his  receipts :  — 

March  25th.  69. 

Received  the  day  and  yeare  aboue  written  of  Mr.  Thomas  Jackson 
Chamberlaine  the  sume  of  three  pounds  six  shillings  eight  pence 
being  the  Cyties  beneuolence  to  the  Lecturer,  reward  the  Good  Lord. 
I  say  received  the  sume  aboue  saide  by  mee 

John  Brooke  Lecturer. 
September  :  ye  21th  1670. 

Then  :  received  of  :  Mr.  Thomas  :  Jackson  :  Chamberlane  the  sum 
of  :  three  poundes  six  shillings  eight  pence  being  the  Cittys  beneuo- 
lence :  to  and  being  in  full  all  that  is  due  for  this  year  :  part  :  I  say 
received  the  day  and  year  aboue  written 

p  me  John  Brooke  Lecturer.! 

No  further  information  about  him  is  forthcoming. 

Jo.  Stalker,  1670. 

In  the  St.  Cuthbert's  Transcripts  we  have  the 
following :  — 

Botchardgate  intra — Eliza  ye  daughter  of  Mr.  Jo  :  Stalker  Master 
of  ye  free  Schoole  in  Carlile  &  Lecturer  of  St.  Cuth  :  bapt  1  of 
April]  1670. 

Roland  Nicols,  M.A.,  1686. 

He  was  Rector  of  Aikton  and  for  some  time  Chancellor 
of  the  Diocese.^  The  baptism  by  him  of  a  girl  fifteen 
years  old  is  thus  noticed  in  the  St.  Cuthbert's  Tran- 
scripts :  — 

1674  Botchergate  wthin. 

Tabitha  ye  daughter  of  Eliza  Capell  bapt  by  ye  Rev'end  Mr. 
Roland  Nicols  Chancellor  in  ye  presence  of  Tho.  Bacon  and  his  wife 
and  Mrs.  Maison  being  about  ye  age  of  15  years  old  ye  15  of  Aprill. 

James  Lamb,  M.A.,  1687. 
He  was  Yicar  of  St.  Lawrence,  Appleby.^ 

It  is  unnecessary  to  trace  the  Lectureship  further ;  and, 
during  part,   at   least,   of  the   period   passed   in   review, 

1.  The  Lectureship,  &c.,  p.  329. 

2.  Vide  p.  636. 

3.  Vide  pp.  294,  1136. 

Curates  185 

Curates  officiated  at  St.  Mary's  and  St.  Cutlibert's.  The 
following  names  have  been  gleaned  from  the  Registers, 
though  it  is  not  certain  that  all  served  in  this  capacity :  — 

St.  Mary's. 
George  Martin. 

Burial  1675-6  ffeb.  Castlegate,  George  Martin  Minor  Cannon  of  the 
Cathedral  Church  23  daie. 

A  person  of  this  name  was  at  Warcop  in  1626.  ^ 

Christopher  Knight,  1685. 

He  performs  marriage  services  in  1685,  1686,  1691.  A 
person  of  this  name  appears  at  Hayton  in  1627  and 
Bolton  in  1687. 2 

Jo.  Clarke,  1697. 

A  marriage  here  was  conducted  by  him  in  that  year. 

George  Brathwaithe,  1691. 

May    1691    Abbey,    Tho   ye   son   of   Geo.    Brathwt.    Curate   of   St. 
Maries  buried  ye  17th  of  Maij. 

1720,  English  Street  Mrs.  Brathwaite  June  ye  28th  [Burial]. 
June  14  Paid  Mr.  Brathwaite  all  Burials  to  this  day  May  31st  1745. 

The  Editor  of  Bishop  Nicolson's  Diary  gives  the 
following  interesting  particulars  respecting  him :  — 

Connected  with  the  Cathedral  83  years.  Chorister  on  first  roll 
call  after  Restoration  Nov.  23,  1668,  Minor  Canon  1679,  nominated 
Curate  of  St.  Mary's  April  8,  1685.  In  1750  by  reason  of  his  great 
age  and  loss  cf  sight  incapable  of  doing  ajiy  part  of  his  duty.  3 

— .  Smith,  1702. 

7ber  ye  22.  1702. 

Abbey  Mr.  Smith  Minister  buried  ye  22  daye 

1.  Vide  p.   1124. 

2.  Vide  pp.  286,  1176. 

3.  Trans.  (N.S.),  vol.  iii,  p.  2.     Note  :  vide  also  vol.  vi,  p.  339. 

i86  The   Ejected   of  1662 

— .  FiDDEs,  1734. 

Abbey  The  Reverend   Mr.  fiddes  buried  ye   11   day  of  September 

— .    BiRKET,    1735. 

Burial   The  reverend   Mr.   Birket  Preben  of  Carlile  child  31  Dec 

St.  Cuthbert's. 
Thos.  Stalker,  M.A.,  1673. 

He   was   ordained   Priest   September  25th,   1670;    and 
subsequently  beld  the  livings  of  Thursby  and  Rocliffe.^ 
The  Transcripts  give  the  following  :  — 

1673  Botchergate  wthin  Mary  ye  daughter  of  Mr.   Tho.   Stalker 
Ministr  of  St.  Cuthberts  bapt.  ye  16th  day— 1673. 
Burials  Mary  doughter  of  Mr.  Thos.  Stalker  ye  24  day  [Dec.  1673]. 

William  Addison,  1673. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  September  25th,  1670,  and 
signs  the  Transcripts  for  1673,  as  "  Curate  ibm."  The 
following  also  doubtless  refer  to  him  :  — 

Bapt  ffeb  1680-1.     Abbeygate  Susanna  ye     daughter  of  Mr.   W. 
Addison  bapt   15th. 

1694,  Abbeygate,  Mr.  Willm  Addison  buried  ye  3rd  Sept.  2 

John  Calvert,  1678. 

He  signs  the  Transcripts  for  a  "  vera  copia "  as 
"  Clerk,"  and  in  another  place  as  "  Clericus."  There  is 
the  burial  entry  of  John  Calvert  "  Clerk  of  Carlisle," 
July  24th,  1720.  The  St.  Mary's  Registers  also  contain 
the  following :  — 

Baptism    1694,    May,    fish' gate,   Mary   ye    daughter   of    Mr.    Jo. 

Calvert  ye  16th. 

Possibly  the  person  of  that  name  who  was  ordained 
Deacon  March,  15th,  1684-5,  and  was  at  Cumrew  and 
Rocliffe.  3 

1.  Vide  315,  544. 

2.  St.   Mary's  Registers. 

3.  Vide  pp.  269,  316. 

Presentments  187 

John  Calvert  and  Thomas  Bewley  are  referred  to  in 
Bishop  Nicolson's  Diary  as  the  two  "  fighting  petty- 
Canons"  "suspended  ab  ofl&cio  et  Beneficio.''  An  apology 
for  "  kicking,  boxing,  and  by  word  abusing  each  other  " 
was  signed  by  both  on  April  28th,  1705,  before  restoration 
to  office.^ 

Thos.  Bewley,  1698. 

He  was  licensed  Curate  of  St.  Cuthbert's  in  1698,  and 
signs  the  Transcripts  in  1707.  Nicolson,  in  an  account  of 
his  ordination  as  a  Deacon,  December  21st,  1684,  remarks 
that  "  Bewley  promis'd  my  Ld.  never  to  aim  at  priest's 
orders;  nor  to  take  a  Cure."  ^ 

Thomas  Addison,  1728. 

He  signs  as  "Curate"  in  1728;  and  as  "Minister" 
in  1731.  Possibly  the  person  of  that  name  who  appears 
at  Cumrew  and  Grinsdale.^ 

The  following  Presentments  are  noted  in  the  St. 
Cuthbert's  Transcripts  :  — 

[About  1666.]     The  names  of  whom  is  psented  wthin  Botchardgate 
quarter  wthin  for  not  cominge  to  divine  Service  is 

Mr.  Tho.  Sewell 

Elizabeth  his  wife 

Rich.  Heath  and  his  wife 

Jacob  Beers 

Mr.  Rich.  Scott 

Mr.   Cuth.   Studholme  and 

Barbara  his  wife  ^ 

George   Biglands   and   Mabell   his   wife. 

John  Carlile. 

Duro  Dockeray 

Richard  Peat  &  wife,  Nonconformists. 

1.  Nicolson's  Diary,  Trans.   (N.S.),  vol.  ii,  216  and  note. 

2.  Trans.   (N.S.),  vol.  i,  p.  22. 

3.  Vide  pp.  222,  269. 

4.  Vide  p.  1365 


Frequently  it  appears  in  older  documents  as  "  Stannix  " 
or  "  Stanwick,"  and  is  now  a  northern  suburb  of  Carlisle. 
The  Registers  of  the  Church,  which  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Michael,  date  from  1660,  and  not,  as  Whellan  says,  1650 ; 
Bishop  Nicolson  says  1661.  The  first  volume  is  long  and 
narrow :  it  is  in  good  condition,  the  writing  being  legible 
and  clear.     At  the  beginning  is  the  following  :  — 

A   Register   booke   referring  unto   the   parish  church   of   Stannix 
for  all  Birthes  Buriells  and  Wedings  in  this  case  provided 
In  the  Yeare  of  our  Lord 
16hund  &  60ty. 

At  the  other  end  of  the  book  we  read :  — 

The  Register  Booke  of  Stanwix 
Geo.  Buchanan  prebendarie 
of  Carlile  being  vicar  of  Stanwix  1662  Burials. 

There  is  also  a  "  Book  of  Accounts  "  full  of  interesting 
matter,  from  which  most  writers  have  largely  drawn. 
The  following  is  the  title :  — 

A  Book  of  Accounts 
belonging  to 
The  Parish  of  Stanwix 
in  the  Diocese 
Wherein    are    carefully   Sett  down    not    only    all    the    accounts    that 
Relate  to  the  Church,  but  also  all  other  Matters  that  Could  be  mett 
wth  in  old  Records  &  Writeings  that  may  Concern  the  Vicaridge  of 
Stanwix,   Steinweggs,   or  Steynwygges    Begun  by   Mr.    Hugh  Todd, 
A.M.   Canon  of  the  Church  of  Carlisle  and  vicar  of  Stanwix. 

The  list  of  Incumbents  is  as  follows :  — 

John  Braythwaite,     1585 — 1602. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Meye  in  September,  1585, 
and  died  in  1602. 

Stanwix  189 

Thomas  Langhorne,  B.A.,  1602 — 1614. 

Collated  by  Bishop  Eobinson,  July  IQth,  1602.  The 
Langhornes  belonged  to  Cumberland  and  Westmorland, 
and  Foster  gives  the  following  respecting  a  person  of  this 
name :  — 

Langhorne,  Thomas,  of  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric. 
Oct.  10,  1595,  aged  15;  B.A.  25  Jan.  1599—1600;  M.A.  from  St. 
Edmund  Hall,  6  July  1603,  then  in  orders,  i 

It  is  quite  possible  that  this  was  the  Yiear  of  Stanwix. 
He  died  in  1614. 

John  Robinson,  M.A.,  1614. 

Possibly  John  Robinson  of  Carlisle,  pleb.  who  matricu- 
lated Queen's  College,  Oxford,  April  12th,  1605,  at  the 
age  of  15,  graduated  B.A.  November  3rd,  1609,  and  M.A. 
July  8th,  1613.2  He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Robinson, 
October  21st,  1614,  and  may  have  been  a  relative.  Dr. 
Todd  says  Bishop  Meye,  but  the  latter  had  been  dead  at 
this  time  nearly  twenty  years.  A  person  of  this  name 
appears  at  Kirkland  in  1626.^ 

Robert  Wright,  1616. 

This  is  quite  a  new  name.  He  was  collated  by  Bishop 
Snowden,  February  9th,  1616 ;  and  the  place  is  given  as 
"  Stanwiketh  als  Stanwix."  *  Foster  has  a  considerable 
number  of  persons  of  this  name  in  his  Oxford  Alumni; 
but  no  one  is  assigned  to  Stanwix.  Probably  subsequently 
at  Great  Salkeld.^ 

John  Jackson,  1622—1624. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Milburn,  February  Ist,  1622 ; 
and  resigned  in  1624.  Dr.  Todd  in  the  Account  Book 
refers  to  the  letting  of  a  certain  property  in  1635  to  John 
Jackson,  Clerke. 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Ihid. 

3.  Vide  p.  391. 

4.  Institution  Books  (Record  Office). 

5.  Vide  p.  360. 

I90  The   Ejected    of  1662 

Robert  Brown,  M.A.,  1624—1639. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Senhouse,  September  12tli, 
1624,  The  Dufton  E-egisters  give  his  marriage  in  1634 
and  state  that  he  was  Yicar  of  Kirkbampton  as  well  as  of 
Stanwix :  — 

1634    August   Mr.   Robert   Browne   Vicar  of  Stanwix  and  Kirk- 
bampton and  Mistresse  Dorothie  Hewer  married  25. 

He  died  in  1639. i 

Richard  Welshman,  1639. 

He  was  collated  July  1st,  1639,  by  Bishop  Potter,  and 
had  previously  been  at  Crosby-on-Eden,  a  few  miles  away.^ 
According  to  Dr.  Todd,  Bishop  Potter  was  Welshman's 
uncle.  William  Lampit  refers  to  him  as  Minister  of 
Stanwix  in  1650,  and  says  that  he  was  "  an  enemy  in 
Carlisle  Town  when  the  Leager  was  against  it."^  Shortly 
after  this  he  died  or  resigned.  The  Stanwix  Registers 
give  the  following  :  — 

Burials.     May  25.     Mrs.   Isabell   Welshman  of   Stanwix,    1689. 
1695  Mary  Welshman  daughter  of  Mr.  Eichard  Welshman  (formerly 
vicar  of  Stanwix)  November  1. 

Dr.  Todd,  in  his  account  of  the  Parish,  after  Welshman, 
says :  — 

A.D.   1653  aut  circ. 

Joseph  Nicholson,  A.M.    After  his  Time  ye  Place  was  supply'd 
by  Itinerants. 

The  phrase  "  aut  circ  "  does  not  save  this  statement  from 
being  quite  erroneous,  Nicolson  coming  considerably  later. 
Nicolson  and  Burn  also  go  straight  from  Welshman  in 
1639  to  George  Buchanan  in  1661.*  Much  of  interest, 
however,  intervenes  as  will  appear  from  what  follows. 
It  would  seem  that  at  this  time  Stanwix  and  Crosby-on- 
Eden  were  united. 

1.  Vide  p.  606. 

2.  Vide  p.  200. 

3.  Vide  p.  624. 

4.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  455 

Stanwix  1 9 1 

Thomas  Turner,  1653—1657. 

His  order  for  Augmentation  reads  thus :  — 

30  Junij  '54. 
Tho.  Turner 

The  like  ordr  for  Mr.  Tho.  Turner  of  Stanwix  &  Crosby  in  ye 
County  of  Cumb.  upon  an  ordr.  from  ye  Comrs.  for  Approbacon  &c. 
27  Junij  '54  directed  to  Cumberland.* 

Similarly  the  following  :  — 

Crosby  June    1,    1658. 

Whereas  it  appeares  to  these  Trustees  that  Mr.  Thomas  Turner,  late 
Ministr.  of  Stannix,  Crosby,  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  hath 
receeved  the  revenue  profitts  of  the  p'misses  for  the  yeare  1657 
according  to  the  order  of  the  Comrs.  for  p'pagacon  of  the  Gospell  in 
the  foure  Northerne  Counties  It  is  ordered  that  upon  the  said  Mr. 
Turner  his  payment  of  soe  much  money  as  the  reserved  rent  formerly 
due  out  of  the  p'misses  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Carlisle  did 
amount  unto  for  one  yeare  that  the  residue  of  ye  sd  profitts  be  allowed 
unto  him  accordingly  and  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr.  doe 
allow  the  same  accordingly 
Jo.  Thorowgood  Ri  Sydenham  George  Cowper  Jo  Pocock  Ri.  Yong.^ 

Thomas  Turner  removed  to  Torpenhow  and  was  after- 
wards ejected  there. ^ 

In  April,  1656,  Thomas  Turner,  Schoolmaster  of  Carlisle, 
appears  along  with  other  petitioners  on  behalf  of  Isaac 
TuUie;  and,  about  1652,  a  person  of  this  name  was 
Schoolmaster  at  Kirkby  Lonsdale;  while  Thomas  Turner, 
"  Preacher  of  the  Word,"  signs  the  Baxter  Letter  in 
1653.  *  Whether  it  is  the  same  individual  throughout 
has  not  been  ascertained.  The  union  of  the  two  Parishes 
was  of  short  duration,  and  John  Collier  was  appointed  to 
Crosby,  ^  while  Joseph  Nicolson  came  to  Stanwix. 

Joseph  Nicolson,  M.A.,  1658—1660. 

He  had  previously  been  at  Great  Orton,  Thursby,  and 
Plumbland.^     The  following  documents  set  the  story  of 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.  G.  22  (Record  Office). 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  995. 

3.  Vide  p.  581. 

4.  Vide  pp.    89,  933. 

5.  Vide  p.  201. 

6.  Vide  pp.  230,  533,  584. 

192  The   Ejected   of  1662 

the  relations  between  these  two  Parishes  in  their  true 
light,  and  they  are  an  interesting  commentary  upon 
Walker's  statement  about  Joseph  Nicolson's  Sequestration 
from  Plumbland :  — 


To  the  Comrs.  &c.  the  true  and  undoubted  Patrons  of  the  vicarage 
of  the  pish  Church  of  Stannix  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  now 
become  void  by  the  death  of  the  last  Incumbent  or  any  other  wayes 
howsoever  Have  nominated  &  presented  and  by  these  presents  doe 
nominate  and  psent  Joseph  Nicholson  Minister  of  the  word  to  the 
said  vicarage  praying  &c.  appurtenances  thereof  which  we  doe  hereby 
upon  ye  admission  graunt  unto  him  and  that  it  please  you  to  doe  all 
other  thinges  requisite  and  necessary  to  be  done  by  you  in  this 
behalfe.  In  witnes  whereof  wee  have  hereunto  sett  or.  handes  and 
Seales  the  ffourth  day  of  November  in  the  yeare  &c.  one  thousand 
Six  hundred  ffifty  and  eight.  Jo.  Thorowgood  Ra.  Hall  Jo  Humfrey 
Jo  Pocock  Richard  Yong.^ 

Stannix  Nov.  4,   1658. 

Ffor  the  better  incouragemt.  of  Mr.  John  [Joseph]  Nicholson  in 
the  discharge  of  ye  duty  of  Minister  of  Stannix  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  and  that  hee  may  likewise  officiate  to  the  parishioners 
of  Crosby  in  the  said  County  neare  adjoyning  to  the  said  Parish  for 
inquiry  concerning  the  Union  whereof  a  Comission  is  this  day 
directed  to  bee  held.  And  that  the  said  Mr.  Nicholson  may  not  bee 
destitute  of  Maintennce  till  the  said  Union  bee  effected  as  aforesaid 
It  is  ordered  that  upon  his  officiating  as  aforesaid  till  the  25th  day 
of  March  next.  The  sume  of  thirty  poundes  bee  paid  unto  him  out 
of  the  rents  and  profitts  of  tithes  arising  within  the  said  parish  and 
lately  come  into  the  possion  of  these  Trustees  by  expiration  of  the 
lease  thereof.  And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwayte  Recr.  doe  pay 
the  same  accordingly.  Jo.  Thorowgood  Ra.  Hall  Jo.  Humfrey  Ri. 
Yong  Jo.  Pocock  Edw.  Cressett.  2 

Stannix  in  ye 
County  of  Cumberland. 

Joseph  Nicholson  CI.  admitted  the  25th  day  of  ffebruary  1658  to 
ye  V.  of  Stannix  in  ye  County  of  Cumbland  Upon  a  Pres.  exhibited 
ye  tenth  day  of  November  1658  from  the  Trustees  for  maintenance 
of  Ministers  And  Certificates  from  Rich.  Gilpin  Tim.  Tullye  Chr. 
Mattenson  John  Harrison  Roger  Baldwyn  Jo.  Myriell  Comfort 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.),  983. 

2.  Ibid.,   995. 

3.  Ibid.,  999. 

Stanwix  193 

d.d.  [delivered]  December  23,  1659. 

6  Mar. 

Whereas  ye  vicarage  of  ye  psh  Church  of  Stanwix  in  ye  County 
of  Cumberland  exceedeth  not  the  yearly  value  of  twenty  pounds  the 
Leases  of  ye  Impropriate  tithes  of  Stanwix  aforesd  and  of  Stanton 
and  Houghton  and  of  Rickerby  both  in  the  said  psh  of  Stanwix  and 
all  pcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye  late  Deane  and  Chapter  of  Carlisle  are 
lately  expired  It  is  ordered  that  the  yearly  Sume  of  twenty  pounds 
being  the  rent  reserved  upon  the  Lease  let  by  these  Trustees  of  ye 
sd  tithes  of  Stanwix  the  further  yearly  sume  of  fforty  pounds  being 
the  rent  reserved  upon  ye  Lease  of  ye  tithes  of  Stanton  and  Houghton 
and  ye  further  yearly  Sume  of  twenty  pounds  out  of  ye  rents  & 
profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Rickerby  amounting  in  all  to  the  yearly  sume 
of  ffourscore  pounds  be  granted  to  &  for  increase  of  ye  maintennce 
of  such  godly  and  painefuU  preachers  of  ye  Gospell  as  shall  be  from  time 
to  time  duely  setled  Ministrs.  of  ye  sd  psh  Church  approved  as  by 
authority  of  parliamt.  is  directed  and  that  the  same  be  paid  to  Mr. 
Joseph  Nicholson  p'sent  Minister  of  Stanwix  aforesd  of  whose  godly 
Conversacon  ability  &  fitnes  for  ye  sd  place  these  Trustees  have 
reed,  good  testimony  to  hold  from  the  25th.  day  of  March  last  for 
such  time  as  he  shall  continue  faithfully  to  discharge  the  duty  of  ye 
Ministr.  of  ye  sd  place  And  that  Mr.  Edmond  Branthwayte  Recr. 
doe  pay  the  same  unto  the  said  Mr.  Nicholson  accordingly  And  it  is 
further  ordered  that  upon  setting  out  soe  much  tithes  in  kind  as  will 
make  up  the  said  vicarage  lOOli  a  year  due  course  shall  be  taken  for 
annexing  thereof  according  to  the  Act  of  Parliamnt  in  that  behalfe. 
And  it  is  further  ordered  that  ye  sd  Mr.  Nicholson  doe  pay  out  of 
the  first  money  he  shall  receive  of  ye  sd  Augmentacon  the  sume  of 
ten  pounds  unto  Mr.  John  Collier  Minister  at  Crosby  in  ye  sd  County 
of  Cumberland  Graunted  unto  him  by  ordr.  of  ye  9th.  of  March  1658 
&  hitherto  unpaid  unto  him  &  that  ye  said  Mr.  Branthwayte  doe 
therefore  forbeare  paymt.  of  ye  sd  ten  pounds  unto  ye  sd  Mr.  Collier 
notwithstanding  the  direction  of  ye  sd  ordr.  of  ye  9th.  of  March  1658 
unlesse  by  ye  award  of  Mr.  Craistr.  and  Mr.  Briscoe  persons  indefer- 
ently  chosen  for  that  purpose  it  shall  be  agreed  on. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Wm.  Steele  Ri.  Yong  Jo.  Pocock  Wm.  Skinner 
George  Cowper.' 

At  the  Restoration  Joseph  Nicolson  returned  to  Plnmb- 
land.-     The  St.  Mary's  Registers  give  the  baptism  of  a 

1.  Lambeth   MSS.    {Plund.   Min.),  987. 

2.  Vide  p.  589. 

194  The   Ejected   of   1662 

daughter  during  the  period  of  his  residence  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood :  — 

Richardgate — Mary  ye   daughter   of   Joseph  Nicholson   clerke   ye 
9  June  1658. 

George  Buchanan,  M.A.,  1661 — 1665. 

He  was  the  Sequestered  Vicar  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale  ^  -and 
was  collated  to  Stanwix  by  Bishop  Sterne,  April  24th, 
1661.  His  Petition  for  the  Prebendship  of  the  Fourth 
Stall,  in  June,  1660,  was  successful.-  He  is  returned  as 
one  of  the  clerks  of  Convocation  along  with  Edmund 
Mauleverer,  of  Crosby  Garrett,  June  8th,  1661.  ^  On 
December  8th,  1664,  there  was  granted  to  him  and  his 
wife  "Nicolas"  the  lease  of  Caldewstones  for  a  term  of 
twenty  one  years.  At  his  instance  absolution  from  the 
sentence  of  excommunication  was  given  to  Leonard  Mil- 
burn,  July  20th,  1665 ;  and  to  Edward  Langhorn  "  de 
Hauxdale,"  August  24th  of  the  same  year.*  Dr.  Todd 
states  that  he  was  collated  in  1660,  and  instituted  April 
24th,  1661 ;  also  that  at  his  death,  which,  he  says,  took 
place  in  1664,  he  "  gave  51i  to  ye  Parish,  the  Interest  of 
wch  is  to  be  given  to  a  Schoolmaster  as  ye  Vicar  shall 
order."  He  adds  :  "  Miss  Nicholson  has  ye  Money  in  her 
hands."  ^  In  the  Registers  of  St.  Mary's  Church  are  the 
burial  entries  of  himself  and  wife,  thus  :  — 

1665   December.     Abbey  Geo.   Buchanan   prbend    in   Ecclia   ye   2d 

1668,  Septemb  Nicholas  Buchanan  buried  ye  3d  daie. 

Henry  Marshall,  M.A.,  1666—1667. 

He  was  collated  March  31st,  1666,  by  Bishop  Rainbow, 
and  was  Chancellor  as  well  as  Prebendary.  Jefferson 
says  that  the  year  after  his  collation  he  was  "  murdered 
at   Stanwix,   while   standing   at   his   own   door  and   was 

1.  Vide  p.  1011. 

2.  Vide  p.   178. 

3.  Episcopal  Registers. 

4.  Ibid. 

5.  Book  of  Accounts. 

Stanwix  195 

interred  in  the  cathedral."^  Dr.  Smith,  in  his  letter  to 
Daniel  Fleming,  December  21st,  1666,  repeats  the  story 
of  his  fall  down  stairs,  stating  that  his  skull  was  "  so 
broke,  yt  he  died  of  it  the  next  day,  having  never  spoken 
after  it."^  He  continued  to  hold  the  Crosthwaite  living 
along  with  his  other  preferments,^ 

Jeremiah  Nelson,  M.A.,  1667 — 1676. 

He  was  collated  on  June  4th,  1667,  by  Bishop  Rainbow, 
whom  he  served  as  Chaplain,  being  also  Prebendary  of 
Carlisle.  He  had  previously  been  at  Elsdon  in  Northum- 
berland, his  admission  thereto  being  noted  thus:  — 

Jeremiah  Nelson   M.A.   admitted  4th  of   Dec.    1657  to  Rectory  ot 
Eslesden  in  Northumberland.* 

His  Composition  for  First  Fruits  was  about  the  same  time 
as  the  following  indicates  :  — 

December  1657. 

Elsdon  Jeremiah  Nelson  cl.     Bound  ye     ffirst  June  1658 

Northumberland  R.    said  Jeremiah  Nelson  &  Edmund     ffirst  Dec.    1658 

Nelson   of    ye    Middle    Temple     ffirst  June  1659 

Lend,  gent.5  ffirst  Dec.    1659 


His  life  in  that  out  of  the  way  place  was  not  uneventful. 
Hence  the  subjoined:  — 

LXXXIX.  Some  persons  uxkxowx.  For  a  Burglary. 
June  6.  1660.  Jeremiah  Nelson,  Minister  of  Ellesdon,  saith  that  on 
May  the  7th  a  litle  before  midnight,  certain  men  broke  into  his 
house,  and  came  with  swords  and  pistolls  into  the  said  house,  and 
shot  off  a  pistoll,  and  did  come  into  the  lodging  parlour  where  he  and 
his  wife  lyes,  and  did  threaten  him  often  that  if  he  would  not  give 
them  his  money  presently  they  would  kill  him,  and  one  of  them  said 
often,  "Kill  Baal's  Preist,"  and  they  took  away  a  purse  and  bag  and 
money  in  it. 6 

1.  Hist,  of  Carlisle,  p.   259. 

2.  The  Flemings  in  Oxford,  p.  163. 

3.  Vide  under  Crosthwaite  (p.  657)  where  the  story  of  his  accident  is 
[  given. 

4.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  998. 

5.  Composition  Books  (Record  Office),  vol.  22. 

6.  Depositions  from  York  Castle  (Surtees  Soc,  Vol.  40),  p.  84. 

196  The   Ejected   of  1662 

[No  date  but  Calendar  gives  1665  (?).] 

The  Kings  most  Excellent  Maty.     The  humble  Peticon  of  Jeremiah 
Nelson  Gierke,  Eector  of  Ellesdon  in  the  County  of  Northumberland. 
Humbly  Sheweth 

That  your  Peticoner  being  an  old  man  above  sixty  yeares  of  age  and 
taken  wth  severall  violent  distempers,  &  Liveing  above  24  miles 
distant  from  any  Phisitian  or  other  helpe  from  his  said  Sicknesse,  & 
haveing  always  been  Loyall  and  conformable  to  the  Church  of 
England,  he  haveing  suffered  above  the  value  of  two  thousand  pounds 
sterling  by  the  late  times  of  Rebellion,  all  wch  being  no  more  but 

Humbly  prayes  now  in  his  old  age  his  Maty  will  be  pleased  to  grant 
yor  Peticonr  yor  Royall  dispensacon  to  remove  to  use  the  best  meanes 
he  may  in  ordr  to  his  recovery,  &  that  he  may  receive  &  enjoy  the 
benefitts  belonging  to  the  said  Rectory,  he  takeing  care,  that  the  Cure 
thereof  shall  be  fully  supplyed. 

And  yor  Petr  as  in  duty  bound  shall 
pray  for  yor  Maty. 

Jer.  Nelson. 
Mr.  Nelson's  Petn  for 

Non  Residence  (Dr.  Basire).^ 

Old  as  he  was,  lie  sought  and  obtained  a  dispensation  to 
hold  Stanwix  along  with  his  other  preferment,  as  appears 
from  the  following  :  — 

Jeremy  Nelson  M.A.  Chaplain  to  Guy  Bp.  of  BristoU  despensn  to 
hold  with  the  Vicarage  of  Stanwix  in  Diocesse  of  Carlisle  &  County  of 
Cumberld  the  Vicarage  of  Corbride  in  Diocesse  &  County  of  Durham. 
Winder  June  4th  1674.=' 

In  the  St.  Mary's  Registers,  Carlisle,  occur  these  entries : 

1671-2  Abbey  within,  ffrances  ye  daughter  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Nelson 
ye  same  day  [ffeb.  27]. 

1673  July  Abbey  gate  John  ye  Sonne  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Nelson  bapt. 
ye  last  day. 

1676  Abbeygate  Mary  daughter  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Nelson  bapt. 
the  7th  daie  [July]. 

He   resigned   in   1676.       Bishop   Nicolson   in   his   Diary     II 
under  date  June  21st,  1685,  says  : "  Mr.  Nelson  bury'd  at       ' 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  ii,  vol.  142,  pt.  ii,  p.  169. 

2.  S.  P.  Dom.  Entry  Book,  27. 

Stanwix  197 

evening  prayer.     Mr.   Nicols  proffer'd  to  preach. "^     He 
was  exceedingly  active  against  the  Quakers. ^ 

John  Tomlinson,  M.A.,  1676—1685. 

A  graduate  of  Glasgow  University,  incorporated  at 
Magdalen  College,  Cambridge,  and  at  Oxford,  July  11th, 
1676.^  He  was  ordained  Deacon,  September  24th,  1671, 
Priest,  September  21st,  1673,  and  was  collated  August 
30th,  1676,  "  per  cession "  of  Jeremiah  Nelson.  There 
was  a  John  Tomlinson,  son  of  E-ichard  Tomlinson  of 
Dalton-in-Furness,  who  went  from  Sedbergh  School  to 
St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  in  1653,  being  eighteen 
years  of  age  at  the  time  of  entering.  He  was  elected 
Fellow  in  1656.^  John  Tomlinson,  the  Stanwix  Yicar 
died  in  1685. 

Hugh  Todd,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1685—1688. 

He  was  collated,  by  Bishop  Thomas  Smith,  October 
2nd,  1685,  and  resigned  February  23rd,  1688,  "  ex  mero 
motu."  Previously  he  had  been  at  Kirkland  and  sub- 
sequently became  Rector  of  Arthuret  and  Vicar  of 
Penrith.  ^ 

Nathaniel  Spooner,  M.A.,  1688 — 1703. 

Previously  at  Cliburn,  and  for  some  time  held  the 
living  at  Kirkland  ^  along  with  that  of  Stanwix.  His 
wife  was  Elizabeth,  Bishop  Nicolson's  sister.  The  following 
entries  appear  in  the  St.  Mary's  Registers :  — 

Baptism  Abbey — Mary  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Nath.  Spooner  ye  3d  of 
October  1701. 

March  1696-7.  Abbey  Jos.  ye  son  of  Mr.  Nath.  Spooner  ye  10th  dale. 

Abbey  Mrs.  Eliz.  Spooner  buried  ye  3d  daie  Novr  1698.  7 

1.  Trans.  (N.  S.),  vol  i,  p.  31. 

2.  Besse's  Sufferings  of  the  Quakers,  vol.  i,  p.  133. 

3.  AI.  Ox. 

4.  Sedbergh  School  Register,  by  B.  Wilson,  p.  83. 

5.  Vide  pp.  306,  436. 

6.  Vide  398,  1244. 

7.  This  cannot  of  course  be  his  wife,  because  she  survived  him  and  in 
July,  1705,  married  E.  Carlile. 

198  The   Ejected   of  1662 

In  his  Diary,  under  date  July  16th,  1702,  Bishop  Nicolson 

My  brother  Spooner  went  to  Stanwix-church  (ye  first  time  since 
Xtmas  last)  and  marry'd  a  couple ;   returning  in  pretty  good  health,  i 

He  died  in  1703.     In  the  Edinburgh  University  list  of 
graduates  appears  the  following:  — 

July  25.  1612.     Nicolaus  Spoonerius,  Minister  Verbi  Anglus.2 
Whether  he  was  a  relative  has  not  been  ascertained. 

George  Fleming,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1703—1705. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Nicolson,  August  2nd,  1703, 
and  resigned  March  25th,  1705.  Subsequently  he  was 
elevated  to  the  Episcopal  throne.  ^  The  Registers  of  St. 
Mary's  Church  contain  the  following :  — 

1708  Marriage  fhrth  Street  Mr.  Geo.  Fleming  and  Mrs.  Cath. 
Jefferson  Oct.  ye  25th.' 

Rose  Castle  Sir  George  Fleming  Bartt  Lord  Bishop  of  Carlisle 
Buried  ye  7  of  July  1747. 

Thomas  Benson,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1705—1727. 

He  was  collated  March  28th,  1705,  by  Bishop  Nicolson, 
whom  he  served  as  Chaplain;  and  later  became 
Prebendary  of  the  Third  Stall.  He  was  the  son  of  Thomas 
Benson  of  Cockermouth  and  probably  grandson  of  George 
Benson,  the  Ejected  Minister  of  Bridekirk.  ^  He  matricu- 
lated Queen's  College,  Oxford,  April  3rd,  1696,  at  the  age 
of  seventeen,  took  his  B.A.  in  1699,  M.A.  in  1702,  and 
became  D.D.  July  5th,  1716.^  He  married  Mary,  the 
Bishop's  eldest  daughter;  and  to  his  Stanwix  living 
added  Dalston  in  October,  1714.  He  died  in  1727,  and 
by  his  Will  "  left  the  sum  of  £50  to  the  Parishes  of 
Stanwix  and  Dalston."  '' 

1.  Trans.  (N.  S.),  vol.  ii,  p.  172. 

2.  Cal.  of  Edinburgh  Graduates  (Bannatyne  Club). 

3.  Vide  pp.  382,  &c. 

4.  Bishop  Nicolson  says  the  28th  and  speaks  of  her  as  "Cous.  Cath. 
Jefferson."     Trans.  (N.  S.),  vol.  iv,  p.  41. 

5.  Vide  p.  712. 

6.  Al.  Ox. 

7.  Jefferson's  Hist,  of  Carlisle,  p.  -io5. 


This  Parish,  often  appearing  simply  as  Crosby,  as 
indicated  in  the  previous  section,  adjoins  Stanwix;  and 
for  some  time  the  two  livings  were  united  in  the  same 
person.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  John  the 
Evangelist.     Writing  in  1703,  Bishop  IS^icolson  says:  — 

The  Register-Book  (if  it  may  be  call'd  so)  is  most  scandalous ;  being 
loose,  in  paper,  and  of  no  Age.  It  looks  like  all  the  rest  that's  under 
the  care  of  Mr.  Bowey,  the  present  vicar ;  who  is  an  unhappy  Manager 
of  all  his  Concerns.' 

A  new  book  was  obtained  shortly  afterwards,  possibly  as 
the  result  of  the  Bishop's  visit;  and  Henry  Pearson, 
Parish  Clerk,  and  "  Ludimagister  de  Crosby,"  acted  as 
E-egistrar.  He  was  fond  of  disporting  his  Latin,  not  by 
any  means  always  accurate;  but  the  writing  is  like 
copper-plate.  On  the  inside  page  of  the  cover  is  the 
following :  — 

This  Register  Booke  was  bought  at  Carlisle  ye  second  day  of  May 
in  ye  year  of  our  Lord  god  1704  at  ye  Cost  of  ye  pish  of  Crosby  By 
Chrefor  Wannop  Roger  Linton  John  Teasdaile  and  John  Dalton, 
Allison  John,  old  Churchwardens  ye  price  was  Six  shillings  Three 
pence  p.  me  Henrie  Pearson. 

This  is  followed  by  two  baptisms,  one  in  1649  being  that 
of  "Henricus  Pearson"  himself  "  fillius  Jacobi."  Others 
promiscuously  inserted  as  to  date  succeed;  but  they  are 
few  in  number.  The  entries  are  continuous  from  1693, 
which  may  be  regarded  as  the  proper  date  for  the  Regis- 
ters.    The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents:  — 

L  Miscel.,  p.  106. 

200  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Thomas  Wilson,  1585, 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Meye  in  1585. 
Foster  gives  several  persons  of  this  name,^  but  no  one 
is  identified  with  the  Crosby  Vicar. 

Thomas  Shaw,  1612. 

He  was  collated  May  20,  1612,  by  Bishop  Robinson. 

Thomas  Milburn,  1627. 

He  was  ordained  Priest  December  14,  1623 ;  and  collated 
by  Bishop  White  June  18,  1627.  The  Institution  Books, 
for  some  reason  or  other,  give  a  second  collation  on  June 
26th  of  that  year.^  Probably  he  was  the  person  of  that 
name  who  appears  at  Cumwhitton  in  1624.^ 

Richard  Welshman,  1635 — 1639. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Potter  November  13,  1635; 
and  ceded  in  1639  on  his  acceptance  of  the  living  at 

William  Hodgson,  B.A.,  1639. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  and  Priest  June  11,  1620,  being 
collated  to  Crosby  by  Bishop  Potter  October  5,  1639. 
Foster  gives  the  following  under  this  name  :  — "  Of  Yorks 
pleb.  Merton  College,  matric.  15  Dec.  1615,  aged  22;  B.A. 
24  Oct.  1616  :  one  of  these  names  vicar  of  Crosby-on-Eden, 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  It  may  be  well  to  state  here  once  for  all  that  slight  discrepancies  in 
the  dates  of  Institution  frequently  occur  between  the  Episcopal  Register 
and,  in  the  case  of  the  Chester  Diocese,  the  Act  Books,  the  Institution 
Books,  and  the  Parish  Registers.  For  the  comfort  of  the  reader,  however, 
it  may  be  added  that  generally  the  discrepancies  are  very  "slight,"  being 
represented  by  a  few  days,  or  at  most  a  month  or  two.  I  have  followed 
the  authority  in  each  case  which  seemed  most  likely. 

3.  Vide  p.  271  :  also  Institution  Books  and  Episcopal  Register. 

4.  Vide  p.  190. 

Crosby-on-Eden  201 

Cumberland,  1639."  ^  Nicolson  and  Burn  have  a  gap 
from  this  point  to  1661. ^  This,  however,  we  are  able  to 
fill  up  by  the  aid  of  the  Lambeth  MSS.  as  follows :  — 

Thomas  Turner,  1653—1657. 

He  was  also  at  Stanwix  and  subsequently  at  Torpenhow.^ 

Joseph  Nicolson,  M.A.,  1658. 

He  held  this  along  with  Stanwix  for  a  brief  time.* 

John  Collier  or  Collyer,  B.A.,  1658 — 1661  (?). 

Under  this  name  Foster  has  the  following  particulars : 
"  Of  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  28  April 
1615,  aged  17:  B.A.  from  St.  Mary  Hall  12  May  1617; 
one  of  these  names  ejected  from  the  vicarage  of  Crosby, 
Cumberland,  in  1662,  under  the  act  of  uniformity."  ^ 
He  was  ordained  Deacon  December  22,  1622,^  and  is  given 
as  B.A.,  Chester  Diocese,  but  where  his  ministry  was 
exercised  up  to  this  date  we  have  no  means  of  knowing. 
The  following  deal  with  his  appointment  and  Augmenta- 
tion :  — 

Crosby.  March  3rd.  1657. 

Mr.  Wood  informing  that  the  Lease  of  the  tithes  of  Crosby  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  is  expired  The  Trustees  doe  appoint  to  treate 
for  the  said  tithes  on  the  sixth  day  of  May  next  whereof  the  Receever 
of  Cumberland  is  to  take  notice  &  to  inquire  &  certify  according  to 
former  ordr.  in  that  behalf e.' 

Crosby.  ffebr.   15.   1658. 

Ordered  yt  Mr.  Craister  bee  desired  to  meet  with  these  Trustees  on 
the  seaventeenth  instant  when  they  doe  appoint  to  take  the  peticon  of 
Mr.  Collier  Minister  at  Crosby  this  day  read  into  further  Considera- 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  457. 

3.  Vide  pp.  191,  581. 

4.  Vide  p.  191. 

5.  Al.  Ox. 

6.  Episcopal  Register. 

7.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  980. 

8.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  980. 

202  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Fryday  17  Februarij  1658. 

Crosby  & 


Mr  Craister  Saith  there  is  no  possibilitie  of  uniting,  3  miles  distant 
ye  people  of  Crosby  from  Stannix. 
peticon  for  John  Collier,  psent  him  to  Crosby. 

Mr.  Craister  Saith  he  will  undertake  that  Mr.  Collier  shall  accept 
of  40li  a  yeare  &  not  insist  upon  the  union  of  ye  tithes.' 

Friday  25.  Februarij,  1658. 

Stannix  & 


yt  Mr.  Briscoe  &  Mr —  bee  desired  to  bee  with  ye  Trustees  on 
Monday  Sennight  abt  yse  [these]  peticons." 

Monday  ye  7  of  March  1658. 
Jo.  Collier  settled  40li  a  yeare  when  admitted.* 

Crosby.  March  7.  1658. 

Ordered  yt  upon  Admission  of  Mr.  John  Collier  psented  to  the 
Vicarage  of  Crosby  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  the  yearely  summe 
of  fforty  poundes  bee  setled  upon  him  for  increase  of  his  maintence 
out  of  the  rents  &  pfitts  of  the  tithes  of  Crosby  aforesd  in  ye  posses- 
sion of  these  Trustees. 

Jo  Thorowgood  Edw  Cressett  Ra  Hall  Jo  Pocock  Ei  Yong.4 

Crosby.  March  9.  1658. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  ye  4th.  of  November  1658  granted  ye  sume 
of  Thirty  poundes  to  be  paid  to  Mr.  Joseph  Nicholson  for  discharge 
of  ye  duty  of  the  Ministr.  of  Stannix  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  and 
likewise  yt.  he  might  officiate  to  ye  parishioners  of  Crosby  in  ye  said 
County  till  the  25th  of  March  next.  Now  for  yt  the  sd  parishes  cannot 
be  united  and  Mr.  John  Collier  p'sent  vicar  of  Crosby  aforesd  hath 
oflBciated  there  ever  since  ye  25th  of  December  last  and  not  the  sd 
Mr.  Nicholson  It  is  ordered  therefore  that  the  sume  of  ten  pounds 
parcell  of  ye  thirty  poundes  graunted  unto  the  sd  Mr.  Nicholson  bee 
paid  unto  ye  sd  Mr.  Collier  And  yt.  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr. 
by  whom  ye  sd  thirty  pounds  is  payable  doe  pay  ye  same  unto  him 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Ra.  Hall  Jo.  Poccock  Ri.  Sydenham  Ri.  Yong.  5 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  1003. 

2.  Ihid.,  1003. 

3.  Ihid.,  1003. 

4.  Ibid.,  989. 

5.  Ibid.,  995. 

Crosby-on-Eden  203 

To  the  Commissioners  for  Approbacon  of  publique  Preachers  and  all 
others  whom  it  may  concerne  Wee  William  Steele  Lord  Chanceir  of 
Ireland  Sr.  John  Thorowgood  of  Kensington  Knt.  George  Cowper 
Richard  Yong  John  Pococke,  Ralf  Hall,  Richard  Sydenham  John 
Humfrey  and  Edward  Cressett  Esqrs.  Trustees  by  Severall  Acts  of 
parliamt  for  niaintennce  of  Ministers  the  true  &  undoubted  Patrons  of 
the  Vicarage  of  the  Parish  Church  of  Crosby  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  now  become  void  by  the  relinquishment  of  the  last 
Incumbent  or  by  any  other  ways  whatsoever  Have  nominated  and 
presented  and  by  these  psents  doe  nominate  &  psent  John  Collier 
Minister  of  the  word  to  the  said  vicarage  Desiring  that  the  said  John 
Collier  may  be  admitted  to  &  settled  in  the  said  vicarage  and  vested 
with  all  the  Rights  members  and  appurtennces  thereof  which  we  do© 
hereby  upon  your  admission  graunt  unto  him  and  that  it  would  please 
you  to  doe  all  other  thinges  requisite  and  necessary  to  be  done  (in  this 
behalfe)  by  you.  Given  under  our  handes  and  seales  the  Seavententh 
day  of  ffebruary  in  the  yeare  according  to  the  Computacon  used  in 
England  One  Thousand  Six  hundred  fifty  and  Eight,  1658. 
John  Thorowgood  Ra.  Hall  John  Humfrey  George  Cowper  Jo  Pococke. 

[Endorsed    behind  thus]  :    Crosby   in    Cumberland    March    4th.    '58 
Aprill  13th,  '59.1 
Crosby  in  Ye 
County  of  Cumberland. 

John  Collyer  CI.  Admitted  the  13th.  day  of  April  1659  to  the  V.  of 
Crosby  in  the  County  of  Cumberland.  Upon  a  pres.  exhibited  the 
4th.  day  of  March  1658,  from  the  Trustees  for  maintennce  of  INIinisters 
the  patrons.  And  Certificates  from  Tho.  Sewell  Tho.  Crayster  Cuth. 
Studholme  Tho.  Langhorne  Jo.  Cocke  Jos.  Nicholson  of  Stannix  Sim. 
Atkinson  of  Lazonby.  2 


April  14.  1659. 

Know  all  men  by  these  psents  yt  ye  4th.  of  March  1658  there  was 
exhibited  to  the  Comrs.  for  Approbacon  of  publique  preachers  a 
Presentacon  of  John  Collier  CI.  to  the  viccarage  of  Crosby  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  made  to  him  by  the  Trustees  for  maintennce  of 
Ministers,  together  &c.  Dated  at  Whitehall  the  13th  day  of  Aprill 
1659.3  Jo.  Nye,  Regr. 


April  14,  1659. 

Upon  due  consideracon  had  of  the  value  of  the  Vicarage  of  Crosby 
in   ye    County   of    Cumberland    being   seaven   pounds   a   yeare   It   is 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  946. 

2.  Ihid.,  999. 

3.  Ihid.,  968. 

204  The   Ejected   of  1662 

ordered  that  the  yearely  Sume  of  fforty  pounds  be  Annexed  to  ye 
Vicarage  of  Crosby  aforesd  out  of  the  rents  and  pfitts  of  ye  tithes  of 
ye  Rectory  of  Crosby  aforesd  parcel!  of  ye  possions  of  the  late  Bpp. 
of  Carlisle  the  Lease  whereof  being  lately  expired  came  into  the 
possion  of  these  Trustees  &  is  now  let  by  them  at  the  yearly  rent  of 
two  &  thirty  pounds  And  that  the  said  fforty  pounds  a  yeare  be  from 
time  to  time  paid  unto  Mr.  John  Collier  admitted  to  ye  Vicarage  of 
Crosby  aforesd  by  ye  Comrs.  for  Approbacon  of  publique  preachrs. 
the  13th  day  of  April  instant  to  hold  for  such  time  as  he  shall  con- 
tinue to  discharge  the  duty  of  ye  Minr.  of  ye  sd  place  or  further  order 
And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwayte  Recr.  doe  pay  the  same 
accordingly  to  be  accounted  from  the  25th  day  of  March  last  out  of 
the  aforesd  tithes  and  other  the  tithes  ariseing  within  the  sd  parish. 
John  Thorowgood  Edw.  Cressett  Ra  Hall  Ri  Yong  Jo.  Humfrey.  i 

Stannix  and 

Crosby.  ffebr.  17.  1659. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  supposing  there  might  be  a  union  of  ye 
pishes  of  Stannix  and  Crosby  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  being 
neare  adjoyning  to  each  other  and  by  ordr.  of  ye  4th.  of  November 

1658  Graunted  ye  sume  of  thirty  pounds  unto  Mr.  John  [Joseph] 
Nicholson  Minister  of  Stannix  aforesd  to  oflBciate  at  ye  parish  of 
Stannix  and  preach  to  ye  p'shionrs.  of  Crosby  till  ye  25th  of  March 

1659  [1658-9]  ffor  yt  it  appeares  ye  said  pshes  could  not  fitly  be  united 
togeather  and  that  Mr.  John  Collier  then  vicar  of  Crosby  had 
officiated  there  ever  since  the  25th  of  December  1658  these  Trustees 
by  ordr.  of  ye  ninth  of  March  1658  [1658-9]  ordered  yt  ye  siune  of  ten 
pounds  pcell  of  ye  sd  thirty  pounds  should  be  paid  to  ye  sd  Mr. 
Collier  wch.  it  seemeth  is  not  as  yet  paid  unto  him.  It  is  ordered 
that  it  be  referred  to  Mr.  Craister  and  Mr.  Briscoe  to  award  how 
much  of  ye  sd  ten  pounds  and  how  the  same  may  be  paid  to  the  said 
Mr.  Collier  and  fully  to  accomodate  the  business  betweene  ye  sd  Mr. 
Nicholson  and  Mr.  Collier  according  to  their  judgement  and  discretion. 

J.  Thorowgood  Wm.  Steele  Ri  Yong  Jo.  Pocock.  2 

Calamy  and  Palmer  give  John  Collier  a  place  in  their 
list  of  Ejected  Ministers;  but  they  mention  his  name 
only.  ^  "What  became  of  him  is  not  known.  A  person  of 
this  name  compounded  for  his  First  Fruits  in  1672  at 
Gluvias  Budocke,  Cornwall. 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  987. 

2.  Ibid.,  989. 

3.  Calamy's  vol.  ii,  p.  159  :  Non.  Mem.  (Ed.  1802),  vol.  i,  p.  385. 

Crosby-on-Eden  205 

John  Theakston,  B.A.,  1661 — 1666. 

Letters  dismissory  were  granted  to  John  Theakston, 
B.A.,  February  23,  1660-1 ;  and  on  October  8,  1661,  he  was 
collated  by  Bishop  Sterne.  He  appears  also  at  Irthing- 
ton  ^  in  that  year.  Xicolson  and  Burn  say  that  he  died 
in  1666.2 

Philip  Fielding,  M.A.,  1666 — 1670. 

He  had  succeeded  ]S^athaniel  Burnand  at  Brampton,^ 
and  was  collated  to  Crosby  on  September  16,  1666,  by 
Bishop  Rainbow.  He  was  a  Pluralist  on  a  large  scale, 
having  Irthington  as  well  as  Brampton  and  Crosby.  *  His 
Curate  at  Crosby  was  Thomas  Milburn,  who  signs  the 
Transcripts  as  such  in  1667.  There  is  also  the  following 
baptismal  entry :  — 

1668  Johnes  fil   Thomae   Milburn   Cur.    de   Crosby   baptizatus  erat 
25th  day  of  November. 

Milburn's  license  to  teach  School  and  read  prayers  at 
Irthington  and  "  Crosby  super  Eden  "  bears  date  1663.  ^ 
The  latter  was  ordained  Deacon  September  24,  1671,  and 
may  have  been  the  person  of  that  name  who  was  at  Farlam 
in  1700.^  Possibly  he  was  a  connection  of  Thomas 
Milburn  who  held  the  living  at  Crosby  in  1627. 

Philip  Fielding  resigned  the  Crosby  living  in  1670. 

Egbert  Hume,  M.A.,  1670—1680. 

He  graduated  M.A.  at  Edinburgh  April  15,  1645;  and 
was  ordained  Deacon  September  25,  1670,  Priest  Septem- 
ber 24,  1671,  being  collated  to  Crosby-on-Eden  by  Bishop 
Rainbow  August  13,  1672,  on  the  resignation  of  Philip 

1.  Vide  p.  284. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  457. 

3.  Vide  p.  260. 

4.  Vide  p.  284. 

5.  Episcopal  Register. 

6.  Vide  p.  277. 


The   Ejected    of  1662 

Fielding.  He  was  subsequently  at  Lazonby  and  Aspatria.* 
The  Transcripts  give  the  following :  — 

1675  Georgius  filius  Roberti  Hume  vicarij  de  Crosby  baptizatus  erat  7 

Nathaniel  Bowey,  1680 — 1713. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Hainbow  August  26,  1680, 
and  held  the  Scaleby  living  in  conjunction  with  Crosby. 
In  the  St.  Mary's  Registers,  Carlisle,  appear  the  follow- 
ing, which  may  refer  to  him  and  his  wife :  — 

Baptism,  Castlegate,  Thomas  ye  Sonne  of  Nathaniel  Bowey  ye  27th 
day  Dec.  1682. 

Burial  paternoster  row,  Mrs.  Bowey  the  i6  of  December  1717. 

The  Crosby  Registers  note  his  own  burial  thus :  — 

Mar.  ye 

12  day. 

Nathaniel  Bowey  Vicarius  de  pochia  de  Crosby  super  eden 
Sepultus  erat  vicessimo  secundo  die  Marchij  Anno  Domj  1712-3. 

1.  Vide  pp.   326,   646. 


Wetheral  is  about  five  miles  east  of  Carlisle.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  is  in  succes- 
sion to  the  ancient  Wetheral  Priory.  The  earliest  Regis- 
ters, an  oblong  volume,  begin  in  1674.  They  are  in  fair 
condition,  the  writing  is  quite  legible,  and  they  are  written 
in  from  both  ends.  On  the  first  page  at  one  end  is  the 
following :  — 

The  yeare  of  our  Lord  God  1674  price  iis. 

Warwick  is  about  two  miles  north  of  Wetheral.  Its 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Leonard.  It  has  separate 
Registers,  the  earliest  volume  being  much  like  the  one  at 
Wetheral.     On  the  first  page  is  written  :  — 

Tho.  Smith  Curate  of  Warwick  June  ye  30.  1700. 
Elsewhere,  however,  we  have  the  following :  — 

The    Register   Book   of    Warwick    since    ye    Entrance    of    Thomas 
Nichols   Curate, 

the  first  entry  being  January  1,  1683-4. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  17tli  Century  the  two  places 
had  separate  Ministers,  but  since  Commonwealth  days,  at 
least,  they  appear  to  have  been  joined  together.  No  one 
of  the  Historians  makes  any  attempt  at  a  list  of  Incum- 
bents.    The  following  names  have  been  obtained  :  — 

John  Bellwood,  1618.  , 

The  following  appears  in  Lord  William  Howard's 
"Household  Books  ":-- 

Octob.  1618.     To  Mr.  Bellwood  Curate  of  Wetherall  for  one  quarter 
due  at  Michaelmas  last  past  xxxs. 

2o8  The   Ejected  of  1662 

Under  December  19  of  the  same  year  is  another  payment 
of  the  same  amount  "  for  one  quarter  due  at  Christmas 
next."  He  is  further  mentioned  in  a  similar  capacity 
under  June  17,  1619.1 

There  was  a  John  Bellwood,  probably  the  same  person, 
who  was  ordained  "  literatus,"  September  22,  1611. ^ 

William  (.?)   Alleson,  1618. 

This  name  is  given  on  the  authority  just  cited,  the 
following  passage  appearing  in  the  book :  — 

To  Mr.  Alleson  Curate  of  Warthwick  for  one  quarter  due  18  of  this 
Octobr  1618  xxxs. 

He    appears    repeatedly    in    the    "  Household    Books " 
■  under  the  names  of  "Alleson,"  "Allinson  "  and  "Allyson," 
and  was  certainly  here  until  April,  1622.^ 

William  Allanson,  possibly  the  same  person,  was 
ordained  Deacon,  December  20,  1608,  and  Priest,  Septem- 
ber 22,  1611.* 

Christopher  Peile,  M.A.,  1621. 

The  following  from  the  same  source  is  our  authority 
for  this  name  :  — 

25  of  March  1620  Rec.  of  Rob.  Stapleton  xxxs  and  vli  which  was 
paid  to  Mr.  Peele  as  curate  &  preacher  at  Wetherall  at  our  Lady  day 
last  1621  reckoned  in  my  former  booke  pag.  65  Ao  1620  in  toto 
vjli  XS.5 

This  would  be  Christopher  Peile  who  was  ordained 
Deacon,  June  15,  1616.^     He  was  instituted  to  Thursby 

1.  "The  Household  Books  of  Lord  William  Howard  of  Naworth  Ca.stle," 
(Surtees  Society,  vol.  68,  pp.  98  and  99.)  This  volume  is  invaluable  and 
will  repay  careful  study. 

2.  Episcopal  Register 

3.  Household  Books,  p.  181. 

4.  Episcopal  Register. 

5.  Household  books,  p.   151. 

6.  Episcopal  Register. 

Wetheral   and   Warwick  209 

in  1622,^  and  appears  to  have  kept  the  Wetheral  Curacy 
as  well  for  some  time,  hence  the  following  :  — 

Payd  to  Mr.  Peele  by  my  Lord  for  one  half  yeares  pension  for 
preaching  at  Wetherall  due  to  him  29  September  1624  vli.  Paid  for 
serving  the  cure  thear  for  one  quarter  due  then  xxxs.  2 

Among  the  "  rewards  "  is  one  "  to  a  manne  bringinge  a 
letter  from  Mr.  Peele  at  Thursbye  xijd  [March,  1633-4]  .'^^ 

Jo.  Sewell,  1629. 

The  "  Household  Books  "  give  this  name  thus  :  — 

To  Sr.  Jo.  Sewell  Viker  of  Witherall,  for  one  quarter's  wages  due 
at  Chrestenmas  1629  xxxs.  4 

John  Sewell  was  ordained  Priest  December  14,  1623. 

He  was  here   until,  at  least,   October,  1634,   when  he 
again  received  his  salary  of  "  xxxs."  ^ 

James  Pavtston,  1629. 

We  read  in  the  "  Household  Books  "  :  — 

Januarie  18.  To  James  Pawston  Vicar  of  Warwicke,  for  one 
quarter  serving  the  cure  at  Warwicke,  due  the  18th  of  Januarie  1629 
xxxs.  6 

Robert  Railton,  1630. 

The  same  source  supplies  us  with  the  following ;  — 

Septemb  To  Sr.  Robert  Raylton  for  one  halfe  yeare's  pention  for 
preaching  at  Wetherall,  due  at  Michelmas  1630  vli,  more  to  him  for 
one  quarter's  wages  for  Servinge  the  Cure  ther.  xxxs.  7 

1.  Vide  p.  532. 

2.  Household  Books,  p.  219. 

3.  Ihid.,   p.   316. 

4.  Ibid.,  p.  269. 

5.  Ibid.,  p.  340. 

6.  Ibid.,  p.  269. 

7.  Ibid.,  p.  269. 

2IO  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  Commonwealth  Survey  for  1649  has  the  following : 

Wetherall  &  Warwick,  Chapel  of  Cumwhitton — Robert  Railton  a 
preaching  minister  is  ye  p'sent  Incumbent  att  the  parish  and  church  of 

A  "  Robt,  Haylton  "  was  ordained  Deacon  September  22, 
1611. 2 

Christopher  Matteson,  B.A.,  1655. 

The  following  from  Foster  probably  refers  to  him :  — 
"  Mattinson,  Christopher,  pleb.  Merton  Coll.  [Oxford] 
matric.  5  June,  1651."  ^  His  appointment  and  Augmen- 
tation are  mentioned  in  the  following  documents :  — 

Wetherall  & 


Know  all  men  by  these  psents  that  the  first  day  of  August  in  the 
yeare  one  Thousand  six  hundred  ffyfty  and  ffive  there  was  exhibited 
to  the  Comissionrs  for  Approbacon  of  publique  Preachers  an  ordr  of 
ye  Trustees  for  Maintennce  of  Minrs  for  ye  settlemt  of  Mr  Xfer 
Mattison  in  ye  Cure  of  ye  pish  Church  of  Wetherall  &  Warwick  in  ye 
County  of  Cumberland  together  with  a  testimony  in  ye  behalf e  of  ye 
said  Xfer  Matteson  of  the  holy  &  good  conversacon  upon  p'usall  & 
due  consideracon  of  ye  p'mises  and  finding  him  to  be  a  p'son  qualified 
as  in  &  by  ye  Ordinance  for  such  approbacon  is  required  The  Comrs 
above  menconed  have  adjudged  &  approved  ye  said  Xfer  Mattison  to 
be  a  fitt  p'son  to  preach  ye  Gospell  &  have  graunted  him  admission  & 
doe  admitt  ye  said  Xfer  Mattison  to  ye  Cure  of  Wetherall  &  Warwick 
aforesaid  to  be  full  and  pfect  Possessor  &  Incumbent  thereof.  And 
doe  hereby  Signifye  to  all  Persons  concerned  herein  That  he  is  hereby 
intituled  to  the  p'fits  and  pquisitts  &  all  Rights  &  dues  incident  and 
belonging  to  ye  said  Cure  as  fully  &  effectually  as  if  he  had  beene 
instituted  &  inducted  according  to  any  such  Lawes  &  Customes  as 
have  in  this  case  formerly  beene  made  had  or  used  in  this  Realme. 

In  Witness  whereof  they  have  caused  ye  Comon  8eale  to  be  here- 
unto affixed  &  ye  Same  to  be  attested  by  ye  hand  of  ye  Regr  by  his 
Highnes  in  yt  behalfe  appointed. 

Dated  at  Whitehall  ye  first  day  of  August  1655. 

Jo.  Nye  Regr.  4 

1.  Vide  p.  1299. 

2.  Episcopal  Register. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min)  968. 

"Wetheral   and   "Warwick 


Know  all  men  by  these  psents  that 

the  first  day  of  August  in  the  yeare 

One  thousand  six  hundred  ffifty  and 

five  There  was  &c  an 

order  of  the  Trustees  for  maintenance  of 

Ministers  for  ye  settlement  of  Mr.  Chrestopher 

Mattinson  in  the  Cure  of  the  parish 

Church  of  Wetherhall  and  Warwicke 

in  the  County  of  Cumberland  Together 

with  &c  adjudged  and  approved 

the  said  Christopher  Mattinson  to  be 

&c  and  doe  admitt  the  said  Christopher  Mattinson 

to  the  cure 

of  Wetherhall  &  Warwicke  aforesaid  to  be 

full  and  perfect  possessor  &c    In 

Witnesse  &c    Dated  at  Whitehall  the 

first  day  of  August  1655.* 

Wetherall  &  Order  July 

Warwicke.  24  1655. 

Chr.  Mattinson 

Chr.  Mattinson 
cert,  as  aforsd 


Roger  Baldwin  of 

John  Mackmillaine 

of  Kainhalby 

Jo.  Jackson  of 

Ran.  Croxhall  of 

John  ilartin  of 

John  Davis  of 

Wm  Hopkins  of 

Sim.  Atkinson  of 

Edw.  Winter. 

&  Aug.  13.  1655. 


Whereas  ye  Curacy  of  ye  pish  Church  of  Wetherall  &  Warwick  in 
ye  County  of  Cumberland  is  at  pnt  destitute  of  a  Minister  &  ye  Care 
of  pviding  for  ye  Same  is  in  these  Trustees  It  is  ordered  yt  Mr.  Xfer 
Mattinson  (approved  by  ye  Comtee  for  Approbacon  of  publique 
preachers  to  be  a  pson  fitt  to  preach  ye  Gospell)  doe  &  he  is  hereby 
authorised  forthwith  to  officiate  ye  Cure  of  ye  Said  Church  by  diligent 
preaching  &  instructing  ye  pishioners  of  ye  said  pish  &  yt  he  shall 
have  for  his  paines  therein  ye  yearely  sume  of  fifty  poundes  out  of  ye 
rectory  of  Wetherall  &  Warwick  aforesaid  ye  same  to  be  accompted 
from  ye  first  of  August  instant  &  to  be  Continued  unto  him  from  time 
to  time  for  Such  time  as  he  shall  discharge  ye  duty  of  ye  Minister  of 
ye  said  place  or  till  further  ordr  of  ye  said  Trustees. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  ;  Jo.  Humfrey  ;  Jo.  Pocock;  Ra.  Hall ;  Ri.  Young.' 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.)  996.     This  document  is  abbreviated 
but  one  in  complete  form  will  be  found  under  Ireby  (vide  p.  560). 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  972. 

2  12  The   Ejected   of  1662 



To  all  whom  these  psents  shall  come  Wee  Sr  John  Thorowgood  of 
Kensington  Knt  Willm  Steele  Esq.  Sergeant  at  Law,  George  Cowper, 
William  Skymoner  Richard  Yong  John  Pocock  &  other  Trustees  for 
Maint«nnce  of  Ministrs  Send  Greeting 

Whereas  the  Rectorie  of  ye  parish  Churches  of  Weatherall  & 
Warwick  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  p'cell  of  ye  possion  of  ye  late 
Deane  &  Chapter  of  ye  Cathedral  Church  of  Carlisle  are  vested  in 
these  Trustees  upon  whom  the  Care  of  providing  for  ye  Ministr  of  ye 
said  parish  Churches  is  incumbent  &  ye  sd  parishes  are  neare 
adjoyning  to  each  other  &  Mr.  Chrestopher  Matteson  hath  beene 
undertaking  to  officiate  to  ye  parishonrs  of  both  ye  said  parishes 
Wee  doe  hereby  Constitute  and  approve  the  said  Christopher  Matteson 
Ministr  and  Curate  of  the  said  parish  Churches  And  doe  authorise 
him  duely  carefully  and  diligently  to  preach  &  instruct  the  pishonrs 
of  the  said  pishes  from  time  to  time  as  well  in  ye  said  parish  Church 
as  otherwise  and  wee  doe  hereby  give  ordr  &  conferre  upon  him  for 
his  said  service  all  houses,  salaries  stipends  pensons  allowances  dues 
advantages  pfitts  &  availes  whatsoever  to  ye  Ministr  or  Curate  of 
the  said  parish  Churches  belonging  &  of  right  accustomed  to  belong 
&  appertaine  To  hold  for  such  time  as  he  the  said  Christopher 
Matteson  shall  Continue  in  the  faithfull  and  constant  pformance  of 
his  said  trust  &  charge  Given  undr  our  handes  &  Seales  ye  4th  day 
of  November  in  ye  yeare  according  to  the  Computacon  used  in 
England    1659 

Jo.    Thorowgood,    Jo.    Pocock,    Geo.    Cowper,  Wm.    Skymner, 
Rich.  Yong.^ 


&  Nov.   10th.   1659. 

Whereas  ye  Curacyes  of  ye  parish  Churches  of  Weatherall  & 
Warwick  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  are  at  ye  provision  of  these 
Trustees  in  whom  the  appropriate  Rectoryes  &  tithes  of  ye  said 
parishes  parcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye  late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle 
are  now  vested  Ordered  yt  ye  yearely  Sume  of  one  hundred  poundes 
be  graunted  out  of  ye  Rents  &  profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  the  said 
Rectories  to  &  for  the  Salary  &  Maintennce  of  Mr.  Chrestopher 
Mattison  heretofore  entertained  to  preach  the  gospell  in  &  this  day 
setled  by  these  Trustees  Ministr  of  the  said  parish  Churches  ye  said 
one  hundred  pounds  a  yeare  to  be  accounted   from  ye  xxix  day  of 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.),  983. 

Wetheral   and   Warwick  213 

September  last  &  to  hold  for  such  time  as  he  the  said  Mr.  Mattison 
shall  continue  faithfully  to  discharge  ye  duty  of  Ministr  of  ye  said 
parish  Churches  And  that  ]Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite  Recr  doe  allowe 
the  Same  unto  him  accordingly  abating  out  of  ye  same  ten  pts  of 
twelve  of  all  publique  taxes  &  charges  issuing  &  payable  out  of  ye 
tithes  of  the  said  Rectories. 

John   Thorowgood    Geo.    Cowper  Richard   Yong  Jo.    Pocock   Wm. 

What  led  to  Christopher  Matteson's  removal  is  not 
clear;  but  he  was  gone  shortly  afterwards,  settling'  in  1661 
at  Harrington  and  subsequently  at  Workington. 2 

—  Wilcox,  1660. 

This  name  is  inserted  entirely  on  the  authority  of 
Calamy,^  who  prints  "  Wetherhall "  against  it.  Palmer 
repeats  and  adds  "  C,"  to  indicate  that  it  was  a  Curacy. 
No  information  of  any  kind  concerning  him  has  been 
discovered,  and  it  must  be  admitted  that  the  case  is  some- 
what doubtful.  Christopher  Matteson  was  certainly  at 
Wetheral  until  near  the  end  of  1659,*  and  though  an 
appointment  after  that  date  such  as  would  lead  to  an 
ejection  is  possible  the  probabilities  are  against  it.  It  is 
true  that  there  is  a  gap  of  a  few  years  after  Matteson's 
removal  which  I  have  so  far  been  unable  to  fill  in.  The 
name  of  Wilcox  does  not  appear  in  Calamy's  First  Edition 

Richard  Lowry,  M.A.,  1665, 

The  Episcopal  Register  states  that  on  July  28,  1665,  a 

licentia  prsedicandi  "  was  granted  to  him;  and  that  on 

the  same  day  he  obtained  a  "  licentia  ad  inserviendum 

curse  Rectoriae  de  Warwick  et  Wetheral."     After  about 

I  two  years  he  removed  to  Crosthwaite.  ^ 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.),  987. 

2.  Vide  pp.  789,  795. 

3.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  159. 

4.  Vide  p.  212. 
6.  Vide  p.  657. 

214  The   Ejected   ot  1662 

John  Dixon,  1670. 

The  Registers  of  St.  Mary's,  Carlisle,  contain  the 
following :  — 

Burial  1670  July  Castlegate  Mr.  John  Dixon, Minister  of  Wetherall 
ye  23. 

Beyond  this  solitary  fact  nothing  is  known  of  him. 

Egbert  Railton,  1674. 

This  is  inserted  with  some  hesitation,  the  authority 
being  the  Registers.  The  very  first  entry  in  the  book, 
which  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  decipher,  reads  thus :  — 

1674  October  (?)  buried ye  son  of  Mr.  Kobt.  Bailton  Minister 

of  Weth . 

In  all  probability  he  was  a  different  person  from  the  one 
of  that  name  previously  given.  Foster  gives  the  follow- 
ing respecting  Robert  Railton,  son  of  William,  of  Carlisle, 
who  may  have  been  a  connection  : — "Queen's  Coll.  matric. 
14  July,  1691,  aged  19;  B.A.  1696,  M.A.  1698,  Yicar  of 
Marston,  Oxon,  1705,  and  rector  of  Headley,  Hants. 
1717."  1 

Gabriel  Smallwood,  M.A.,   1681. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  September  21,  1673;  and  held 
the  Curacy  for  some  time  previous  to  his  removal  to  St. 
Lawrence,  Appleby,  1681.^     Bishop  Nicolson  says:  — 

The  Eegister-Book  begins  at  Oct.  28,  1674,  the  former  part  of  it 
being  all  (as  I  guess)  of  the  hand-writeing  of  Mr.  Gabriel  Smallwood, 
some  time  Curate  here.* 

Thomas  Nicols,  1684—1700. 

Bishop  Nicolson  in  his  Diary,  under  date  April  8,  1684, 
says: — "  Wetherall  and  Warwick  given  to  T.  Nichols, 
Sebraha  to  M.  Preston  and  petty  canonry  to  Shepherd."  * 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  p.  1135. 

3.  Miscel.,  p.   51. 

4.  TranB.   (N.S.),  vol.  i,  p.  9. 

Wetheral   and   Warwick  215 

He  was  ordained  Priest  March  15,  1684-5.  The  Registers 
note  the  burial  of  a  son,  Thomas,  on  February  26,  1687-8 ; 
also  the  baptism  of  Mary,  a  daughter,  December  13,  1688 ; 
of  John,  a  son,  September  11,  1690;  and  of  Elizabeth,  a 
daughter,  June  19,  1693.  Foster  has  the  following  which 
may  refer  to  him  :  — 

Nicols  Thomas  S.  Raughlin,  of  Carlisle,  Cumberland,  cler.  Queen's 
Coll.  matric.  16  May  1678  aged  16 ;  B.A.  9  Feby  1681-2.* 

"  Raughlin  "  is  for  "  Rowland  "  Nicols,  who  was  Yicar 
of  Aikton  and  Chancellor  of  the  Diocese  at  the  time.^ 
Thomas  Nicols  died  in  1700.  About  the  time  of  his 
admission  to  Oxford  he  is  described  as  "  somwhat  sickly."  ^ 
Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says  that  under  a  seat  "  on  the 
Floor  of  the  Quire  "  is  the  following  :  — 

"  Here  lyes  the  Body  of  Thomas  Nicols  lat 
Minister  in  Weatheral  Parish.     Deceased 
June  3.  Anno,  1700.     And  T.  N.  his  Son 
Dyed  Feb.  27.  1687."  * 

Thomas  Smith,  B.A.,  1700. 

He  was  licensed  Curate  here  on  June  27,  1700.  The 
Registers  also  give  the  following :  — 

The   Regester   of  Wetherall  Since    the   Entrance   of    Tho.    Smith, 

Curate,  1700. 

Isaac  Bikd,  M.A.,  1703—1713. 

He  was  the  son  of  William  Bird  of  Glassonby,  near 
Kirkoswald,  and  went  from  Sedbergh  School  to  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge,  in  1693,  being  at  the  time  19  years  of 
age.  He  graduated  B.A.  in  1696.^  The  following  from 
the  Registers  relate  to  him :  — 

The  Regester  of  Wethrall  Since  ye  entrance  of  Isaac  Bird  Curate 
[March  25,   1703]. 

1703  Mr.  Isaac  Bird  Curate  &  Mary  Stannix  Mar.  Novbr  ye  30th. 
The  Revd.   Mr.  Isaac  Bird  A.M.   Curate  of  Wetherall  &  Warwick 
buried  Jan.  2,  1713. 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  p.  636. 

3.  The  Flemings  in  Oxford,  p.   307. 

4.  Miscel.,  p.  49. 

5.  Sedbergh    School    Register,   p.    105. 


The  present  Rector  in  a  recent  letter  says :  — "  I  am  in 
the  somewhat  unique  position  of  having  two  Churches 
and  three  Churchyards  under  my  jurisdiction,  for  I  am 
now  ofl&cially  described  as  '  Rector  of  Kirkandrews  with 
Beaumont  and  Yicar  of  Grinsdale."  Kirkandrews  is 
about  four  miles  north  west  of  Carlisle  on  the  Silloth  line. 
Its  Church,  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew,  disappeared  more 
than  two  centuries  ago.  Bishop  Nicolson,  writing  in  1703, 
says  :  — "  The  Church  here  is  quite  Demolish'd"  ;  and  he 
recommends  the  Parishioners  "  to  a  compliance  with  the 
men  of  Beaumont,"  in  their  request  for  assistance  in 
repairing  their  Church  "  rather  than  run  the  hazard 
of  being  put  upon  the  Expense  of  Repairing  their  own 
Church."  ^  The  graveyard  alone  remains,  and  the  Parish- 
ioners still  bury  their  dead  in  it.  The  Registers  will  be 
noticed  under  Beaumont.  The  following  is  an  imperfect 
list  of  Incumbents  up  to  1692,  since  when  the  Rectories  of 
Kirkandrews  and  Beaumont  "  jointly  have  been  presented 
to  by  the  house  of  Lowther."  ^ 

Christopher  Lowther,  1576 — 1587. 

He  was  instituted  on  a  Presentation  by  Queen  Elizabeth 
in  1576,  and  died  in  1587.  Possibly  he  had  previously 
been  at  Nether  Denton.^ 

William  Witton,  1587—1611. 

He  was  collated,  by  lapse,  by  Bishop  Meye,  in  1587,  and 
died  in  1611. 

1.  Miscel.,  p.   18. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  226. 

3.  Vide  p.  274. 

Kirkandrews-on-Eden  217 

George  Millikin,  1611. 

He  was  instituted  June  26,  1611,  on  a  Presentation  by 
George  Rumney. 

Unfortunately  a  huge  gap  occurs  here  in  Nicolson  and 
Burn,  our  only  available  authority,  their  next  date  being 
1692,  when  the  death  of  Eichard  Wilson,  Eector  of  Kirk- 
andrews,  took  place.  This  is  the  date  from  which  the 
union  of  the  two  Rectories  is  reckoned.  In  all  probability, 
however,  the  union  occurred  much  earlier.  This  will  best 
appear  in  dealing  with  Beaumont. 


This  place  is  only  about  half  a  mile  north  of  Kirk- 
andrews,  and  is  situated  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Eden. 
Nicolson  and  Burn  speak  of  it  as  a  "  town,"  standing  upon 
"  a  fair  hill,  from  whence  lieth  every  way  a  good  prospect 
which  gave  occasion  to  the  name,"  "  beautiful  mount."  ^ 
The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  and  serves  for 
Kirkandrews  as  well.     Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says :  — 

The  Church  is  in  as  good  Repair  as  could  be  expected ;  but  has 
not  a  Letter  on  the  Walls,  Floor  or  Churchyard.  The  East  Window 
in  ye  Quire  wants  Glass.  The  Parishioners  desire  that  those  of 
Kirk- Andrews  may  contribute  to  ye  Repair  of  this  Church ;  since 
they  have  none  of  their  own,  and  come  constantly  hither.^ 

The  Registers,  which  include  those  of  Kirkandrews, 
begin  in  1692.  They  were  recently  rebound  in  one  neat 
volume  at  the  expense  of  the  present  Rector.  In  the  book 
also  are  a  few  fragments  in  parchment,  beginning  with 
1679,  but  mainly  they  are  concerned  with  the  Siddell 
family,  and  probably  were  the  work  of  a  later  hand.  It 
is,  therefore,  correct  to  say  that  the  book  begins  with  1692. 
Respecting  a  carefully  made  Transcript  in  1819  we  have 
the  following  account :  — 

This  book  contains  true  and  correct  copies  of  Baptisms,  Burials 
and  Marriages,  belonging  to  the  Parish  of  Beaumont  in  the  County 
of  Cumberland  and  Diocese  of  Carlisle,  beginning  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  1692  and  correctly  copied  from  a  very  old  Register  Book  com- 
pletely tatter'd  and  torn  to  Pieces. 
As  Witness  my  Hand  this  first  Day  of  January  1819. 
Richard  Burn  Junr 

Rector  of  Beaumont  and 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  223. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.   17. 

Beaumont  219 

The  list  of  Incumbents  is  as  follows :  — 

Henry  Haselhead,  1562 — 1581. 

He  was  instituted  on  a  Presentation  by  Sir  William 
Dacre,  "  lord  Dacre  of  Graystock  &  Gilsland."  ^  He  died 
in  1581.  There  was  a  Hoger  Haslehead  at  Croglin,  1582- 

Lancelot  Wilson,  1581. 

He  was  presented  by  Philip,  Earl  of  Arundel. 

Edwaed  Johnston,  1611. 

Nicolson  and  Burn  say  that  he  resigned  in  1611.^  A 
person  of  the  name  of  Edward  Johnson,  M.A.,  appears  at 
Kirklinton  in  1604.  Possibly  he  was  the  same  as  the 
Beaumont  Rector;  but  he  is  said  to  have  died  in  1611. 

Thomas  Thomson,  or  Thompson,  1611 — 1615. 

He  was  instituted  October  22,  1611,  on  a  Presentation 
by  Anne,  "  Countess  dowager  of  Arundel."  Foster  has 
the  following: — "Of  Cumberland  pleb.  Queen's  Coll. 
matric.  17  Oct.  1589,  aged  15,  B.A.  27,  Jan.  1594-5,  M.A. 
4  July,  1598,  B.D.  22  Feb.  1609-10;  Supd.  for  licence  to 
preach  27  Feb.  1610-11;  Minister  of  St.  Thomas,  Bristol, 
perhaps  rector  of  Beaumont,  Cumberland,  1611,  rector  of 
Montgomery  1613,  and  vicar  of  Llandyseil,  Co.  Mont- 
gomery, 1616."  *  This  can  hardly  be  the  same  as  the 
Beaumont  Rector,  who  died  in  1615. 

John  Wilson,  1615. 

He  was  instituted  March  25,  1615,  on  the  death  of 
Thomas  Thompson,  the  same  person  presenting.^  Foster 
gives  among  others  of  this  name,  John  Wilson,  as  B.A. 
from  University  College,  Oxford,  April  23,  1607,  M.A. 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  225. 

2.  Vide  p.  406. 

3.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.   225. 

4.  Al.   Ox. 

5.  Episcopal  Register. 

2  20  The    Ejected   of  1662 

July  10,  1612,  and  adds  that  "  one  of  these  names  was 
beneficed  in  Cumberland."^  There  was  a  John  Wilson  at 
Ainstable  in  1616  and  at  Grasmere  in  1620. ^ 

Thomas  Eobinson  or  Robson,  1616 — 1625. 

He  was  instituted  March  24,  1616,  being  ordained 
"  literatus "  on  that  day  and  Deacon  in  May,  1618. 
ISTicolson  and  Burn  give  the  name  as  "  Robinson  " ;  but 
the  Institution  Books  have  "  Robson,"  the  place  being 
entered  as  "  Beaumonds  als  Beamont."     He  died  in  1626. 

Thomas  Warwick,  B.A.,  1625. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  September  28,  1623,  being 
styled  B.A.  Nicolson  and  Burn  say  that  the  Presentation 
was  made  by  "  a  citizen  of  London  (patron  for  that  turn)" ; 
but  the  Institution  Books  give  the  King,  and  "  TJlt. 
Novembris  1625"  as  the  date.  For  an  account  of  the 
Warwick  family  see  Brampton,  etc.  ^ 

Andrew  Smith,  1634—1663. 

He  was  instituted  December  16,  1634,  on  a  Presentation 
by  "  Tho.  Comes  Arundell  et  Surrey" ;  and  Nicolson  and 
Burn  say  that  he  died  in  1663.  If  that  is  correct  there 
was  no  disturbance  here  either  by  the  Commonwealth  or 
the  Restoration. 

Patricius  Hume,  M.A.,  1663—1678. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  August  17,  1662,  and  Priest 
February  1,  1662-3,  being  instituted  December  31,  1663, 
on  a  Presentation  from  Elizabeth,  Countess  of  Arundel. 
He  held  the  living  of  Burgh-by-Sands  also  part  of  this 
time.*     He  compounded  for  his  First  Fruits  in  1668. 

Richard  Wilson,  1679—1692. 

Possibly  Richard  Wilson  "  de  Irthington,"  who  was 
ordained  Deacon  September  20,  1668,  and  Priest,  Septem- 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  pp.  402,  1059. 

3.  Vide  pp.  250,  1178. 

4.  Vide  p.   224. 


Beaumont  2  2 1 

ber  25,  1670.  He  was  instituted  August  23,  1679,  on  a 
Presentation  by  the  Duke  of  Norfolk.  He  died  in  1692. 
Nicolson  and  Burn  give  him  as  Rector  of  Kirkandrews  as 
well.  If  so  the  two  livings  were  united  some  time  pre- 
vious to  1692. 

George  Hume,  1692—1703. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  December  21,  1684,  and  insti- 
tuted to  "  Beaumond  &  Kirkandr  sup  Eden  "  May  9,  1692, 
on  a  Presentation  by  Sir  John  Lowther.  He  died  in  1703, 
the  entry  in  the  Registers  being  as  follows :  — 

George  Hume  Rector  of  Beemont  was  Buryed  May  ye  12th  1703. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says  that  he  "lyes  bury'd  sub 
Dio  in  ye  Quire  !"  ^ 

Gabriel  Trant,  1703—1705. 

He  was  instituted  June  23,  1703.  Writing  under  date 
June  29,  1703,  Bishop  Nicolson  says  :  — 

Mr.  Gab.  Trant  (a  Frenchman,  and  one  of  ye  Masters  at  ye  new 
School  of  Lowther)  instituted  into  both ;  [i.e.,  Beaumont  and  Kirk- 

Thomas  Lev^thwaite,  1705 — 1762. 

He  was  instituted  on  the  27th  of  September,  1705,  on  a 
Presentation  "  vice  comes  Lonsdale,"  and  held  the  two 
livings  until  his  death.  He  was  Curate  of  Bowness  in 
1703.^  Bishop  Nicolson,  in  his  Diary  under  date  Septem- 
ber 23,  1704,  says  that  he  sought  Priest's  Orders  but  was 
refused,  "  no  warning  being  given  to  a  sufficient  number 
of  Priests  to  attend  at  ye  Ordination."  *  The  following 
year,  however,  he  passed  for  these  Orders  though 
"hardly."^     His  burial  entry  reads  thus:  — 

1762.  Dec.  9.     The  Revd.  Mr.  Thos.  Lewthwaite  buried. 

1.  Miscel.,  p.   18. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.   17. 

3.  Vide  p.  605. 

4.  Trans.  (N.S.),  vol.  ii,  p.  208. 

5.  Ibid.,    vol.  iii,  p.  27. 

2  22  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  village  ol  Grinsdale  is  about  two  miles  nearer 
Carlisle  and  stretches  along  the  southern  bank  of  the 
Eden.  The  Church  here,  dedicated  to  St.  Kentigern,  is 
an  old  foundation,  but  it  early  fell  into  ruins.  Bishop 
Nicolson  writes  respecting  it  as  follows  in  1703  :  — 

The  Church  and  Chancel  both  in  Ruins ;  nothing  left  but  a  good 
handsome  Stone-Table  heretofore  used  for  an  Altar.  Half  of  the 
Church-yard  seems  also  to  have  been  carry'd  off,  by  ye  River  Eden ; 
against  the  further  Encroachments  of  which  the  Parishioners  have 
now  built  a  strong  Stone-wall,  to  preserve  their  Dead  from  being 
carry'd  down  the  River.  Burials  are  attended  by  Tho.  Addison, 
whose  father  (one  of  the  Petty  Canons  of  Carlile)  was  lately  Curate 
here ;  And  Mr.  Appleby  the  Impropriator,  gives  him  four  Nobles 
(antiently  four  Marks)  yearly  for  so  doeing.  The  Parishioners,  on 
Sundayes,  attend  Divine  Service  either  at  Carlile  or  Beaumont.^ 

About  1743  the  Church  was  rebuilt  by  Joseph  Dacre, 
Esq.,  the  impropriator,  at  his  own  expense,  and  practically 
this  is  the  building  in  existence  to-day.  Under  the 
Pluralities'  Act  it  is  held  by  the  Rector  of  Kirkandrews. 
The  Registers  do  not  date  beyond  the  time  of  its  being 
rebuilt.  In  reference  to  the  three  Parishes  Bishop 
Nicolson,  in  1703,  says:  — 

They  have  a  Tradition  that  the  three  little  Neighbouring  Churches 
(of  this  Town,  Beaumont  and  Grinsdale)  were  built  by  three  Sisters ; 
who,  I  must  say,  were  not  too  generous  in  subsisting  their  Chaplains. 
I  rather  think  they  have  been  (originally)  small  Oratories,  supply'd 
by  ye  Religious  of  Carlile.  How  ye  Revenues  of  Grinsdale  came  into 
Lay  hands  I  know  not  :  but  they  all  pay  prescriptions  instead  of 
Tythes  in  kind.^ 

1.  Miscel.,  p.   13. 

2.  Ibid,  p.   18 



This  is  a  considerable  village  about  five  miles  west  of 
Carlisle  on  the  Silloth  line.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Michael.  Its  tower,  massive  and  strong,  was  evidently 
meant  for  purposes  of  asylum,  in  the  troubled  days  of  the 
Border  Wars.  The  Registers  begin  in  1653,  the  earliest 
being  a  long,  narrow  volume  of  parchment.  The  follow- 
ing appears  in  it :  — 

The  Eegister  booke  of  Burgh-by-Sands  written  in  the  yeare  of 
our  Lord  God  1653. 

The  first  page  is  occupied  with  entries  for  1653  and 
1654;  but  there  are  only  a  few  upon  it.  At  the  foot  of 
the  page  is  "  John  Maison  1670."  They  are  singularly 
disappointing  for  our  purpose;  and  the  Historians  are 
equally  so.  In  their  list  of  Incumbents,  Nicolson  and 
Burn  leap  from  "  Sir  William  Blane  "  in  1581  to  Thomas 
Story  in  1681.  The  following  is  an  imperfect  list,  but  it 
is  the  best  yet  issued :  — 

William  Blane,  1581. 

He  was  instituted  by  Bishop  Meye  "  on  a  presentation 
by  two  yeomen  of  the  neighbourhood,  proving  their  title 
from  the  grantees  of  the  abbot  and  convent  before  the 
dissolution."  ^ 

For  Thomas  and  Alan  Blayne,  of  Aikton,  the  reader  is 
referred  to  the  account  of  that  place.  ^ 

Robert  Mathew,  1621. 

He  was  instituted  on  September  1,  1621,  on  a  Presenta- 
tion by  the  King.  The  name  is  common  in  Foster's 
"  Oxford  Alumni" ;  but  we  know  nothing  further  about 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  221. 

2.  Vide  p.  609. 

2  24  The   Ejected   of  1662 

The  following  document  suggests  a  vacancy  here  in 
1646:  — 

Att  &c.  November  11.  Anno  Dni  1646. 
Cumberland.  By  vertue  &c  yearely  sume  of  Twenty  pounds  bee 
allowed  &  payd  out  of  ye  Impropriate  Tythes  of  Cargoe  &  Stainton 
in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  wch  are  sequestered  from  ye  Deane  and 
Chapter  of  Carlile  to  and  for  increase  of  ye  maintenance  of  such 
Minister  as  this  Comittee  shall  approve  of  to  officiate  in  ye  pish 
Church  of  Burgh  by  Sands  in  ye  said  County  ye  psent  maintenance 
belonging  to  ye  said  Church  being  but  Twelve  pounds  p  Annu  And 
ye  Sequestrators  of  ye  pmisses  are  required  to  allow  and  pay  ye 
same  accordingly  Att  such  tymes  and  seasons  of  ye  yeare  as  ye  said 
Tythes  shall   grow  due  and   payable. 

Har.  Grimston.  1 

James  Thompson,  1647. 

The  authority  for  this  name  is  the  following  document, 
which  also  informs  us  that  the  vacancy  had  been  caused 
by  the  death  of  the  previous  Incumbent :  — 

Sept.  21,  1647. 

Brough   by  Sands. 

Whereas  the  viccarage  of  the  pish  Church  of  Brough  by  Sands  in 
the  Countie  of  Cumberland  is  void  by  death  &  the  guift  thereof  is  in 
the  Earl  of  Arundell  delinquent  It  is  ordered  that  James  Thompson 
a  godlie  &  orthodox  divine  doe  forthwith  officiate  the  cure  of  the  sd 
Church  as  viccar  &  preach  &c.  2 

TherQ  was  a  James  Thomson  at  Moresby  somewhat 
later,  ^  but  whether  the  same  individual  has  not  been 
ascertained.  Nor  is  any  other  name  forthcoming  until 
after  the  Restoration. 

Patricius  Hume,  M.A.,  1669. 

He  was  collated  December  8,  1669,  by  Bishop  Rainbow 
'per  lapsum,  and  appears  to  have  held  Beaumont  along 
with  this  living.  * 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.,  F.  1  (Record  Office).  Duplicated  in  the  Bodleian 
MS.  323. 

2.  Add.  MSS.  Brit.  Mus.,  15671. 

3.  Vide  p.  806. 

4.  Vide  p.  220. 

Burgh-by-Sands  225 

Thomas  Story,  1681—1739/40. 

He  was  instituted  November  28,  1681,  on  a  Presentation, 
from  the  King,  and  probably  belonged  to  a  local  family. 
The  following  appears  in  the  Registers  :  — 

1709  Janet  als  Deny  wife  of  Tho.  Story  Balief  Burd.  Sept.   15. 

There  are  some  other  entries  of  a  similar  character. 
Probably  the  "Balief,"  whatever  the  word  may  mean,  was 
a  connection  of  the  Rector.  He  was  buried  May  7,  1715. 
Thomas  Story  held  the  living  of  Kirkbampton^  as  well  as 
that  of  Burgh-by-Sands.  Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says 
that  "  Mr.  Story  directed  to  divide  his  pains  betwixt  this 
place  [Burgh]  and  Bampton  [Kirkbampton]  three  ptes 
[parts]  of  ye  year."  In  reference  to  Burgh  he  proceeds  in 
his  usual  caustic  fashion  :  — 

Oct.  19,  1703.  In  a  former  View  of  the  Church  at  Burgh  by 
Sands,  I  could  onely  peep  into  it  :  But  this  day  I  took  Kirk  Bampton 
in  my  way  thither,  and  carry'd  Mr.  Story  along  with  me.  The  Quire 
is  (as  most  of  its  Neighbours)  long  and  nasty ;  haveing  no  Ascent  in 
it ;  Nor  is  the  Communion-Table  placed  in  the  East  End  :  but  instead 
of  that,  we  have  here  a  Seat  or  Pew  newly  erected  by  one  of  the 
Impropriators.  There  are  (in  all)  about  Thirty  of  these  :  who  have 
the  great  Tithes  among  'em  :  excepting  onely  a  Twentieth  part  (worth 
about  lOli  per  An.)  which  belongs  to  the  School  at  Dovenby.  Some 
of  these  Lay-parsons  are  Quakers  :  And  they  neither  take  ye  Tithes 
themselves,  nor  openly  allow  their  partners  to  carry  over  their  Shares. 
Several  of  'em  were  in  the  Church  with  me ;  when  I  order'd  the 
Churchwardens  to  present  them  all  (by  name)  for  keeping  the  Chancel 
in  so  scandalous  a  Condition.  2 

The  Quaker  movement  took  deep  root  in  this  neighbour- 

[hood.      According  to   a   return   in    1747,   there   were   191 

families  in  the  Parish,  of  whom  28  were  '"  dissenters  all 

^Quakers" :  ^    and    Christopher    Story,    the    distinguished 

1.  Vide  p.  608. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.   15. 

3.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  221. 

2  26  The   Ejected    of   1662 

Quaker  preacher,  belonged  to  these  parts.  In  the  Regis- 
ters we  have  a  note  of  Thomas  Story's  burial,  thus  :  — 

The   Revd   Mr.    Ihos.    Story  Reeter    of   Kirkbampton   6  January 

This  entry  is  pencilled  through,  but  the  handwriting  in 
the  Registers,  which  is  the  same  from  about  1695,  changes 
at  this  date.     The  Registers  also  supply  the  following  :  — 

Jno  Mayson  of  Burgh  Batchelor  Burd.  Feb.   14,  1712. 

Possibly  this  is  the  person  referred  to  earlier  and  may 
have  been  the  Parish  Clerk. 

yill.     GEEAT  ORTON. 

This  place  is  about  five  miles  south  west  of  Carlisle. 
The  Church  here,  whose  original  dedication  was  to  St. 
Giles,  is  now  dedicated  to  St.  Kentigern.  The  earliest 
Registers  constitute  a  large  parchment  volume,  parts  of 
which  are  dull  and  faded,  but  they  are  mostly  legible. 
Evidently  the  first  two  or  three  pages  have  gone.  They 
begin  in  1568.     The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents:  — 

Richard  Place,  1578. 

This  is  the  date  of  his  death,  as  the  Registers  indicate : 

Anno  Eeginae  Elizabethae,  21.  1578  December  Sr.  Richard 
Place  person  of  Orton  buried  the  xviiith  of  December  then  being 

In  this  year  the  Plague  raged  in  the  district,  the  Registers 
being  witness;  and  it  is  surmised  that  Richard  Place, 
after  ministering  to  his  people  in  their  suffering,  fell  a 
sacrifice  to  duty. 

Leonard  Lowther,  1578 — 1585. 

"  On  the  death  of  Sir  Richard  Place,"  write  Nicolson 
and  Burn,  "  late  rector  of  Orton,  one  caveat  was  entered, 
in  claim  of  the  patronage,  by  Thomas  Blenerhasset  gen- 
tleman ;  and  another  by  Marian  relict  of  John  Twentyman 
late  of  Little  Orton,  to  whom  this  avoidance  had  been 
granted  by  Richard  Blenerhasset  of  the  city  of  Carlisle 
esquire,  who  had  married  one  of  the  coheirs  of  Sir  Giles 
Orton  knight;  and  institution  was  given  on  this  latter 
claim  to  Mr.  Leonard  Lowther."  ^  He  resigned  in  1585. 
He  was  a  Pluralist,  and  held  Bowness  in  1580,  was  at 
Lowther  in  1587,  and  Greystoke  in  1597. ^ 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,   vol.   ii,  p.  208. 

2.  Vide  pp.  454,  600,  1234. 

2  28  The   Ejected    of    1662 

William  Meye,  M.A.,  1585. 

How  long  he  remained  here  we  have  no  means  of  know- 
ing. In  the  list  of  Incumbents  supplied  by  Nicolson  and 
Burn,  no  name  is  given  after  that  of  William  Meye  in 
1585  until  1643,  when  they  speak  about  "  one  Mr.  Burton" 
being  here.  It  would  appear  that  William  Meye  held  the 
living  in  Plurality  with  Cliburn  for  some  time.  ^  Foster 
gives  William  May  as  B.A.  from  Catherine  Hall,  Cam- 
bridge, 1585-6;  M.A.,  Oxford,  March  23,  1586-7;  and 
"perhaps  Canon  of  Carlisle  in  1595."- 

WiLLiAM  Denton,  1612. 

This  is  a  new  name  and  is  supplied  by  the  Registers  as 
follows  :  — 

Mr.   William  Denton  Clarke  buryed  the  23d  of  December  1612. 

Possibly  he  was  a  member  of  the  Dentons  of  Warnell 
Denton,  Sebergham.  Foster  gives  among  his  Oxford 
Alumni,  William  Denton,  B.A.,  vicar  of  Kirkby  Moorside 
in  1595.3 

Nicholas  Deane,  B.A.,  1623. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  December  22,  1622,  and  is 
given  as  of  the  Chester  Diocese.  This  also  is  a  new  name 
furnished  by  the  Registers  from  which  the  following  have 
been  extracted :  — 

1623  Nicholas  Deane  &  Elizabeth  Bell  married  xxiiij  Ap. 
Katherine   Deane   dau.    of  Nicholas   Deane   Clerici   bapt   7th  day 
November  1623. 

Probably  a  connection  of  Nicholas  Deane,  Archdeacon  of 
Carlisle  in  1604.  Afterwards  he  became  Rector  of  Nether 
Denton.*     Foster   has   the    following   respecting   him:  — 

1.  Vide  p.  1242. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 

3.  Ihid. 

4.  Vide  p.  275. 

Great  Orton  229 

"  Of  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  8  May,  1618, 
aged  17;  B.A.  6  July,  1620;  rector  of  jS^etber  Denton, 
Cumberland,  1633."  ^ 

EiCHAKD  Fleming,  M.A.,  1626. 

The  authority  for  this  also,  a  quite  new  name  in  this 
connection,  are  the  Registers.  He  is  associated  in  them 
with  Richard  Burton  in  1626.  At  this  place,  however, 
the  Registers  are  much  faded ;  and  it  is  extremely  difficult 
to  decipher  them.  Richard  Fleming  appears  at  Cliburn 
and  Milburn  in  1625— 1639.  "^ 

EicHAKD  Burton,  1626. 

Nicolson  and  Burn  bring  him  on  the  scene  in  1643- when 
he  is  named  as  a  contributor  to  the  Carlisle  garrison. 
He  was,  however,  ordained  Priest  in  May,  1618,  and 
instituted,  on  a  Presentation  by  the  King,  on  June  21, 
1626.  Richard  Burton  was  a  Pluralist  holding,  at  least, 
Dufton  in  addition  to  Great  Orton.  In  1647  the  Commis- 
sioners called  upon  him  to  choose  which  of  the  two  livings 
he  would  surrender  and  it  would  appear  that  he  elected 
to  keep  Dufton.  A  person  of  this  name,  who  died  in 
1640,  was  Rector  of  Ormside  and  Long  Marton.  I  imagine 
he  was  the  father  of  the  Dufton  and  Great  Orton  Rector.  ^ 

Unfortunately  the  Registers  present  a  considerable 
hiatus  after  the  date  above  given,  being  represented  from 
1627  to  1665  by  two  miserable  pieces  of  parchment,  kept 
very  imperfectly.  Isaac  Tullie  states  that  the  amount  of 
Richard  Burton's  contribution  to  the  Carlisle  garrison 
was  £2  0  0,  the  date  being  1644.  As  just  intimated  he 
held  the  living  after  1644  only  a  few  years,  but  who 
immediately  succeeded  him  we  do  not  know.  The 
following,  however,  suggests  that  the  place  was  in  the 
possession  of  someone  in  1657,  but  the  name  is  not 
given  :  — 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  pp.  1161,  1243. 

3.  Vide  pp.  1143,  1147,  1154. 

230  The    Ejected   of    1662 

July  23  Tuesday  9  March  1657. 


Att  the  Councell  at  Whitehall 
Whereas  the  Trustees  for  Maintenance  of 
Ministers  have  thought  fitt  That  the  yearly  sume  of  ten  pounds  bee 
graunted  for  increase  of  the  Maintenance  of  the  minr  of  Orton  in 
the  Countie  of  Cumberland  and  have  certified  the  same  to  his 
Highnesse  and  the  Councell  for  their  Approbacon  His  Highnesse  and 
the  Councell  doe  approve  thereof  and  ordr  that  the  same  bee  paid 

W.  Jessop  Clr  of  the 
Councell  i 

Joseph  IN'icolson,  M.A.,  1657. 

It  would  appear  that  lie  is  the  Minister  referred  to  in 
the  preceding  document.  He  joins  in  certifying  for 
Robert  Hooper  of  Kirklinton  and  John  Bell  of  Kirkbamp- 
ton,  in  both  cases  being  described  as  of  Orton. - 

The  following  relates  to  his  Augmentation :  — 

Orton.  October  28,  1658. 

These  Trustees  having  Graunted  the  yearely  sume  of  Ten  poundes 
for  increase  of  the  maintennce  of  Mr.  Joseph  Nicholson  Minister  of 
Orton  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  which  is  approved  of  by  his 
Highnes  &  Councell  the  ninth  of  March  1657  and  the  said  place 
having  received  noe  fruit  of  the  said  Order,  Ordered  that  the  sume  of 
Seaven  poundes  be  forthwith  paid  him  in  full  Satisfaccon  of  the  said 
Order  and  that  Mr.  Lawrence  Steele  Trear  [Treasurer]  doe  pay  the 
same  accordingly. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Edw.  Cressett  Ea.  Hall  Jo.  Humfrey,  Jo.  Pocock.3 

Joseph  Nicolson  held  at  other  times  the  livings  at 
Plumbland,  Thursby  and  Stanwix,  *  and  the  reader  is 
particularly  referred  to  Plumbland  in  connection  with 
this  case. 

It  is  singular  that  though  Nicolson  and  Burn  in  their 
account  of  Bishop  Nicolson,  state  that  his  father,  Joseph, 
was  Rector  of  Great  Orton  at  the  time  of  his  distinguished 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.   Min.),  977. 

2.  Vide  pp.  309,  607. 

3.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.   Min.),   995. 

4.  Vide  pp.  201,   533,   584. 

Great   Orton  231 

son's  birth,  they  do  not  insert  him  in  their  Incumbent 
list  for  Great  Orton.  ^  They  even  repeat  Walker's  error 
in  saying  that  he  was  sequestered  from  Plumbland  and 
"  during  the  usurpation  lived  retired  at  his  maternal 
inheritance  at  Park  Brow  [Broom]  in  the  parish  of 
Stanwix."  ^ 

John  Bird,  1663. 

This  is  the  most  interesting  name  in  the  series,  though 
it  is  not  quite  clear  what  happened  in  relation  to  him. 
It  is  almost  certain  that  he  is  the  person  of  that  name 
who  appears  at  Egremont,  for  whom  George  Larkham 
preached  on  April  29,  1660.^  The  Restoration  would 
lead  to  his  displacement  at  Egremont  by  Isaac  Antrobus, 
the  old  Incumbent.  It  is  probable  that  his  appointment 
to  Great  Orton  afterwards  was  due  to  the  Brisco  influence, 
the  family  being  Puritan  in  their  sympathies  and  Patrons 
of  the  living.  It  was  from  this  family  that  Richard 
Gilpin  obtained  his  wife.  It  would  also  seem  that  John 
Bird  made  some  sort  of  submission  to  Episcopal  authority. 
The  Episcopal  Register  gives  the  following :  — 

Licentia  praedicandi  concessa   Johi   Bird   presbyterio   Eectori  de 

Orton.     Decimo  Octavo  die  mensis  Augusti  Anno  Dni  1663. 

It  is,  however,  certain  that  he  was  deprived  a  little  later, 
for  what  reason  is  not  stated,  though  judging  from  his 
previous  career  it  would  be  for  some  sort  of  Nonconfor- 
mity.    What  became  of  him  also  is  not  known. 

John  Pearson  or  Pierson,  M.A.,  1665 — 1691. 

He  was  instituted  July  14,  1665,  on  a  Presentation  by 
"  William  Briscoe  Ar."  Nicolson  and  Burn  give  John 
Brisco  as  the  Patron.  The  following  from  the  Episcopal 
Register  among  other  things,  makes  clear  the  deprivation 
of  John  Bird  :  — 

Institutio     of     Mr.     John     Peirson     M.A.     July     14      1665      Ad 

Rectoriam     Eccliae     poialis     de     Orton     in     Com.     Cnmbriae     nrae 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.   ii.,  p.   293. 

2.  Ibid,  p.  120. 

3.  Vide  p.  827. 

232  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Carliol  Dioeceseos  modo  p  deprivacoem  Johis  Bird  ult  Incumbentis 
ibm  vacan.  Ad  quam  p  Gulielmum  Brisco  de  Crofton  Armigerum 
ejusdem  Rectoriae  sive  Eccliae  poialis  veru  et  indubitatu  (ut  asseritur) 
patronum  nobis  p'ntatus. 

John  Pearson  liad  previously  been  at  Brigham,  where 
he  cultivated  quite  friendly  relations  with  George  Lark- 
ham.^     In  his  Diary,  Larkham  says:  — 

June  2,  1660  I  heard  by  John  Pierson  that  King  Charles  came 
into  London,  May  29th,  being  his  birth  day.  Ah  Lord,  make  him  a 
nursing  father  to  thine  Israel,  1  beseech  Thee ;  if  it  so  please  Thee. 

The  Orton  Registers  give  the  following :  — 

1667-8  Jan.  21.     John  Pearson  son  of  Mr.  John  Pearson  bapt. 
Burial,  1691  May  12.     Mr.  John  Pearson,  Rector  of  Orton. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  a  Terrier,  supplied  by  the 
present  Rector,  which  was  taken  in  John  Pearson's  time : 

June  20,  1678.  A  perfect  Terrier  of  ye  glebe  Land  belonging  to 
the  Rectory  of  Orton.  Item  One  House  and  Garth.  In  the  Crofts 
3  Acres,  in  the  Rood,  2  Acres  in  a  place  called  Grayston  Butts  half 
an  acre — in  a  place  called  ye  Shaw  one  Acre.  Parson  Thorne  one 
Acre — in  a  place  called  Organ  Butts  half  an  acre  in  a  place  called 
West-half-acres  one  Acre — in  a  place  called  Ingland  one  acre — in  a 
place  called  Ship-coats  one  acre — in  a  place  called  crabtreedales  one 
acre — in  ye  Headriggs  one  Acre — in  a  place  called  Crossland  one 
Acre.  Withn  ye  territories  of  Orton  Rigg  by  estimation  2  Acres — 
within  ye  fields  of  Woodhouses  one  Acre. 

John  Moore  |  churchwardens. 

John  Twentyman  J 

A  person  of  this  name  appears  at  Hesket  in  1659.^ 

Gawin  Noble,  1691—1693. 

He  was  instituted  November  21,  1691,  on  the  Presenta- 
tion of  "  Willus  Briscoe  Ar."  He  had  previously  been 
at  Cockermouth.*  His  burial  entry  in  the  Registers  is 
given  thus :  — 

Dec.  12,  1693,  Mr.  Gawen  Noble  rector  of  Orton  bur. 

1.  Vide  p.   754. 

2.  Lewis's  Hist.,  p.  146. 

3.  Vide  p.  328. 

4.  Vide  p.  703. 

Great   Orton  233 

BowLAxXD  Noble,  1693— 1T09. 

This  was  Gawin  Noble's  brother.  The  Episcopal 
Register  states  that  he  was  instituted  Dec.  18,  1693.     It 

also  intimates  that  he  was  licensed  Assistant  Master  of 

the  Appleby  Free  Grammar   School  on   Feb.  8,   1685/6 

"  owing  to  the  sickness  of  Richard  Jackson."  Rowland 
Noble  died  in  1709  as  the  following  shows  :  — 

1709  Ap.  18.     Mr.  Rowland  Noble  Rector  of  Orton  bur. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says  that  the  Parsonage  House 
is  "  in  pretty  repair,"  having  been  rebuilt  "  by  ye  present 
Incumbent  Mr.  Noble's  brother  and  Predecessor."  ^ 

David  Bell,  M.A.,  1709—1730. 

He  was  an  Edinburgh  graduate  taking  his  M.A,  degree 
March  25,  1685;  and  was  instituted  to  Great  Orton  Dec.  31, 
1709,  being  inducted  by  Thomas  Benson  of  Stanwix.  He 
married  Susanna,  daughter  of  John  Brisco  of  Crofton,  and 
80  was  related  to  Bishop  Nicolson  who  refers  to  him  in  his 
Diaries  as  "  Cousin."  He  was  at  Askham  in  1690, 
Kirklinton  in  1694,  Aspatria  in  1706,  and  died  in  1729/30.2 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  12.  A  singularly  loose  and  ambiguous  sentence.  The 
Bishop,  of  course,  means  Gawin  Noble,  Rowland's  brother. 

2.  Vide  pp.  313,  646,  1221. 


This  village  lies  some  four  and  a  half  miles  south  east 
of  Carlisle.  In  the  Parish  is  Rose  Castle,  the  abode  of 
the  Bishops  of  the  Diocese  for  many  centuries.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Michael,  and  its  Registers 
begin  in  November,  1570,  There  are  seven  volumes  up  to 
1812;  but  the  first  three  cover  the  period  with  which  we 
are  concerned.  Respecting  the  earliest  we  have  the 
following  account :  — 

The  oldest  book  is  of  parchment,  and  has  been  bound  in  parch- 
ment, of  which  now  only  a  few  fragments  remain.  It  is  11^  inches 
long  and  6f  inches  broad,  and  begins  thus  : — "The  Booke  of  Baptismes 
withine  the  parish  of  Dalston  made  by  Mark  Edgar,  Vicar  of  the 
same  anno  domini  1570."  There  are  a  hundred  and  fifty  six  pages 
which  do  not  follow  each  other  in  very  strict  order,  and  of  which  the 
earlier  ones  only  are  numbered.  The  first  entry  is  "  Novemb.  2. 
Thomas  Hammond  filius  Eoberti."  The  last,  a  baptism  in  1658,  is 
illegible,  l 

Volume  II.  is  also  of  parchment.     It  begins  thus  :  — 

The   Booke  of  Baptisme  within   the   Parish   of   Dalston   since  the 
17th  of  November   1658. 

Further  on  come  marriages  and  burials.     It  is  about  the 
same  size  as  Vol.  I.  and  ends  with  1679. 

The  third  volume  is  described  as  "  long,  narrow  and 
upright,"  in  parchment.  It  is  bound  in  vellum,  "  the 
writing  elegant,  and  very  easy  to  read."     It  begins  thus : 

A  note  of  all  baptisms  and  marriages  within  the  p'ish  of  Dalston 
since  the  first  day  of  May  Anno  Dom.  1679. 

It  contains  burials  from  the  other  end  and  goes  up  to 

1.  Seven  Volumes  of  the  Dalston  Parish  Registers,  by  M.  E.  Kuper. 
A  Paper  communicated  to  the  Cumb.  and  West.  Arch.  Soc,  Aug.  22, 

Dalston  235 

1749.     The  Registers  up  to  1812  were  published  some  time 


The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents :  — 

Thomas  Nicolson,  1586—1596. 

He  entered  "in  hanc  vicariam "  September  13,  1586, 
succeeding  Mark  Edgar  on  his  decease.  Nicolson  and 
Burn  give  a  person  of  this  name  as  collated  to  Scaleby  in 
1585,  who  "  removed  in  two  years  after."  ^  His  marriage 
with  Anne  Edgar,  the  daughter  of  his  predecessor,  is 
noted  in  the  Registers  under  date  December  24,  1587.  He 
held  the  living  until  his  death,  in  1595,  his  burial  taking 
place  on  October  19  of  that  year. 

RoBEET  Collier,  B.A.,  1596—1629. 

The  baptisms  of  a  son,  Robert,  on  November  18,  1599 ; 
of  a  daughter,  Elizabeth,  on  November  8,  1601 ;  and  of 
Philadelphia,  another  daughter,  on  January  4,  1607,  are 
given  in  the  Registers.     His  own  burial  entry  reads  thus  : 

October  3.   1629  Robert  Colier  Vicarius  was  buried. 

Could  he  be  related  to  John  Collier  the  Ejected  Minister 
of  Crosby  ?  ^ 

William  Griffith,  B.A.,  1630—1642. 

He  was  collated  January  21,  1629-30,  by  Bishop  Potter, 
though  it  is  said  that  his  "  coming  is  in  no  way  announced" 
in  the  Registers.^  During  his  Incumbency  "  hand- 
writing, ink,  and  spelling,  are  equally  bad."  He  died  in 
December,  1642,  being  buried  on  "  the  6th  day." 

Edward  Baker,  B.A.,  1643. 

His  collation  was  by  Archbishop  Ussher.  The  baptis- 
mal entries  of  several  children  appear  in  the  Registers,  as 
does  the  burial,  on  June  30th,  1644,  of  his  first  wife,  Anna 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  460. 

2.  Vide  p.  201. 

3.  Seven  Volumes  of  the  Dalston  Parish  Registers,  etc. 

236  The    Ejected    of    1662 

Hutchinson,  whom  he  had  married  the  year  before.     His 
second  marriage  is  thus  noted  :  — 

1647  Maij  28  Edwardus  Baker  apud  Cockermouth,  duxit  Annam 

His  own  burial  entry  is  as  follows :  — 

Burial  1659  Novemb.  18.  Edward  Baker  Clerk. 

Mrs.  Baker  was  buried  January  17,  1674-5.  A  con- 
siderable amount  of  interest  centres  in  Edward  Baker,  and 
not  a  little  diflSculty.  Nicolson  and  Burn  deal  with  him 
in  a  most  matter  of  fact  way,  devoting  only  a  couple  of 
sentences  to  him.^  They  merely  state  when  he  was  col- 
lated and  when  he  died,  following  immediately  with 
Richard  Garth  in  1661.  Dr.  Wilson,  in  his  Introduction 
to  the  Parish  Registers,  sums  matters  up  thus :  — 

In  January  1642-3  when  the  old  order  was  breaking  up  he 
[Griffith]  was  succeeded  by  Edward  Baker,  a  bachelor  of  Arts  and  a 
preacher  of  the  word  of  god,  verbi  Dei  prdicator  on  presentation 
of  the  good  and  great  Archbishop  Usher  then  held  the  See  of  Carlisle. 
Baker's  lot  had  fallen  in  unpleasant  times  but  he  certainly  made  the 
most  of  them.  He  was  twice  married  .  .  .  There  is  no  indication 
that  the  rites  of  religion  were  secularized  in  this  parish  for  any 
lengthened  period  during  the  Commonwealth.  Baker  was  a  canonical 
clergyman  who  appears  to  have  ministered  in  his  office  to  the  last 
however  lowly  he  bent  his  shoulders  to  the  yoke  of  the  Directory. 
Though  many  of  the  clergy  of  the  diocese  of  Carlisle,  according  to 
the  testimony  of  Dr.  Todd,  were  ejected  and  starved  by  Cromwell's 
inquisitors  Baker  set  his  house  in  order  and  stood  his  ground.  By 
the  timely  interference  of  death  which  came  in  Sept.  1659,  he  was 
saved  the  disgrace  of  turning  his  coat  back  again. 

It  is  quite  certain  that  that  is  not  a  correct  statement 
of  the  case.  Dr.  Todd  is  no  trustworthy  witness  in 
matters  of  this  kind ;  and  his  statement  about  the  starving 
Clergy  may  be  dismissed  as  highly  coloured,  if  not 
actually  fictitious.  But  it  is  in  relation  to  Baker  that  a 
different  theory  is  required.  That  he  was  here  up  to  1650 
is  made  clear  from  the  following :  — 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  323. 

Dalston  237 

Martij  27  1648. 

Upon  Certificate  from  any  members  of  pliamt  that  serve  for 
the  Countie  of  Cumberland  in  the  behalfe  of  Mr.  Edward  Baker 
minister  of  Dalston  in  the  sd  Countie  concerning  his  life  &  Con- 
versacon  It  is  ordered  that  he  shall  have  the  Augmentation  graunted 
by  Order  of  the  14th  of  June  1647  for  increase  of  the  Minister's 
maintennce   of   the  sd  Church.' 

ffeb  3,   1649. 

Wheras  this  Comtee  have  the  14th  of  June  1647  graunted  the 
yearely  sume  of  Twenty  nine  pounds  three  shillings  out  of  the 
pticulers  in  ye  said  order  menconed  reserved  to  ye  Bpp  of  Carlisle  for 
increase  of  the  maintence  of  the  Minstr  of  the  parish  Church  of 
Dalston  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  It  is  ordered  that  the  Trustees 
for  Sale  of  Bpps  Lands  doe  and  they  are  hereby  desired  to  issue  out 
theere  warrants  to  ye  Trears  for  Sale  of  Bpps  Lands  to  pay  unto 
Edward  Baker  INIinistr  of  the  said  Church  or  unto  William  Barker  to 
his  use  the  sume  of  Three  Score  and  Twelve  Pounds  Seaventeene 
Shillings  &  Sixpence  for  Twoe  yeares  &  a  halfes  rent  due  the  29th 
Septembr  last.  2 

Julij  10th  1650. 

Whereas  this  Comittee  have  the  14th  of  June  1647  graunted  the 
yearly  some  of  twentie  nine  pounds  three  shillings  out  of  the 
pticulers  in  the  said  order  menconed  reserved  to  ye  Bishpp  of  Carlisle 
for  increase  of  ye  maintennce  of  ye  Ministr  of  the  pish  Church  of 
Dalston  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  of  which  there  is  in  arreare 
ye  some  of  threescore  and  twelve  pounds  seaventeene  shillings  and 
sex  pence  for  two  yeares  and  a  halfe  rent  due  ye  29  of  September  last 
It  is  ordered  that  ye  Tenants  of  ye  pmisses  in  whose  hands  the  said 
arreares  are  doe  forthwith  pay  the  said  arreares  unto  Edward  Baker 
Minister  of  ye  pish  Church  of  Dalston  aforesaid  or  in  default  thereof 
Shew  cause  to  ye  contrary  before  this  Comittee  one  ye  ninth  day  of 
September  next.' 

Novembr  6th  1650. 

Whereas  this  Comitee  have  the  14th  of  June  1647  graunted  the 
yearely  Sume  of  twenty  nyne  pounds  three  sheliings  out  of  the 
pticulers  in  ye  sd  Ordr  menconed  reserved  to  the  Bpp  of  Carlisle  for 
increase  of  the  maintennce  of  the  Ministr  of  the  parish  Church  of 
Dalston  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  of  wch  there  is  in  Arreares 

1.  BpdI.  MS.  325. 

2.  Ibid.,  327. 

3.  Ibid. 

238  The    Ejected   of    1662 

the  Sume  of  three  score  &  twelve  pounds  Seaventeene  shillings  & 
sixpence  for  two  yeares  and  a  halfe  due  the  29th  of  Sept  1649  It  is 
ordered  that  ye  Trears  of  the  sd  Bevenue  or  ffarmers  or  tennts  of 
the  p'misses  in  whose  hands  the  same  are  doe  forthwith  pay  the 
said  Arreares  unto  Edward  Baker  Ministr  of  the  sd  Church  or  in 
default  thereof  shew  cause  to  ye  Contrary  before  the  Comitee  on 
the  [MS.   breaks  off].^ 

How  long  Baker  retained  the  living  after  tliis  does  not 
appear;  but  the  evidence  goes  to  show  that  he  had  relin- 
quished it  at  least  four  or  five  years  before  his  death. 
Whether  he  was  sequestered  is  not  known.  The  form  of 
his  burial  entry  presents  no  difficulty,  indeed  the  word 
used  of  him  rather  supports  than  otherwise  the  position 
here  assumed.  He  is  entered  merely  as  "  Clerk,"  whereas 
previously  he  had  always  been  styled  "  Vicar."  The 
former  was  the  word  used  in  reference  to  a  Minister 
whether  in  a  living  or  not.  That  he  had  vacated  the 
living  before  his  death  the  appointments  which  follow 

Nathaniel  Madder  or  Mather,  M.A.,  before  1656. 

The  evidence  for  this  is  the  document  immediately 
following,  which  states  that  he  had  surrendered  the 
Dalston  living  before  1656.  Can  this  be  Nathaniel 
Mather,  M.A.,  who  had  received  his  education  at  Harvard 
College,  New  England,  the  distinguished  son  of  Richard 
Mather,  the  "  Lancashire  Pilgrim  Father?"  Almost 
certainly  "  Yes."  Dr.  Todd,  in  both  his  communications 
to  Walker,  names  certain  "  New  Lights  "  as  coming  into 
the  district,  '"  out  of  the  Southern  Parts,  as  Larkham, 
Polewheal,  Madder,  &c."  ^  In  1656  Nathaniel  Mather 
appears  as  preacher  at  Harburton  in  Devon^ ;  and  shortly 
afterwards  he  was  appointed  to  Barnstaple  in  the  same 
County,  whence  he  was  ejected  after  the  Restoration. 
Calamy  says  that  "  he  serv'd  his  generation  in  the  Work 
of  the  Gospel  forty-seven  years,  in  England,  Holland,  and 

1.  Bodl.  MS.  327. 

2.  Vide  p.  375. 

.3.   Shaw's  Hist.  Eng.  Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  449. 

Dalston  239 

It  is  the   State  Papers,  however,   which   come  to  our 
assistance,  and  practically  demonstrate  the  truth  of  this 
conjecture.     The  following  is  their  story:  — 
Mr.  Madder. 
501  :  00s  :  OOd. 

These  are  to  Will  and  Require  you,  out  of  the  five  hundred  pounds 
which  by  Order  of  this  Councell  of  the  date  hereof,  is  set  apart,  out 
of  the  fiveteen  hundred  pounds  deposited  in  yor  hands  for  Recruits 
for  Scotland,  for  enabling  of  such  Ministers  to  their  journey  as  shall 
be  thought  fitt  to  be  sent  into  Scotland,  for  preaching  of  the  Gosple 
there  to  pay  unto  Mr.  Madder  or  to  whom  hee  shall  appoynt,  the 
Summe  of  ffifty  pounds  which  is  soe  much  advanced  unto  him  for 
enabling  of  him  to  his  Journey  being  appoynted  to  goe  thither  as  a 
Minister.  Of  which  you  are  not  to  faile ;  and  for  which  this  shall 
be  yor  warrant. 

Given  at  the  Councell  of  State  at  Whitehall 

26  July  1652.' 

Ordered  by  his  Highnesse,  the  Lord  Protector  and  the  Councell 
That  fiftie  pound  be  advanced  out  of  the  Councells  Contingeaicies  to 
Mr.  Mader  (who  is  recommended  by  Mr.  Nye  to  be  Preacher  to  the 
Councell  of  Ireland)  towards  defraying  his  charges  to  Ireland.  And 
that  it  be  recommended  to  the  Lord  Deputie  and  Councell  to  settle 
him  there  with  such  allowance  for  his  maintenance  as  may  encourage 
him  in  that  employment. 

Sept.  20  [1654]  for  fiftie  pounds  to  be  advanced  to  Mr.  Madder. 

Sept.  28  [1654]  to  Mr.  Mather  Minister  for  Ireland  50li  :  00  :  00.2 

In  pursuance  of  an  Order  of  his  Highness  the  Lord  Protector  and 
the  Councell  of  the  20th  of  Sept.  1654.  These  are  to  will  and  require 
you  out  of  Such  moneys  as  are  or  shall  come  to  yor  hands  for  the 
use  of  the  Councell  to  pay  unto  Mr.  [blank]  Mader  or  whome  he 
shall  appoynt  the  sum  of  Fifty  pounds  towards  defraying  his  journey 
into  Ireland  to  preach  the  Gospell  there  Of  wch  &c 
Given  the  19th  day  of  October  1654. 

To  Mr.  Gualter  Frost.  Hen.    Lawrence,    Prd 

Mulgrave  Humbert 
W.  Strickland 
H.  Mackworth. 
P.   Lysle 
P.   Jones.  3 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Inter.  Money  Warrants,  I.  103,  p.  209. 

2.  Ibid.,  I.  75. 

3.  Ibid.,  I.  105,  p.  115. 

240  The   Ejected   of   1662 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  name  "  Madder"  or  "  Mader" 
persists  in  the  documents  except  in  one  case,  where  we 
get  "  Mather,"  and  that  is  sufficient  to  establish  identity. 
It  is  also  necessary  to  say  that  much  of  the  foregoing  may 
refer  to  Samuel  Mather,  another  of  Hichard  Mather's  sons, 
ejected  from  Burtonwood  in  Lancashire.  Indeed  it  is 
almost  certain  that  the  document  recording  the  journey 
into  Scotland  does.  Calamy  says  that  about  this  time 
Samuel  Mather  went  into  Scotland  and  afterwards  into 
Ireland.  The  important  thing  which  the  documents 
establish  is  the  identity  of  Mader  and  Mather;  and  this, 
taken  in  conjunction  with  the  fact  that  all  the  dates 
accurately  fit,  makes  it  morally  certain  that  the  Nathaniel 
Madder  of  Dalston  was  the  Ejected  Minister  of  Barn- 
staple. Nathaniel  Mather  was  one  of  the  active  promoters 
of  the  "  Happy  Union  "  of  1691,  and  he  wrote  several 
times  to  Thomas  Jollie  of  Wymondhouses  in  relation  to 
the  matter.^  He  was  also  one  of  the  Founders  of  the 
Congregational  Fund  Board,  the  first  meetings  for  the 
purpose  being  held  in  his  "  Meeting  house  " ;  and  was  one 
of  the  first  generous  contributors  to  it.  The  Minutes  for 
January  13th,  1695/6,  state  that  the  Treasurer  had 
"  reed  lOOli  by  ye  hands  of  Mr.  Mather  which  he  desired 
might  be  desposed  of  for  ye  purposes  before  menconed," 
several  other  considerable  sums  following  almost  immedi- 
ately. ^  The  City  Temple,  London,  Nathaniel  Mather's 
Church  in  continuity,  has  among  its  documents  seven 
letters  addressed  to  him  by  applicants  for  Church  Fellow- 
ship, whose  dates  range  from  1689  to  1695.^  Calamy 
gives  a  full  account  of  him,  and  inserts  a  lengthy  inscrip- 
tion from  his  tombstone  in  the  Bunhill  Fields  Burial 
Ground.  It  states  that  he  died  July  26th,  1697,  "  setat. 
Ixvii."  * 

1.  Jolly's  Note  Book,  C.S.  (N.S.),  vol.  33,  p.  139. 

2.  Minutes  of  the  Congregational  Fund  Board. 

3.  Memorials  of  the  City  Temple  by  J.  B.  Marsh,  p.  274. 

4.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  238;  vol.   iii,  p.  257. 


Dalston  241 

Christopher  Jackson,  1656. 

The  f  ollowiiig  documents  relate  to  his  appointment :  — 


To  the  Comrs.  [for  Approbation  of  publique  Preachers  and  all 
others  whom  it  may  concerne]  Wee  William  Steele  Lord  chiefe 
Baron  of  his  Highnes  Cort  of  Exchequer  att  Westmr.  [Sr  John 
Thorowgood  of  Kensington  Knight  George  Cowper  Richard  Yong 
John  Pocock  Ralph  Hall  Richard  Sydenham  Edward  Hopkins  John 
Humfrey  and  Edward  Cresset  Esqrs.  Trustees  by  Severall  Acts  of 
Parliament  for  Maintennce  of  Ministrs.  and  by  an  Ordinance  of  his 
Highnesse  Lord  Protector  and  his  Councell  Intituled  An  Ordinance 
for  the  better  Maintennce  and  Incouragemt.  of  preaching  Ministers 
and  for  visiting  of  parishes]  the  true  and  undoubted  Patrons  of  the 
viccaridge  and  Church  of  Dalston  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland 
become  void  by  the  relinquishment  of  Nathaniell  Madder  the  last 
Incumbent  or  any  other  wayes  whatsoever  Have  nominated  and 
p'sented  and  doe  by  these  psents  nominate  p'nl  and  appoint  Chresto- 
pher  Jackson  Minister  of  the  word  to  the  said  Viccarage  and  Church 
praying  [that  the  said  Chrestopher  Jackson  may  be  admitted  to  and 
settled  in  the  said  viacarage  and  church  and  vested  with  all  the 
Rights  Members  and  appurtenances  thereof  (which  wee  doe  hereby 
conferre  upon  him)  and  that  it  would  please  you  to  doe  and  performe 
all  other  things  requisite  and  necessary  to  be  done  in  the  p'misses]. 
In  witnes  whereof  wee  have  hereunto  sett  our  handes  and  Scales  this 
two  and  twentieth  day  of  Aprill  in  the  yeare  according  to  ye  Com- 
putacon  now  used  in  England — one  thousand  six  hundred  ffifty  and 

Ri.  Sydenham  Jo  Humfrey  Rich.  Yong  Ra  Hall  Jo  Pococke. 
Sealed  and  delivered 

in  ye  psence  of  < 

Tho.   Marsh 
Nat.  Overton.  1 


Know  all  men  by  these  p'nts  that  the  third  day  of  Maj  in  the 
yeare  1656  there  was  exhibited  to  the  Comrs.  for  approbacon  of 
publique  preachers  a  presacon  of  Mr.  Chrestopher  Jackson  Clerke  to 
the  Viccaridge  of  Dalston  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  made  to  him 
by  William  Steele  Lord  cheife  &c.  Dated  att  Whitehall  the  13th. 
June   1656. 

A  true  copy 

Jo  Nye  Regr.  2 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.),  983. 

2.  Ihid.,  968. 

242  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Orders  for  his  Augmentation  appear  under  dates 
September  19th,  1656,  and  March  20th,  1656/7,  for  one 
year  due  Christmas,   1657.^ 

The  following  also  are  of  interest:  — 


ffebr.    11.    1657. 

Upon  the  peticon  of, the  Ministr.  and  Inhabitants  of  the  parish  of 
Dalston  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  Ordered  that  Mr.  Edmund 
Branthwayte  Recr.  take  a  view  of  the  decayes  of  the  Chancell  of  the 
parish  Church  of  Dalston  aforesaid  and  Certifie  the  same  to  these 
Trustees  and  what  it  will  cost  to  repaire  the  same  and  whether  if  the 
said  Chancell  should  bee  pulled  down  the  Church  will  not  bee 
capacious  enough  to  hold  the  pari.shionrs.  and  Inhabitants  of  the  said 
parish  and  whether  the  old  Tennt  were  not  bound  to  repa3n:e  the 
said  Chancell  and  what  the  decayes  of  the  Chancell  were  that  incurred 
in  his  time.  2 

April  4.  1659. 

Dalston,  Whereas  the  vicarage  of  Dalston  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  is  of  the  yearely  value  of  tenn  poundes  As  by  an 
Inquisicon  taken  by  vertue  of  a  Comission  under  the  Great  Seale  of 
England  in  pursuance  of  an  Act  for  providing  maintenance  for 
preaching  Ministrs  &  other  pious  uses  appeareth  And  whereas  the 
tithes  hereafter  Menconed  being  all  wthin  ye  psh  &  pcell  of  ye 
Rectory  of  Dalston  aforesd  are  parcell  of  the  possions  of  ye  late 
Bishop  of  Carlisle  &  are  of  ye  respective  yearly  values  hereafter 
menconed  vizt  the  tithes  of  Dalston  Hauxdale  &  Buckabank  of  ye 
yearly  value  of  ffifty  pounds  the  tithes  of  Cardiew  and  Cardiew  Lees 
of  the  yearly  value  of  sixteene  poundes  thirteen  shillings  fours  pence 
The  tithes  of  Percivall  Holmes  tenemt  of  ye  yearly  value  of  two 
pounds  ten  shillings  the  tithe  wooll  &  Lambe  of  Dalston  of  ye  yearly 
valew  of  Seaven  pounds  ten  shillings  the  tithes  of  Halfeilde  &  Litle 
Raughton  of  ye  yearly  valew  of  eight  pounds  one  shilling  the  tithes  of 
Raughton  Moore  of  the  yearly  value  of  two  pounds  foure  shillings 
And  whereas  ^Nlr.  Chrestopher  Jackson  was  admitted  to  the  vicarage 
of  Dalston  aforesd  by  the  Comrs  for  Approbacon  of  publique  preachrs 
the  thirteenth  day  of  June  1656  therefore  upon  due  Consideracon  had 
of  the  premisses  Will  Steele  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland  Sr  John 
Thorowgood  of  Kensington  Knt.  George  Cowper  Richard  Yong  John 
Pocock  Ralph  Hall  Richard  Sydenham  John  Humfrey  and  Edward 
Cressett  Esqrs  Trustees  by  severall  Acts  of  Parliament  for  mainten- 
ance of  Minstrs  Doe  hereby  order  &  appoint  that  all  &  all  manner  of 

'  1,  Commonwealth  Exchequer  Papers  290  (Record  Office).     This  docu- 
ment is  well  worth  printing. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.   Min.),   980 

Dalston  243 

tithes  of  the  respective  places  aforesd  bee  united  &  annexed  to  ye  sd 
Vicarage  of  Dalston  to  &  for  encrease  of  the  maintennce  of  ye  sd  Mr. 
Jackson  for  such  time  as  hee  shall  discharge  the  duty  of  ]\Iinister 
there  and  of  such  other  godly  and  orthodox  Ministrs  his  Successrs  as 
shall  bee  Incumbents  of  ye  sd  Vicarage  And  that  the  yearly  sume  of 
three  pounds  two  shillings  eight  pence  bee  likewise  from  time  to  time 
paid  unto  ye  said  Mr.  Jackson  &  his  Successors  Alinistrs  of  Dalston 
aforesd  out  of  the  rents  &  profitts  of  the  tithes  of  Caulfeild  and 
Barranfeild  in  the  said  parish  And  it  is  further  ordered  that  from  & 
after  the  five  &  Twentieth  day  of  March  instant  the  sd  tithes  of 
Dalston  Hauxdale  &  Buckabank  Cardiew  &  Cardiew  Lees  percivall 
Holmes  tenement  Dalston  Wooll  &  Lambe  Halfeild  &  Little  Roughton 
&  of  Eoughton  !Moore  bee  left  out  of  ye  charge  of  ye  revenue  vested 
in  these  Trustees  whereof  the  Auditor  is  to  take  notice  And  it  is 
further  ordered  that  the  Recr  of  ye  sd  County  doe  forbeare  any 
further  to  intermeddle  with  ye  sd  tithes  annexed  as  aforesaid  or  the 
Tents  issues  or  profitts  of  them  or  of  ye  receipt  of  them  but  that  hee 
permitt  the  sd  ]Mr.  Jackson  &  such  godly  &  orthodox  ]\Iinistrs  as  shall 
succeed  him  as  aforesaid  quietly  to  have  hold  posse  &  enjoy  the  same 
and  the  rents  issues  &  profitts  thereof  &  all  person  &  persons  are 
therefore  to  sett  out  &  pay  their  said  tithes  to  ye  sd  Mr.  Jackson  & 
his  Successrs  Incumbents  of  ye  sd  Vicarage  from  time  to  time 
accordingly  And  it  is  further  ordered  yt  upon  legally  setting  out  soe 
much  of  ye  sd  tithes  of  Caulfeeld  &  Barrancefeeld  in  kind  as  will 
amount  to  the  said  yearly  sume  of  two  pounds  six  shillings  eight 
pence  a  yeare  the  same  bee  annexed  to  the  Vicarage  of  Dalston 
aforesd  Provided  that  dureing  the  Continuance  of  any  Leases  in  being 
■of  ye  aforesaid  tithes  the  rents  reserved  on  ye  sd  Leases  onely  & 
dureing  the  continuance  of  ye  sd  Lease  of  Caulfield  &  Barrancefield  ye 
sd  three  pounds  two  shillings  eight  pence  a  yeare  onely  bee  held  & 
enjoyed  by  ye  sd  ^Ir.  Jackson  &  his  Successrs  Ministrs  of  Dalston 
aforesd  &  the  farmrs  of  ye  pmisses  are  to  pay  the  same  accordingly 
Dated  the  ninth  day  of  March  in  the  yeare  according  to  the  Computa- 
tion used  in  England  One  Thousand  Six  hundred  ffifty  and  eight. 

Jo  Thorowgood  Jo  Humfrey  Jo  Pococke  Ra  Hall  Ri  Yong.^ 

To  complete  the  Jackson  case  it  is  necessary  to  add  the 
ifollowing :  — 

Feb  7.  1655/6. 

Mr.  Jackson   Minister  of   Garsdale — receaver   according   to   former 
order  pay. 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  995. 

244  The   Ejected   of    1662 

Feb.   12.   1655-6.1 
Garsdale — write  to  Dr.  Arrowsmith2  to  give  an  acct  of  him  &  why 
they  turned  him  out  of  Garsdale. 

March  4th.   1655/6. 
Garsdale  Mr.  Jackson — Dr.  Arrowsmith  Ire  [letter]  reed. 

May.   13.   1656. 
Garsdale  Order  Mr.  Jackson  ye  301i  according  to  former  order. 

April  17.  1656. 
Dalston — put  Mr.  Jackson. 

Friday  August  1.   1656. 

Cumberlnd  Dalston  Jackson  is  minister.  So  much  of  ye  rents  as 
are  not  otherwise  desposed  of  to  be  conferred  on  this  man. 

Sept.  15.  1656. 

Dalston — Ordr  ye  pishioners  of  Dalston  to   Sett  out  their  tythes  in 

kind,  as  they  Answer  the  Contrary  at  their  pill  [peril]. 

March  27.  1657. 

Garsdale — Mr.  Jackson  acknowledgeth  ye  receite  of  ye  30li  due  by 
order  of  26th  June  1655  payable  lady  day  1654  clames  till  24th  Mar. 
1655  being  one  yeare  more  &  that  is  allheclaimes — he  clames  one  quarter 
ending  1655  lady  day  since  he  was  there  ye  last  quarter  ending  lady 
day  1655,  but  absent  in  ye  yeare  1654  &  yt  he  is  elected  for  a  scandal- 
ous minister — dismissed  him  there  being  nothing  due  unto  him. 

Saith  he  was  here  about  the  trustees  service.  3 

The  case  of  Christopher  Jackson  is  exceedingly  difficult 
to  understand.  The  rough  notes  of  MS.  1021,  intended 
only  for  the  use  of  the  scribe,  are  not  easy  to  read  intelli- 
gently; but  what  seems  clear  is  the  identification  of  the 
Garsdale  Jackson  with  the  Dalston  one.*   Were  it  not  for 

1.  For  reference  to  Mr.  Forward  and  Dalston  vide  p.  565. 

2.  Dr.  John  Arrowsmith,  for  some  time  Master  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  was  one  of  Cromwell's  "Triers."  He  was  a  North  Country 
man,  being  born  at  Gateshead,  and  it  appears  that  Jackson's  case  was 
referred  to  him.     (Brook's  Lives  of  the  Puritans,  vol.  iii,  p.  315.) 

3.  All  these  are  from  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  1021. 

4.  Quite  late  iiiformation  has  thrown  strong  suspicion  upon  this 
identification.  The  impression  produced  by  the  reading  of  MS.  1021  is 
that  the  two  were  one,  because  the  various  items  follow  so  regularly. 
It  will,  however,  be  noted  that  the  Christian  name  is  not  given  in 
any  of  the  extracts.  That  Christopher  Jackson  was  at  Dalston  admits 
of  no  doubt;  and  it  is  almost  equally  certain  that  the  Garsdale  Jackson 
was  not  Christopher,  but  Richard,  who  was  also   Head  Master  of  the 

Dalston  245 

a  serious  clashing  of  dates  I  should  have  no  hesitation  in 
identifying  him  also  with  the  Christopher  Jackson  who 
appears  at  Crosby  Garrett,  and  who  was  ejected  thence  at 
the  Restoration.^  In  view  of  the  declared  policy  of  the 
Commonwealth  a  Plurality  of  livings  for  him  is  unthink- 
able. Yet  even  in  spite  of  the  date  difficulty  there  is 
something  to  be  said  for  their  identification.  Calamy 
states  that  Christopher  Jackson  of  Crosby  Garrett  was  first 
outed  somewhere  in  Yorkshire,  and  the  MS.  says  that  the 
Dalston  Jackson  was  ejected  from  Garsdale,  which  is  in 
Yorkshire,  a  few  miles  from  Sedbergh.  The  charge  of 
scandalousness  can  hardly  be  interpreted  in  the  usual 
acceptance  of  the  term;  and  his  immediate  transfer  to 
Dalston  supports  that  contention. ^  The  case  is  complicated 
by  the  appearance  in  the  ministry  of  more  than  one  person 
of  this  name  about  this  time.  The  Episcopal  Register  at 
Carlisle  gives  a  Christopher  Jackson  who  was  ordained  in 
June,  1634:  Oliver  Heywood  mentions  a  "Nonconforming" 
Minister  of  this  name  who  died  in  1662,  after  the  Uni- 
formity Act  ^ ;  there  was  also  a  Christopher  Jackson  at 
Mallerstang  Chapel  in  1656^;  Palmer  gives  Christopher 
Jackson  ejected  from  Lampeter  in  Wales,  who  died  in 
London;   Christopher  Jackson,  B.A.,  of  Trinity  College, 

Sedbergh  Grammar  School.  Richard  Jackson  was  sequestered  for 
scandalousness,  among  the  charges  brought  against  him  being  drunken- 
iness,  which  was  fully  proved.  The  story  is  told  by  Mr.  Wilson  in  his 
"  Sedbergh  School  Register "  ;  by  the  Rev.  W.  Thompson,  M.A.,  in 
"  Sedbergh,  Garsdale  and  Dent  "  ;  and  in  part  in  the  Calendars  of  State 
Papers  for  1655/6  and  1656/7.  The  text  is  allowed  to  staoid  partly 
because  the  printing  had  proceeded  too  far  to  correct,  partly  because  it 
illustrates  the  difficulties  which  beset  a  work  of  this  kind,  and  partly 
because  of  the  interesting  items  it  contains  about  Jackson;  but  the 
reader  should  remember  the  caution  given.  The  case  of  Christopher 
Jackson  in  relation  to  Crosby  Garrett  is  in  no  way  affected  by  this 

1.  Vide  p.   1094. 

2.  This,    of    course,    was   on    the  assumption  that    the    person    was 
Christopher  Jackson;  but  vide  p.  244,  note  4. 

3.  Diaries,   vol.   i,   p.    305. 

4.  Vide  p.  1083. 

246  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Dublin,  was  nominated  to  Hambleton  Cliapel,  in  Lanca- 
shire, by  Richard  Clegg,  Yicar  of  Kirkham,  May  26thy 
1699^ ;  and  Christopher  Jackson,  Minister  of  the  Crux 
Church,  York,  "dyed  May  22nd,  1701,  aged  60."  2  It  is 
a  case  in  which  a  definite  judgment  is  not  possible  until 
further  light  is  forthcoming.  Christopher  Jackson  cer- 
tainly disappears  from  Dalston  about  1658,  and  who 
succeeded  him  has  not  been  ascertained. 

It  would  seem  from  the  following  that  a  Minister  was 
settled  here  in  1659-60  :  — 

D.  Mar.  1.  ffebr.  16th.  1659. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  by  Instrument  undr  their  hands  &  Seales 
dated  ye  9th  day  of  March  1658  annexed  the  impropriate  tithes 
following  all  in  ye  psh  of  Dalston  &  County  of  Cumberland  unto  ye 
vicarage  of  Dalston  aforesaid  vizt  the  tithes  of  Dalston  Hakesdale  & 
Buckabanke  Cardue  &  Cardiew  Lees  Percivall  Holmes  tenement 
tithe  woll  Lambe  of  Dalston  Calfeild  and  Little  Raughton  &  Raugh- 
ton  Moore  &  whereas  the  trustees  are  informed  that  notwithstanding 
the  said  annexacon  Mr.  Edmond  Branthwayte  Recr.  doth  not  permit 
the  Minister  of  Dalston  aforesd  quietly  to  hold  &  enjoy  the  sd  tithes 
according  to  ye  purport  thereof  It  is  ordered  that  ye  sd  Mr.  Branth- 
wayte doe  forbeare  any  further  intermedling  wth  ye  sd  tithes 
annexed  as  aforesd  or  ye  rents  issues  and  profitts  thereof  but  yt  he 
permitt  the  Ministr.  of  Dalston  to  hold  and  enjoy  the  same  according 
to  ye  sd  Instrumt.  wthout  let  trouble  or  molestacon. 
Jo  Thorowgood  Jo  Pococke  Wm.  Steele  George  Cowper  Rich.  Yong.3 

It  is  unfortunate  that  the  name  is  not  given ;  but  who- 
ever was  here  at  this  date  he  was  replaced  shortly 
afterwards,  whether  forcibly  or  not  has  not  been 

Richard  Garth,  M.A.,  1661—1663. 

He  matriculated  at  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  December 
9th,  1650;  graduated  B.A.  January  25th,  1654-5,  and 
M.A.  July  4th,  1657.*     The  State  Papers  give  the  names 

1.  Act  Book,  Chester  Registry. 

2.  Northowram  Register,  p.  105. 

3.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  987. 

4.  Al.   Ox. 

Dalston  247 

of  a  small  group  of  distinguished  Cumbrian  men  in 
Oxford,  who  were  in  frequent  correspondence  with  Sir 
Joseph  Williamson  during  the  years  1660  and  1661. 
These  were  Gerard  Langbaine,  Timothy  Halton,  Thomas 
Lamplugh,  and  Richard  Garth.  The  latter  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  a  particular  favourite,  and  he  was 
very  restive  because  no  living  came  his  way.  He 
petitioned  without  success  for  Workington,  but  eventually 
he  obtained  Dalston,^  being  collated  by  Bishop  Sterne 
October  14th,  1661.  He  removed  to  Bromfield.^  No 
entry  appears  in  the  Registers  relating  to  him,  but  in 
"  The  Easter  reckoning  Booke "  is  a  true  copy  of  his 
receipt  "  dated  June  ye  27th,  1662,"  which  was  written 
out  in  1T18  by  "  Jo  :  Walker,  curat,"  and  which  relates 
to  John  Holme  of  Holme  Hall,  and  his  tithe  hay. 

John  Walker,  B.A.,  1663—1714. 

He  also  was  collated  by  Bishop  Sterne,  February  3rd, 
1663.  Foster  says  that  John  Walker  matriculated  at 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  July  25th,  1655,  graduated  B.A. 
1660,  and  M.A.  from  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge, 
1669:  "perhaps  vicar  of  Dalston.''^  He  remained  here 
until  his  death  in  1714;  and  his  burial  entry  in  the 
Registers  reads  thus  :  — 

Johannes  Walker  vicarius  de  Dalston  obiit  die  Sabbati  viz.  decimo 
quinto  die  August!  1714  Semi-hora  post  Septemanam  et  die  Martis 
tunc  proxime  sequenti  circiter  horam  quintam  pomeridianam  (intra 
Ecclesiam)  fuit  sepultus. 

The  Registers  also  have  the  following  interesting 
entry :  — 

September  13th  1700  is  buried  John  Stubbs  of  Dalston  quacker. 

Possibly  he  was  a  relative  of  "  Thomas  Stubbs  of  Dalston, 
who   had   been   a   Soldier  and   had   laid   down   Arms   & 

1.  Cal    S.  P.  Dom.  for  1660-1 ;  also  Lamplugh's  letter,  p.  775. 

2.  Vide  p.  641. 

3.  Ai.  Ox. 

248  The   Ejected   of    1662 

received  Truth  "^'  becoming  famous  afterwards  as  one  of 
George  Eox's  most  enthusiastic  Missionaries. 

Thomas  Benson,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1714—1727. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Nicolson  and  inducted 
October  23rd,  1714.  He  had  for  his  Curate,  John  Walker, 
probably  the  son  of  John  Walker  his  predecessor  in  the 
living.  John  Walker's  baptismal  entry  bears  date 
November  15th,  1672.  Benson  held  Stanwix  along  with 

1.  The  First  Publishers  of  Truth,  p.  68.  That  is  how  it  is  stated  in 
this  work,  but  Ferguson  (Early  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Friends, 
p.  155)  and  others  give  John  Stubbs  as  the  soldier,  identifying  him  with 
the  person  whose  burial  is  noted  above.  The  statement  in  "The  First 
Publishers,"  &c.,  is  entitled  to  the  greater  weight. 

2.  Vide  p.  198. 


In  spite  of  the  labour  bestowed  upon  it,  tlie  information 
supplied  by  this  section  is  disappointingly  meagre.  In 
most  cases,  the  County  Histories  are  of  little  service,  no 
attempt  being  made  to  furnish  a  list  of  those  who  held  the 
livings.  The  livings  were,  of  course,  small;  and,  in  conse- 
quence, served  mainly  by  Curates,  and  the  difficulty  is 
increased  by  the  Pluralism,  which  largely  abounded.  The 
Registers  also  fail  us,  in  only  a  few  cases  being  anterior 
to  the  Restoration.  The  late  Rev.  Henry  Whitehead, 
M.A.,  in  his  paper  on  The  Brampton  Deanery  Registers, 
however,  has  proved  to  be  of  the  greatest  assistance,  the 
only  surprise  being  that  so  keen  and  careful  an  antiquarian 
student  should  have  made  such  large  use  of  Whellan, 
whose  mistakes  are  irritatingly  plentiful  and  glaring.  In 
the  principal  cases,  however,  those  in  which  we  are  mainly 
interested  because  of  the  changes  which  the  Common- 
wealth and  Restoration  brought,  the  lists  are  fairly  full. 


This  is  a  market  town  some  ten  miles  east  of  Carlisle. 
The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Martin,  and  its  Registers 
begin  in  1663.  The  earliest  volume,  which  is  of  parch- 
ment, contains  all  the  marriages,  baptisms  and  burials  up 
to  1729,  with  the  exception  of  five  years,  1707-1712.  It  is 
in  good  condition  and  the  writing  is  quite  legible.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Robert  Beck,  1579—1599. 

A  person  of  this  name,  possibly  the  same,  was  at  Kirk- 
linton  in  1576,  and  CrosthJ^^aite  in  1592.  If  the  same 
he  would  be  a  Pluralist.^ 

1.  Vide  pp.  307,  648. 

250  The    Ejected    of  1662 

Henry  Hudson,  S.T.B.,  1600— 

He  was  instituted  April  3,  1600,  and  was  gone  before 
1611.  Probably  the  person  of  this  name  who  had  charge 
of  Stapleton  in  1603,  and  Brigham  in  1617.1 

Nicholas  Copeland,  1611. 

The  authority  for  this  is  the  following :  — 

January  2.  1611,  To  Mr.  Cowpland,  vicar  of  Brampton  uppon 
composition  for  the  tythes  thear  due  and  payable  at  this  Christmas 
last  past  for  one  year,  vijli.     [Eeceived]  Nicholas  Cowpland.  2 

There  are  also  references  under  1612  to  "Mr.  Cowpland's 
maid  bringing  eggs  "  and  receiving  "  xijd  "  for  the  same; 
also  to  her  "  bringing  plums  "  for  which  she  got  "  iiijd." ; 
and  "  to  Mr.  Cowpland's  man  bringing  hens  "  for  which 
he  obtained  "  ijs."  On  December  26,  1613,  "  Mr.  Cow- 
pland "  received  for  "  one  yeares  tythes  ended  at 
Christemas  1613  vijli."  He  evidently  removed  shortly 
after  this. 

Probably  the  person  who  for  some  time  was  Master  of 
the  St.  Bees  Grammar  School.  He  was  also  at  Brigham 
and  Gosforth.  ^ 

Thomas  Warwick,  1615. 

It  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  sort  out  the  Warwicks,  of 
whom  there  appear  to  have  been  several  in  the  ministry 
at  this  time.  The  late  Henry  Whitehead,  Vicar  of 
Brampton,  and  one  of  the  largest  and  most  valuable 
contributors  to  the  Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland  Archaeological  Society,  gives  the  name  of 
the  Brampton  Vicar  as  "  William  Warwick."  *  He  does 
so  on  the  authority  of  Hutchinson  and  Whellan;  but 
these  writers  are  very  unreliable  in  matters  of  this  kind, 
and  the  name  is  a  mistake.  The  Institution  Books  give 
"  Thomas  Warwick "  and  state  that  he  was  instituted, 

1.  Vide  pp.  288,  747. 

2.  Household  Books,  &c.,  pp.  56  and  57. 

3.  Vide  pp.  747,  836. 

4.  Brampton  in  the  Olden  Times,  p.  69. 


Brampton  251 

Aug.  17,  1615,  on  a  Presentation  by  "  Hen.  Dacre  Ar." 
Foster  has  also  mixed  things  up  considerably.  He  gives 
the  following  under  "Thomas  Warwicke"  : — "  Of  Carlisle, 
pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  14  July  1592  aged  18;  B.A.  8 
July  1596;  M.A.  from  St.  Edmund  Hall  4  July  1599; 
rector  of  Salkeld,  Cumberland,  1604,  vicar  of  Morland, 
Westmorland,  1606,  and  of  Brampton,  Cumberland,  1615." 
This  is  followed  thus: — "Warwicke  Thomas  of  Cumber- 
land pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  12  Oct.  1621,  aged  20,  B.A. 
29  Nov.  1621;  vicar  of  Morland,  Westmorland,  1621, 
rector  of  Beaumont  1625, and  of  Bowness,  (both)  Cumber- 
land 1629,"  ^  The  second  Thomas  Warwick  was  ordained 
Deacon  Sep.  28,  1623,  and  is  probably  the  person  of  that 
name  that  held  the  living  of  Aspatria  in  1639.-  Foster 
also  gives  George  Warwick  "  of  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's 
Coll.  matric  14  June  1582,  aged  16,  B.A.  8  Dec.  1586, 
M.A.  9  June  1589,  fellow  1593 ;  rector  of  Simondsburne, 
Northumberland,  1597-9,  and  of  Melmerby,  Cumberland, 
1610^21,  Archdeacon  of  Carlisle  1604-21."  ^  This  was 
the  one  who  was  at  Great  Salkeld,  and  not  Thomas 
Warwick  as  given  by  Foster.  * 

The  only  way  through  the  Warwick  maze  which  suggests 
itself  at  present  is  the  following.  Three  persons  of  the 
name  of  Thomas  Warwick  are  given  as  successively  Rectors 
of  Morland,  being  father,  son,  and  probably  grandson.^ 
Thomas  Warwick,  senior,  held  the  Morland  living  for 
forty  years,  resigning  in  1606  in  favour  of  his  son, 
Thomas  Warwick,  M.A.,  who  remained  until  1620.  This 
is  probably  the  one  who  was  at  Askham  from  1604  to  1610, 
in  which  case  he  would  be  a  Pluralist.  This  would  be  the 
Brampton  Vicar,  and  in  1645  he  appears  as  Eector  also  of 
Bowness.  The  latter  living  had  passed  out  of  his  hands 
by  1647;  probably,  as  in  the  case  of  several  others,  he 
had   had   the   choice    of  either  but   had   been    compelled 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  p.  643. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  Loftie's  Great  Salkeld ;    its  Rectors  and  History,  p.  56. 

5.  Vide  p.   1178. 

2^52  The   Ejected   of  1662 

to  surrender  one.  Thomas  Warwick,  M.A.,  the  third  of 
that  name  was  at  Morland  from  1621  to  1624.  Possibly 
this  is  the  one  who  appears  at  Beaumont  in  1625  and 
Aspatria  in  1639.  ^ 

Lord  William  Howard  seems  to  have  been  in  the  habit 
of  giving  "  Parson  Warik  "  financial  assistance  in  times 
of  stress.     Hence  the  following  :  — 

May  28,   1620,   Lent  to   Parson  Warik  by  my  Lord's  apoyntment 

Again  :  — 

Monie   lent  Jan.    1.    1621-2   To  Mr.    Warwick  Vicar  of   Brampton 
by  my  Lord's  Command  at  London  vli. 

Also  :  — 

August  2.  1633.  Lent  unto  Mr.  Warwicke,  Viker  of  Brampton, 
(to  redeeme  him  from  the  Pursivantes  handes)  and  to  bee  payed 
againe  at  Lammas  1634  xxli.  2 

It  appears  that  Warwick  and  Lady  Howard  did  not 
scruple  to  do  a  little  gambling  together.  Hence  the 
following :  — 

Feb  23.  1624.     To  my  Lady  at  tabells  with  Mr.  Warwick  iiijs." 

Not  less  interesting  this  :  — 

1628  Sept.  28.      To  Mr.  Warwicke  for  xvj  salted  sallmons  sent  to 
London  unto  Sr  William  Pitts  xxxijs.* 

In  1629  he  is  referred  to  as  "  olde  Mr.  Warwicke,"  and 
the  following  shows  how  his  home  was  doubtless  annually 
cheered  :  — 

Eewards.     January   1st    1629-30    (New   Yeares  daye).     To    Parson 

Warwicke    by  my   Lord's   Commaund    xxs.      To  his   wife   from   my 

Ladie  xs.  5 

In  1644  he  contributed  £2  Os.  Od.  to  the  Carlisle 
garrison  for  Bowness  and  Brampton.     In  January  1655-6 

1.  Vide  p.  220. 

2.  Household  Books,  pp.   Uo,   181,  338. 

3.  Ibid.,  p.  213. 

4.  Ibid.,  p.  245. 

5.  Ibid.,  p.  262. 


Brampton  253 

"  Mr.  Warwicke  "  was  among  the  Carlisle  preachers,  his 
expenses  being  3s. ;  but  probably  this  was  the  Aspatria 
Warwick.  Similarly  the  one  named  by  William  Lampit 
in  his  letter  of  1650,  where  he  is  described  as  "  late 
chaplain  to  Sir.  Edward  Musgrave,  a  great  plunderer  of 
honest  men."  ^  The  one  fact  that  stands  out  with  un- 
questioned distinctness  is  that,  in  1644,  the  Brampton 
Warwick  was  a  Pluralist,  like  so  many  others  of  his  day, 
having  Bowness  for  his  other  living.  The  Episcopal 
Register  gives  the  following  :  — 

An  Indenture  made  to  Thomas  Warwick  of  ye  ffishing  in  Eden, 
&c.,  Rose  Castle  County  of  Cumberland.     Feby.   14.  1685-6. 

The  "  Chamberlain's  Accounts  "  also  refer  to  "  old  Mr. 
Warwick."  ^     Both  of  these  were  probably  connections. 

Andrew  Mandrake,  1656 — 1658. 

This  name  does  not  appear  in  any  history,  but  his 
appointment  and  Augmentation  are  referred  to  in  the 
following  :  — 

ffeb.   3rd.    1656. 

Know  all  men  by  these  psents  that  ye  16th.  day  of  January  in  the 
years  1656  there  was  &c.  a  pensacon  of  Andrew  INIandrake  Clerke  to 
ye  Vicarage  of  Brampton  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  made  to  him 
by  Charles  Howard  Esq.  the  patron  thereof  together  &c.  Upon  &c 
the  Comrs.  &c.  In  Witnes  &c.  Dated  at  Whitehall  ye  21  day  of 
January   1656. 

Ut  Coldecot  per 
Jo.  Nye  Regr.  3 

d  d  23  ffeb.  flebr.  3d.  1656. 

Ordered  that  the  yearly  Sume  of  thirty  poundes  bee  and  the  Same 
is  hereby  Graunted  to  the  Minister  of  Brampton  in  ye  County  of 
Cumberland  to  and  for  increase  of  his  Maintenance  his  Highnes  and 
Councell  haveing  approved  thereof  the  24th  day  of  March  1655  And 
that  the  Same  bee  from  time  to  time  paid  unto  Mr.  Andrew  Mand- 
rake   Minister    of    Brampton    aforesaid    approved    according    to    the 

1.  Vide  p.  624. 

2.  Vide  p.  181. 

3.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.)  968. 

2  54  The    Ejected   of  1662 

Ordinance  for  approbacon  of  publique  preachers  the  21  day  of 
January  1656  to  hold  for  such  time  as  hee  shall  descharge  the  duty 
of  the  Minister  of  the  said  place  or  untill  further  Order  of  these 
Trustees  out  of  the  rents  and  profitts  hereafter  Menconed  vizt  the 
yearly  Sume  of  ten  pounds  out  of  the  Tythes  of  Aspatria  the  further 
yearly  sume  of  six  poundes  out  of  the  tythes  of  Aughterside  and  ye 
further  yearly  Sume  of  fourteen  poundes  out  of  the  tythes  of  Hayton 
Mellowe  &  Quinsby  all  within  the  County  of  Cumberland  and 
amounting  in  the  whole  to  ye  said  yearly  Sume  of  thirty  poundes  the 
Same  to  bee  accompted  from  this  pret  3d  day  of  ffeb.  [1656]  and  Mr. 
Edmund  Branthwayte  Receiver  is  hereby  appointed  to  pay  ye  Same 
unto  him  accordingly. 

Ed.  Cressett,  Jo.  Humfrey,  Ri.  Sydenham  Edw.  Hopkins 
Ri.  Yongl 

Brampton.  June  25.  1657. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  the  third  ffebr  1656  ordered  unto  Mr. 
Andrew  Mandrake 2  Minr  of  Brampton  in  the  County  of  Cumberland 
(among  other  thinges)  the  yearely  Sume  of  fourteene  poundes  out  of 
the  tithes  of  Hayton  ilellow  and  Quinsby  in  the  said  County  to  be 
accompted  from  the  said  3d  day  of  ffeb  1656  It  is  ordered  that  the  Sume 
of  Twelve  poundes  eight  shillinges  only  be  paid  out  of  the  said  tithes 
of  Hayton  &c  and  the  further  yearely  Sume  of  one  pound  twelve 
shillinges  out  of  the  tithes  of  Cumrew  in  the  said  County  the  same  to 
be  accompted  from  the  said  3d  day  of  ffebr  1656  and  to  be  from  time 
to  time  continued  and  paid  to  the  said  Mr.  Mandrake  for  such  time 
as  he  shall  descharge  the  duty  of  the  Minr.  of  the  said  place  or  untill 
further  order  of  these  Trustees.  And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwaite 
recr  doe  pay  the  same  unto  him  accordingly. 

Ri.  Sydenham  Ra.  Hall  Jo.  Pocock  Ri.  Yong  John  Humfrey.  3 

Brampton.  July  7.  1658. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  have  by  orders  of  the  3d  of  ffebruary  1656 
and  25th  of  June  1657  graunted  unto  the  Minister  of  Brampton  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  the  yearely  sume  of  thirty  pounds  out  of  the 
particulers  in  the  said  ordrs  menconed  It  is  ordered  that  the  further 
yearely  sume  of  ten  poundes  be  graunted  for  a  further  increase  of 
maintennce  of  the  minister  of  Brampton  aforesaid  and  that  the  same 
be  from  time  to  time  paid  unto  Mr.  Andrew  Mandrake  Minister  of 
Brampton  aforesaid  out  of  the  rents  and  profitts  of  the  tithes  of 
Crosby  in  the  said  County  To  hold  for  such  time  as  he  shall  continue 
to   descharge   the    duty   of   the    minister    of    Brampton    aforesaid    or 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.    (Plund.  Min.)  993. 

2.  The  scribe  has  written  Wandrake  several  times. 

3.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.)  993. 


Brampton  255 

further  order  of  these  Trustees  to  be  accounted  from  the  24th  of  June 
last  And  that  Mr.  Edmund  Branthwayt  Kecr  doe  pay  the  same 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Ri.  Yong  Ra  Hall  Jo  Humphrey  Jo.  Pocock.  i 

Andrew  Mandrake  died  shortly  after  tliis. 

mXHANIEL  BUENAND,  M.A.,  1658—1662. 

He  was  the  son  of  "  old  Mr.  Nathanael  Burnand,  the 
chief  Minister  in  Durham  in  the  time  of  the  Civil  Wars."  - 
Such  is  Calamy's  statement  and  he  adds  that  he  was  "bred 
in  Cambridge."  Foster,  however,  gives  the  following 
which  almost  certainly  refers  to  him :  "  Of  Berks,  Cler. 
fil.  Trinity  College,  Oxford,  matric.  12  Xov.  1619,  aged 
15,  B.A.  7  July  1623;  M.A.  from  Magdalen  Hall  1  July 
1626."  3  In  March  1642  he  was  committed  to  Newcastle 
gaol  for  religious  offences;*  but  shortly  after  he  took 
charge  of  Ovingham  in  Northumberland.  The  following 
is  witness  to  this :  — 

1642  April  19.  Whereas  Nath.  Burnand  an  Orthodox  divine  out 
of  his  Desire  to  advance  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  in  the  County 
of  Northumberland,  and  being  chosen  by  the  parishioners  of  Ovingham 
to  preach  there  is  willing  (though  to  his  great  charge)  to  remove  his 
Family  thither ;  this  House  doth  very  well  approve  of  the  good  and 
pious  intention  of  the  said  Mr.    Burnand. 5 

In  1645  he  appears  at  Morpeth  reporting,  along  with 
several  other  Ministers,  as  to  the  religious  state  of  the 
County,  in  view  of  the  prospective  setting  up  of  "  Presby- 
teriall  Government."  They  refer  to  "  ye  paucity  of  godly 
and  able  ministers  in  this  spatious  Countye" ;  "  ye  poore 
allowance  for  ministers  in  many  of  the  sayd  parishes  (the 
stipend  not  being  lOli  per  annum)  occasioneth  many  to 
ye  scandall  of  theire  function  to  keepe  common  alehouses"  ; 
to  the  necessity  for  "  taking  away  the  Booke  of  Common 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.)  995. 

2.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  158. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  So  Penfold  in  "Early  Brampton  Presbyterianism  "  (Trans.  (N.S.), 
vol.  iii,  p.  97). 

5.  C.  J.,   vol.   ii,   p.    535. 

256  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Prayr  ...  ye  nurse  of  an  idle  and  non-preacliing  min- 
istry" ;  and  request  ttat  the  divers  "  ministers  that  have 
bin  or  shalbe  east  out  of  theire  places  for  seandall  or 
delinquency  whether  in  remote  parts  or  among  orselves 
.  .  .  may  not  bee  setled  among  us  least  they  proving  false 
may  hinder  ye  establishing  of  truth  and  righteousnes  in 
this  part  of  ye  kingdome."  ^ 

In  1656  he  had  charge  of  Castle  Carrock  and  Cum- 
whitton  and  his  appointment  to  Brampton  together  with 
his  salary  is  referred  to  in  the  following :  — 


Mar.  18  ' 

Know  all  men  by  these  psents  that  ye   7th  day  of  January   1658 
there  was  exhibited  &c  a  presentacon  of  Nathaniell  Burnand  CI.  to 
the   Vicarage   of   Brampton   in   ye  County   of   Cumberland   made   to 
him  by  Charles  Lord  Howard  Kn.  the  patron  together  &c.     In  witnes 
Dated  at  Whitehall  28th  of  January   1658. 
Jo.    Nye    Regr.  2 

Brampton  in  ye 
County  of  Cumberland.  Nathaniel  Burnand  CI.  Admitted  the  28th 
day  of  January  1658  to  ye  V.  of  Brampton  in  ye  County  of  Cum- 
berland Upon  a  pres.  exhibited  the  7th  day  of  January  1658  from 
Charles  Lord  Viscount  Howard  the  patron  And  Certificates  from 
Wm.  Brisco  Tho  :  Crayster  Cuth  Studholme  Tho  :  Sewell  Tho  : 
Langhorne  Rich.  Gilpin  of  Graystocke  Roger  Baldwin  Tim.  Tullye 
Roland   Niccols   Comf.    Starre.3 

Fryday  25.   Februarij   1658. 

Cumberland.  Continue  ye  301i  to  Mr.  Burnand  p'sent  Minister 
but  not  ye  lOli  yt  being    gone  to  Crosby.  4 

Brampton.  March   23,  1658. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  3d  of  ffebruary  1656  ord.  ye  yearly  sume 
of  thirty  poundes  unto  ye  Minister  of  Brampton  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  his  Highnesse  and  Counsell  haveing  approved  thereof 
to  bee  paid  unto  Mr.  Andrew  Mandrake  then  Minister  there  who 
is  since  deceased  It  is  ordered  that  ye  sume  bee  continued   &  from 

1.  Shaw's  Hist.  Eng.   Ch.,  vol.  ii,  p.  366. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.   (Plund.  Min.),  968. 

3.  Ihid.,  999. 

4.  Ihid.,  1003. 

Brampton  257 

time  to  time  paid  unto  Mr.  Nathaniell  Burnand  admitted  to  the 
Vicaridge  of  Brampton  aforesd  by  the  Comrs  for  approbacon  of 
Publique  preachrs  ye  28th  day  of  January  last  to  bee  paid  out  of 
the  perticulers  hereafter  menconed  (vizt)  the  yearly  sume  of  lOli  out 
of  ye  rents  &  pfitts  of  the  tithes  of  Aspatree  ye  further  yearly  sume 
of  6li  out  of  ye  rents  &  pfitts  of  the  tithes  Ougherside  &  ye  further  yearly 
sume  of  14li  out  of  the  rents  &  pfitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Hayton  Mellow 
Quinsby  in  ye  sd  County  of  Cumberland  &  amounting  in  ye  whole 
to  ye  sd  yearly  sume  of  301i  To  hold  for  such  time  as  the  sd  Mr. 
Burnand  shall  continue  faithfully  to  descharge  ye  duty  of  ye  Minister 
of  ye  sd  place  or  further  Order.  And  that  ilr.  Edmund  Branthwaite 
Recr  doe  pay  the  same  accordingly. 
Ra  Hall  Ric  Sydenham  Ri  Yong  Jo  Pocock  Edw  Cressett.  i 

Contrary  to  what  almost  invariably  happened  in  Cum- 
berland and  Westmorland,  bis  Ejection  did  not  take  place 
until  1662.  In  the  Brampton  Court  Leet  Records  is  the 
following :  — 

Cur.  Let.  1661  Nathaniell  Burnand,  Clericus  propter  Johannem 
Peares  de  Cannockhill  iijs.  iiijd.  pro  decimis  29  9ber  2 

His  career  after  his  Ejection  is  thus  given  by  Calamy  :  — 

When  he  was  Ejected,  he  retir'd  to  the  Desart  Places  in  Austin- 
More  [Alston],  aftd  there  took  a  Farm,  and  manag'd  it  carefully  in 
order  to  a  Subsistence  for  his  Family,  Preaching  in  his  own  House 
on  the  Lord's  Day  to  any  Poor  Christians  that  would  come  to  hear 
him ;  and  in  process  of  time  he  Preach'd  at  Burneston  in  Publick, 
no  one  taking  Notice  of  him.  At  length  Providence  Favouring  Sir 
William  Blacket  in  his  Lead-Mines,  he  fix'd  him  there  to  Preach  to 
his  Miners,  with  an  allowance  of  301  per  annum.  He  had  great 
Success  among  those  Ignorant  Creatures,  and  did  much  good.  But 
when  the  Mines  fail'd  Poor  Mr.  Burnand  was  again  at  a  loss ;  came 
up  to  London,  and  spent  some  time  with  a  Congregation  at  Harwich. 
But  Age  coming  upon  him,  he  at  length  came  to  London  again,  and 
subsisted  upon  the  Charity  of  well  disposed  Christians,  till  Death 
gave  him  his    Quietus.  3 

In  the  Episcopal  Eegister  at  Carlisle  the  following 
notice  of  his  relief  from  the  sentence  of  Excommunication 

1.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.),  995. 

2.  Whitehead's  Brampton  xviith  Century  Presbyterians  (Trans.  (O.S.) 
for  1886). 

3.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.   158. 


258  The   Ejected   of  1662 

occurs :  "  1665  7br  8  Eadem  [Absolutia]  concessa.  Mro 
Nathan.  Burnand."  In  the  Conventicle  Returns  for  1669 
he  is  described  as  "  a  Farmer  or  Drover,"  who  was 
accustomed  to  hold  a  "  Conventicle  of  Independents  "  in 
Brampton,  his  hearers  being  30  or  35  in  number,  "  meane 
most  of  them,  but  some  rich."  ^  In  1672  he  took  out  a 
License  as  a  "  Pr[esbyterian]  Teacher,"  though  his  Con- 
venticles went  by  the  name  of  "  Independent."  For  some 
reason  or  other  his  name  does  not  appear  in  the  Present- 
ment Lists,  and  he  is  lost  to  sight  for  a  while.  Mr.  J.  W. 
Robinson  suggests  that  for  several  years  he  may  have  been 
at  "  Middlehope  Burnfoot  in  Allendale  first  as  a  farmer 
and  then  as  a  Minister" ;  and  adds  that  "  Burnand  appears 
frequently  in  the  Allendale  Parish  Registers  between  1694 
and  1698,  but,  curiously,  his  Christian  name  is  never 
mentioned."  ^ 

The  following  undoubtedly  relates  to  him  and  testifies 
to  his  moderation  and  liberality  of  view :  — 


Feb.  9,  1676-7.  Before  Sir  Philip  xMusgrave  Bt.  Thomas  Walton 
of  Aldstone  Moore  gent  saith  that,  being  in  the  Company  of  Lionell 
Walton,  of  the  Bridge  end,  his  son,  John  Walton  &c.  and  discoursing 
about  a  Minister,  Mr.  Burnand,  who  related  to  this  informer  some 
discourse  that  past  betwixt  himselfe  and  one  John  Walton  of  Gates- 
head concerning  the  Church  of  England,  which  Church  Mr.  Burnand 
held  to  be  a  true  Church,  the  said  John  Walton  denied  it.  The 
Company  now  present  said  they  thought  that  John  Walton  was  in 
the  right.  They  did  also  endeavour  to  prove  by  Arguments  that  the 
Church  of  England  was  a  false  Church ;  namely,  the  Kinge  is  a 
foresworne  man  then  how  could  he  establish  a  true  Church  :  that 
the  Church  of  England  is  eronious,  and  therefore  could  not  be  a  true 
Church  :  and  that  a  corrupt  tree  cannot  bring  forth  good  frute,  the 
Church  of  England  is  universily  corrupt  therefore  it  cannot  be  a 
true  Church.  They  did  also  affirme  that  the  Church  of  England  was 
goeing  on  the  broad  way  to  destruction.  They  also  said  that  if  the 
Church  of  England  went  to  heaven,  hell  would  be  very  empty. 
They  alsoe  affirmed  and  tooke  in  hand  to  prove  that  those  that  used 

1.  Vide  p.  1329. 

2.  Notes  on  the  Early  Nonconformist  Ministers  at  Alston  Moor. 

Brampton  259 

the   Comon  Prayer  would  be  dammed.     They  endeavoured  to  prove 
it  out  of  some  text  in  the  CoUossians,  chap.  2d  22  and  23  ver.i 

Nathaniel  Burnand  ranks  with  Eichard  Gilpin,  George 
Larkham,  George  Benson,  and  a  few  others,  in  the  work  of 
laying  the  foundations  of  Nonconformity  in  this  County. 
He  was  connected  with  Gilpin  by  marriage,  having 
Gilpin's  sister  for  his  wife.  In  the  Gilpin  Pedigree  the 
name  is  given  as  Margaret;'  and  the  late  Mr.  Whitehead 
says  that  he  had  among  his  papers  the  following,  though 
how  it  had  been  obtained  he  could  not  be  sure  :  "Margaret 
d.  of  Isaac  Gilpin  b.  14  Mar.  1631  M.  [Married]  Nathaniel 
Burnand  Rr.  of  Brampton  in  Com.  Cumbr."  It  is,  of 
course,  quite  possible  that  this  is  correct;  but  if  so  there 
was  a  great  disparity  in  the  ages  of  the  two.  This 
connection  with  the  Gilpin  family  would  make  him  a 
frequent  visitor  to  Scaleby  Castle,  where  Richard  Gilpin 
made  his  home  for  some  time  after  his  Ejection  from 
Greystoke ;  and  there  doubtless  he  often  found  protection 
from  the  storms  which  raged  around  him. 

In  view  of  his  connection  with  the  Gilpin  family  it  is 
singular  that,  according  to  Calamy's  statement,  he  went 
eventually  so  far  away  as  Essex,  and  that  upon  his  last 
days  the  shadow  of  a  deep  poverty  fell.  That  such, 
however,  was  the  case  is  attested  by  the  following :  — 

Nov.   13,  1710. 

Resolved  nemine  contradicente  that  six  pounds  be  immediately 
allowed  Mr.  Burnand  out  of  the  Fund  to  descharge  a  debt  owing  to 
his  Landlady  and  that  it  may  be  paid  into  the  hands  of  Mr. 

Feby  5,  1710/11. 

This  Board  being  informed  that  Mr.  Burnand  is  dead  and  that 
there  remains  due  from  him  to  the  persons  with  whom  he  lodged 
for  ye  necessary  supplys  of  Life  the  Sum  of  foure  pounds  ten  shil- 
lings and  six  pence  Ordered  that  the  said  sum  of  £4  10  6  be  allow'd 
for  ye  same  purpose  above  mentioned.  3 

1.  Dep.  from  York  Castle  (Surtees  Soc,  vol.  40),  p.  226. 

2.  Gilpin  Memoirs,  edited  by  Wm.  Jackson,  F.S.A. 

3.  Minutes  of  the  Presbyterian  Fund.  For  his  connection  with 
Brampton  and  Alston  Nonconformity  vide  pp.  1270,  1271. 

26o  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Mr.  Whitehead  gives  the  following  interesting  account 
of  a  visit  to  the  house,  upon  which  tradition  fixes  as  the 
place  where  Nathaniel  Burnand  was  accustomed  to  preach 
in  the  days  of  his  religious  outlawry  :  — 

It  seems  he  preached  at  his  own  house,  where  tradition  says  he 
was  not  connived  at  but  had  to  preach  for  safety  in  a  loft,  to  which 
he  and  his  audience  obtained  access  through  a  trap  door.  I  was 
told  of  this  tradition  by  Mr.  Joseph  Dickinson,  of  Alston,  who 
accompanied  me  on  a  visit  I  desired  to  pay  to  the  lonely  retreat  of 
one  of  the  most  interesting  of  my  predecessors.  We  ascended  through 
the  trap  door,  and  stood  in  the  loft ;  which  is  larger  than  either  of 
the  rooms  below,  and  perhaps  on  that  account  rather  than  for 
secrecy  was  used  for  preaching,  i 

The  County  Histories,  except  Whellan,  ignore  Burnand, 
and  he  blunders  with  the  name,  giving  it  as  "  John." 
With  reference  to  Nathaniel  Burnand,  senior,  it  may  be 
added  that,  about  1649,  he  appears  along  with  Richard 
Gilpin  as  one  of  the  Ministers  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
Durham.  His  burial  is  thus  noted  in  the  Parish  Registers 
of  the  St.  Oswald  Church  :  — 

Burial  1650  May  6.  Mr.  Nathaniell  Burnand,  Minister  of  this 

Philip  Fielding,  M.A.,  1662—1692. 

He  was  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  graduating 
B.A.  in  1660,  and  M.A.  in  1664.  Reckoning  according  to 
the  Old  Style,  in  October,  two  months  after  St.  Bartholo- 
mew's Day,  he  read  the  Thirty  Nine  Articles  as  the 
Registers  testify :  — 

28.    8.    1662. 

Mem.  That  I  phill.  ffeilding  vicar  of  Brampton  have  the  day  & 
yeare  abovsd  read  the  Thirty  nine  Articles  appointed  by  the  Church 
of  England  in  Wittnesse  whereof  I  have  hereunto  subscribed  before 
these  witnesses  &c. 

Phil.  Feilding. 

His  Institution,  however,  does  not  appear  to  have  taken 
place  until  Feb.  2,  1662-3 ;  and  on  the  day  previous  he 
was  ordained  both  Deacon  and  Priest.     Philip  Fielding- 

1.  Brampton  xviith   Century  Presbyterians. 


Brampton  261 

was  a  Pluralist,  becoming  Yicar  of  Crosby-on-Eden  and 
Irthington  in  1666.^  He  resigned  Crosby  in  1670,  but 
kept  Irthington  witb  Brampton  until  his  death,  which 
took  place  in  1692.  His  burial  entry  in  the  Registers 
reads  thus : 

Master  philip  ffellding  Vicker  of  Brampton  was  Buread  ye  25th 
of  June  1692. 

A  slab  in  the  north  east  corner  of  the  old  Church,  which 
still  in  part  exists  about  a  mile  from  the  town,  states 
that  he  died  "  in  anno  aetatis  53." 

John  Cockburn,  M.A.,  1692 — 1702. 

He  was  instituted  July  25,  1692,  on  the  Presentation  of 
"  Charles  Comes  Carliol."  He  read  the  Thirty  Nine 
Articles  Sep.  18,  1692.  A  daughter,  Margaret,  was  bap- 
tized Nov.  3rd  of  the  same  year;  and  he  died  in  1702  as 
the  following  from  the  Registers  attests  :  — 

Memorandum  that  Mr.  John  Cockburn  Vicar  of  Brampton  was 
buried  October  29th  Anno  Domini  1702. 

Richard  Culcheth,  M.A.,  1702 — 1714. 

He  was  instituted  March  13,  1702,  on  the  same  Pre- 
sentation. A¥riting  in  1704  Bishop  Nicolson  says  of  the 
last  three  Brampton  Vicars  that  Fielding  was  "  rich  and 
had  no  Children;"  Cockburn  "honest  and  poor;"  but  that 
Culcheth  was  "  somewhat  too  Worldly ;  endeavouring  to 
hold  Stapleton,  Upper  Denton  and  Farlam  ^  in  Commen- 
dam  with  ye  Liveing  of  Brampton."  Respecting  the 
Church  he  adds :  "  Little  and  very  unbecomeing  the 
giandeur  of  a  Mercate-Town.  'Tis  also  in  a  Slovenly 
pickle:  dark,  black  and  ill-Seated.  The  Quire  is  yet 
more  Nasty."  ^ 

The  burial  entry  of  Richard  Culcheth,  whose  tomb  is  in 
the  porch  of  the  Old  Church,  reads  thus  :  — 

The  Reverend  Mr.  Richard  Culcheth,  Buried  ye  4  of  February 
1713-4,  after  he  had  been  Vicar  of  Brampton  10  years,  10  months 
and   10   Days. 

1.  Vide  pp.  205,  284.      2.  Vide  pp.  275,  277,  288.      3.  Miscel.,  p.  142. 


Castle  Carrock  is  a  small  village  about  four  miles  south 
of  Brampton,  and  near  the  majestic  scenery  of  the  Cross 
Fell  mountain  range.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Peter.  The  earliest  Register  Book  appears  to  have  been 
lost,  the  present  one  going  back  to  1679  only.  It  is  a 
paper  volume,  without  covers,  worn  at  the  edges,  but  the 
writing  is  clear  and  good.  It  opens  with  baptisms,  the 
earliest  decipherable  date  being  "  ffeb.  21.  1688-9."  This 
fact  led  Whellan  to  give  that  as  the  date  at  which  the 
Registers  begin  ;i  but  farther  in  the  book  it  will  be  found 
that  "  Wedings "  commence  with  1679  and  burials  the 
same.     The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Leonard  Milburn,  1589 — 1635. 

The  "Household  Books"  of  Lord  William  Howard  contain 
the  following  which,  among  things,  establish  his  connec- 
tion with  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle  :  — 

Aprilis  25  [1613].  To  Mr.  Parson  Milburn  for  his  whole  tjrth  of 
Geltesdale  due  to  him  at  Easter  last  xs.    * 

1621  Dcemb  2.  Eec.  more  by  him  [John  Pildrem]  of  the  Bishop 
of  Carlyle  as  mony  formerly  lent  to  his  brother  Mr.  Parson  Milburn 
as  part  of  ili  paid  by  Thomas  Waters  xxli.  3 

Januarie  21,  1624-5.  To  Mr.  Leanerd  Milbom  for  a  Coach  and 
4  horses  xxxli.  4 

The  Editor  suggests  that  these  had  been  the  property  of 
Bishop  Milburn  who  died  in  1624. 

The  Milburns,  Milbourns  or  Milbournes  were  a  Cum- 
berland family;  and,  as  already  intimated,  Leonard 
Milburn  was  the  brother  of  Richard  Milburn,  Bishop  of 

1.  Whellan,   p.    671. 

2.  Household  Books,  p.  56. 

3.  Ibid.,  p.   159. 

4.  Ibid.,  p.  223. 

Castle  Carrock  263 

Carlisle,  1621-1624.  Under  Kirkoswald  will  be  found  tte 
names  of  Robert  and  Leonard  Milboiirne.^  Leonard 
Milburn  of  Oiisby  and  Skelton  was  the  Bisbop's  son.^ 
The  Institution  Books  state  that  the  Castle  Carrock  Yicar 
died  about  1635. 

Christopher  Gibson,  1635 — 1651. 

He  was  collated  Aug.  17,  1635,  by  Bishop  Potter,  the 
vacancy  having  been  caused  "  p.  mort.  natural  Leonardi 
Milburne  clici  ult.  incumb."  the  place  being  given  as 
Castlecayrock."  ^  Foster  gives  the  names  of  several 
Gibsons  of  Westmorland  who  were  educated  at  Oxford,  in 
particular  two  or  three  sons  of  Richard  Gibson  of 
Bampton,  who  rose  to  distinction.  Christopher  Gibson 
was  a  contributor  to  the  Carlisle  garrison  in  1644,  being 
at  Castle  Carrock  at  the  time.  Walker  does  not  mention 
him  in  his  list  of  Sequestered  Clergy,  but  it  would  appear 
that  he  suffered  in  this  way  during  the  Commonwealth 

Nathaniel  Burnand,  M.A.,  1656 — 1658. 

His  appointment  is  referred  to  in  the  following  and  the 
question  of  his  Augmentation  is  also  dealt  with  :  — 

Brampton  Thursday  24th  March  1656. 

Castle  Carrocke.  Att  the  Councell  at  Whitehall. 

Ordered  that  it  bee  recomended  to  the  Trustees  for  Maintennce 
of  Ministers  to  settle  an  Augmentacon  of  fforty  poundes  p.  annum 
uppon  the  Minister  of  Brampton  and  thirty  poundes  p.  ann.  upon 
the  Minr  of  Castle  Carrock  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  there  being 
not  a  Competent  Mayntennce  for  preaching  Minrs.  there. 
Hen.    Scobell   Clerke 

of   the    Councell.  4 

Castle   Carrocke 


Know  all  men  by  these  psents  that  the  sixth  day  of  June  in  the 
yeare  one  thousand   six  hundred   ffifty  and   six  there   was  exhibited 

1.  Vide  p.  333. 

2.  Vide  pp.  387,  479. 

3.  Institution  Books. 

4.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.),  977. 

264  The   Ejected   of  1662 

to  the  Comrs  for  approbacon  of  publique  preachers  a  psacon  of 
Nathaniell  Burnand  Gierke  Master  of  Arts  to  the  Rectory  or  parish 
Churches  of  Castle  Carrocke  &  Com  Whitton  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  togeather  &c.  In  witnes  &c.  Dated  att  Whitehall  the 
9th  day  of  July   1656. 

Jo.    Nye    Regr.  l 

Carrocke.  July  17,  1658. 

Whereas  these  Trustees  the  10th  of  July  graunted  the  yearly  sume 
of  thirty  poundes  unto  Mr.  Nath.  Burnard  Minister  of  Castle 
Carrocke  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  out  of  the  particulars  therein 
menconed  and  whereas  the  Chappelry  of  Cumrew  is  within  ye  said 
parish  and  there  is  noe  Minister  att  pret  to  the  said  Chappelry 
belonging  the  last  Curate  thereof  being  elected  out  of  the  same  and 
the  said  Mr.  Burnard  is  the  incumbent  of  the  said  parish  Church 
with  the  said  Chappelry  annexed  and  whereas  a  portion  of  tithes 
within  the  said  Chappelry  lately  come  into  the  possion  by  the 
expiration  of  ye  lease  thereof  It  is  ordered  that  the  yearly  Sume  of 
eight  poundes  bee  graunted  out  of  the  rents  and  profitts  of  the 
tithes  of  the  said  Chappelry  to  and  for  a  further  increase  of  main- 
tennce  of  the  said  Mr.  Burnard  And  it  is  further  ordered  that  upon 
expiration  of  the  lease  of  the  tithes  of  Cum  Whitton  in  the  said 
County  the  said  tithes  bee  likewise  graunted  unto  the  said  Minister 
for  increase  of  maintennce  in  Hew  of  soe  much  of  the  said  augmen- 
tacon  hereby  &  by  the  said  Ordr  of  the  10th  of  July  1656  Setled 
upon  him  as  the  said  tithes  of  Cum  Whitton  doe  amount  unto. 
Jo.  Thorowgood  Edw.   Cressett  Ri  Yong  Jo  Pocock  Jo.   Humfrey.  2 

Nathaniel  Burnand  removed  to  Brampton  in  1658,  under 
which  heading  a  full  account  of  him  appears.^  Whether 
any  one  immediately  succeeded  him  at  Castle  Carrock  is 
not  known.  This  is  to  be  regretted,  because,  if  so,  it  is 
almost  certain  that  at  the  Restoration  he  suffered  Ejection. 

Christopher  Gibson,  1660 — 1672. 

In  June,  1660,  Christopher  Gibson  petitioned  the  House 
of  Lords  for  restoration  to  the  living,  from  which  he  had 
been  "  most  illegally  ejected  and  Thurst  out,"  "  these  nyne 
yeares  last  past " ;  and  his  Petition,  a  copy  of  which  is 
here  appended,  was  successful:  — 

1.  Lambeth   MSS.   (Plund.   Min.),   968. 

2.  Ihid.,  995. 

3.  Vide  p.  255. 

Castle  Carrock  265 

To  the  right  honorble  the   Lords   in   Parliament   assembled 
The  humble  peticon  of  Chrestopher  Gibson  CI.  Viccar  of  the  pish  of 
Castle  Carrocke  in  the  County  of  Cumbland. 

That  yor  petionr  for  these  nyne  yeares  last  past  hath  beene  most 
illegally  ejected  and  Thurst  out  of  his  Viccarage  of  Castle  Carrocke 
in  the  County  of  Cumbland  and  from  the  exercise  of  his  Ministerial! 
duty  there  onely  for  his  Loyalty  and  affection  to  his  Maistey. 

May  it  therefore  please  yor  Lordpps  to  grant  yor  Order 
for  the  secureing  of  the  tythes  gleabes  and  profitts  thereof 
into  the  handes  of  such  persons  as  yor  Lordpps  shall 
thinke  fitt  untill  yor  petionrs  tytle  to  his  viccarage  shall 
be  determined  by  due  Course  of  Law. 
And  yor  petior  shall  dayly 
pray  &c. 

1  Canne  certifye  the  truth  of  this  Petion  and  that  the  petr  hath 
beene  minister  there  this  twenty  yeares  last  past  and  that  he  was 
outed  for  his  Loyalty  to  his  Majestye. 

Sr.  Tho.  Dacre  of  Leonard  Coast  in  Cumbland  Knt. 

[Inside  at  the  bottom  of  the  page  as  follows]  : —  : — Sr.  Tho.  Dacre 
att  White   horse  in   Chancery  Laine. 

[On  the  outside]  :— 23rd  of  June  1660.     Mr.  Cristo  :  Gibson  Gierke 
his  peticon. 

Christopher  Gibson  held  the  living  until  his  death  in 

Henry  Skarrow,  M.A.,  1672— 1679(?). 

He  was  an  Edinburgh  graduate,  and  was  ordained 
Priest,  Sept.  20,  1668,  being  instituted.  May  18,  1672,  on 
a  Presentation  by  the  Dean  and  Chapter.  The  vacancy 
had  been  caused  by  the  death  of  Christopher  Gibson. 
Henry  Skarrow  was  at  Rocliffe  in  1668.^ 

Christopher  Rickerby,  1679 — ^1722. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  Sept.  21,  1673,  and  Priest 
March  16,   1678-9,   being  then  "  de  Cumrew."     He  was 

1.  House  of  Lords'  Library  :'  vide  H.M.C.,  Seventh  Report,  Pt.  1, 
p.    106. 

2.  Vide  p.  315. 

266  .  The   Ejected   of  1662 

instituted  Aug.  20,  1679,  on  a  Presentation  by  Thomas 
Smith,  S.T.P.,  and  possibly  was  related  to  Robert  Rickerby 
of  Cockermouth.  In  1672  he  appears  as  Schoolmaster  at 
Lazonby  and  was  on  terms  of  closest  intimacy  with  the 
Nonconformists  of  that  district.  Among  the  poetic 
effusions  in  praise  of  Mary  Wilson,  "  the  Virgin  Saint  '^ 
of  Kirkoswald,  bearing  date  1672,  is  Christopher  Rickerby's 
contribution  side  by  side  with  those  of  John  Davis  and 
George  Larkham ;  and  none  is  more  highly  eulogistic  than 
his.^  "Whether  at  the  time  of  his  residence  at  Lazonby 
he  served  the  Chapel  at  Armathwaite,  as  far  as  his  Orders 
permitted,  is  not  certain;  but  he  conducted  a  marriage 
there,,  on  Feb.  3,  1675.  At  that  time,  however,  he  held 
the  Curacy  of  Cumrew.  For  some  while  he  had  Hayton 
along  with  the  Castle  Carrock  living.  He  bulks  consider- 
ably in  the  first  volume  of  the  Registers,  which  covers  almost 
exactly  the  period  of  his  Incumbency  at  Castle  Carrock. 
The  following  are  the  items  :  — 

July    20,    1678.     Then    was   Maryed    in    St.    Marijes    Church    of 
Carlile   Chrestopher  Rickerby  and  Ann  Marrijot   1678. 

1683.  Johannis  filiiis  Chrestopheri  Rickerby  Rector  de  Castle  carrocke 
Sepultus  erat  vicessimo  octavo  die  Aprilis  Anno  prdicto. 

Martha,  also  a  daughter,  was  buried  in  Aug.,  1684. 

December   ye   18,    1690. 

Then  was  buried  in  ye  Quire  of  Castlecarrocke  the  saide  Ann  the 
wife  of  the  saide  Chrestopher  Rickerby  Rector  of  Castlecarrocke 
under  a  great  Stone  on  ye  South  Side  of  ye  Chancell  next  ye  wall. 

Another  entry  gives  Dec.  1st,  and  states  that  she  "  dyed 
on  Sunday  being  St.  Andrews  Day,"  and  that  she  was 
buried  on  the  "  Sun  Side  of  ye  Quire." 

January  ye   13,    1691. 

Then  was  Marryed  in  the  Collegiate  Church  of  St.  Catherine  by 
the  Tower  of  London  Chrestopher  Rickerby  Rector  of  Castlecarrocke 
&  Theadocea  Sergison  of  the  Citty  of  London. 

Theadosia  filia  Johannis  Brown 

Bapt  August  8  Anno  1638 

et  uxor  Chrestopheri  Rickerby.  P.  Bartholom. 


Rector  Ibim. 

1.  Vide  p.  341. 

Castle  Carrock  267 

September   ye    19,    1708. 

Then  Theadocea  the  wife  of  Chrestopher  Rickerby  departed  this 
life  betwixt  11  &  12  at  night  being  Sunday  &  was  buryed  on  tuesday 
ye  21  at  3  on  ye  afternoon  under  ye  2ond  through  Stone  in  the  South 
Side  of  the  Chancell  in  Castle  carracke. 

1708  Chrestopher  Rickerby  &  Hannah  Perkin  were  Marryed  in 
the  Parish  Church  of  Kelloe  in  Bishoprick — by  Mr.  Thompson  vicar 
there  August  ye  17th   1708.  1 

In  an  Inquisition  at  Penrith,  Mar.  12,  1700,  Christopher 
Rickerby  appears  as  defendant,  in  a  dispute  respecting  the 
"  Rectory,  parish,  and  parochial  chapel  of  Cumrew,  the 
village  of  Brackanthwaite,  the  rectory  and  parish  of  Castle 
Carrock  and  the  wastes  and  commons  adjoining  &c.  Miles 
and  bounds  Tithes."  ^ 

Christopher  Rickerby 's  burial  entry  is  dated  "April  ye 
14,  1722."  His  son,  James  Rickerby,  was  Yicar  of  Mor- 
land  in  1721. 

Joseph  Pattinson,  1722 — 1738. 

1.   Doubtless  Christopher  Rickerby  the  younger,   Curate  at  Cumrew. 
2    Exchequer  Dep.,  East.  20  (Record  Office). 



This  place  is  a  few  miles  south  of  Castle  Carrock.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary;  and  the  oldest  Register 
Book  made  of  paper,  but  bound  in  leather,  begins  in  1679. 
Whellan,  possibly  by  a  misprint,  says  1579,  Bishop 
Nicolson,  in  1703,  speaks  of  one  dated  1639.  "  The 
Register-Book,"  says  he,  "  is  onely  of  paper;  and  begins  at 
1639.  It  appears  in  it  that  a  great  many  Children  of 
Foreigners  were  baptised  here,  in  the  time  of  the  late 
Civil  Wars,  by  one  Mr.  Alexander  Allan;  who,  they  say, 
was  a  Scot  and  reckon'd  a  more  knowing  and  pretious 
man  (in  his  way)  than  most  of  his  Brethren."  ^  This  book 
long  ago  disappeared.  The  following  is  a  list  of  persons 
serving  here  :  — 

Alexander  Allan,  1650  (.?). 

This  is  given  on  the  authority  of  the  passage  just  quoted 
and  is  possibly  the  person  referred  to  under  Cumwhitton.^ 
We  have  no  information  respecting  him  beyond  that.  In 
the  account  of  Nathaniel  Burnand's  Augmentation  at 
Castle  Carrock,  July,  1658,  reference  is  made  to  the 
ejection  of  the  last  Curate  from  Cumrew.^  Could  this  be 
Alexander  Allan?  A  person  of  this  name  was  Curate  of 
Bewcastle  in  1700,  "  a  poor  ejected  Episcopalian  of  the 
Scottish  nation  " ;  but  if  the  same  he  must  have  been  very 

John  Bland,  1673. 

In  the  Presentments  for  1673  ^  a  Mr.  Bland  is  given  as 
Curate  here.  Doubtless  this  was  John  Bland  who  was 
ordained  Deacon  Sept.  24,  1671,  and  Priest  Sept.  21,  1673. 



p.   Ill 


Vide  p. 



Vide  p. 



Vide  p. 



Vide  p. 


Cumrew  269 

Christopher  Eickeeby,  1674 — 1678. 

He  signs  the  Transcripts  as  Curate  during  most  of  those 
years;  and  was  afterwards  at  Castle  Carrock. 

John  Calvert,  1679—1690. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  March  15,  1684-5.  The 
Registers  say  that  he  "  served  the  curacy  from  October, 
1679,  to  July,  1690,  and  left  ye  church  complete  within  & 
without,  and  ye  people  in  good  order,  good  Xtians,  Soli 
deo  gratia."  He  went  from  Cumrew  to  Rocliffe,^  and 
appears  at  St.  Cuthbert's,  Carlisle,  in  1678.^ 

Philip  Musgrave,  1690 — 1691. 

These  are  the  dates  against  which  his  name  appears 
in  the  Registers  in  connection  with  "  Briefs,"  and  his- 
license  to  the  place  as  Deacon  is  dated  Dec.  21,  1690. 

John  Atkinson,  1695. 

John  Wilkinson,  1696 — 1697. 

He  signs  in  connection  with  the  distribution  of  the- 
Church  Stock  during  these  years. 

Thomas  Addison,  1699—1703. 

He  signs  as  Curate  in  1699,  and  concerning  him  Bishop 
Nicolson,  in  1703,  says  : — "  I  suspected  the  present  Curate 
(Mr.  Addison)  to  be  a  Little  Loose;  but  they  say  he's 
Diligent,  &c.  His  Salary  is  81i  paid  by  ye  Proctour."^ 
Probably  the  person  of  that  name  who  appears  as  Curate 
of  St.  Cuthbert's,  Carlisle,  in  1728,  and  who  is  also  referred 
to  under  Grinsdale.* 

Christopher  Rickerby,  1705. 

The  son  of  his  predecessor  of  that  name.  Bishop 
Nicolson  was  evidently  much  impressed  by  him  as  the 
following  from  his  Diary  shows :  — 

1705  June  1,   Friday.     After  Dinner  examin'd  Mr.   Railton  from 
Kirkby- Stephen  for  priest's  Orders,  &  Mr.  Smith  (of  Richmond)  and 

1.  Vide  p.  316. 

2.  Vide  p.   186. 

3.  Miscel.,   p.    112. 

4.  Vide  pp.  187,  222. 

270  The   Ejected   of  1662 

young   Rickarby   for   Deacons.       The   last,    bred   onely   at   Bampton, 
full  as  good  a  scholar  as  ye  Cambridge  Batchelour.  l 

In  a  subsequent  entry  in  his  Diary,  however,  he  speaks 
much  less  favourably  of  him  :  — 

Mar.  19,  1706/7,  Tuesday.  Mr.  Wells  of  Hesket,  with  several 
of  ye  Inhabitants  of  Armthwait ;  who  all  complain  of  ye  Hardships 
that  are  like  to  come  upon  them  by  the  Change  of  their  Curate, 
young  Rickarby  (under  the  Influences  of  his  father)  being  like  to 
prove  as  great  a  plague  to  ym  as  yir  late  Mr.  Hodgson.  2 

It  would  appear  from  this  that  he  had  charge  of 
Armathwaite  as  well  as  Cumrew.  The  Episcopal  Register 
says  that  he  was  licensed  "  Curate  and  Ludimagister  at 
Cumrew"  June  4,   1705. 

Tnos.  Hunter,  1710—1724. 

He  was  instituted  Curate  April  13,  1710. 

1.  Trans.   (N.S.),  vol.  iii,  p.   11, 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  45. 


About  three  miles  south  west  of  Castle  Carrock  is 
Cumwhitton,  the  nearest  station  being  How  Mill.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Jlary.  The  Eegisters  begin  in 
1694;  Whellan,  ignorant  of  the  existence  of  this  book, 
says  1731.  This  early  volume  is  "  bound  in  rough  boards, 
perhaps  originally  covered  with  calf,  containing  64  leaves 
of  rough  white  paper."  It  is  "  imperfect,"  says  Mr. 
Whitehead,  "  especially  in  the  marriage  entries  down  to 
1711,  but  nowhere  illegible."  ^  On  a  flyleaf  are  two 
baptismal  entries  dated  1681,  one  in  1685,  and  a  burial  in 
1694,  the  names  doubtless  being  entered  in  the  new  book, 
because  of  the  importance  of  the  families  represented  by 
them.  The  following  is  an  imperfect  list  of  persons  who 
held  the  Curacy  :  — 

Thomas  Milburn,  about  1624. 

In  Lord  William  Howard's  "  Household  Books  "  is  the 
following  :  — 

1624,  Nov.  19.  Payd  to  Sr  Thomas  Milburn,  clarke,  late  Curate 
of  Cumwhitton  for  serving  the  cure  thear  since  my  Lord's  entrance 
to  the  same  xxxs.^ 

He  was  at  Crosby-on-Eden  in  1627.^  Leonard  Milburn 
was  at  Castle  Carrock  during  this  time,  and  may  have 
been  a  connection. 

Alexander  Allan,  1629. 

The  "  Household  Books  "  have  the  following :  — 

To  Mr.  Alexander  Allen  for  one  quarter's  wages  for  serving  the 
cure  at  Cumwhitton  due  at  Christenmas  1629  xxxs.  * 

Possibly  the  person  referred  to  under  CumreAv.  ^ 

1.  Cumberland  Parish  Registers,  Brampton  Deanery. 

2.  P.   219. 

3.  Vide  p.  200. 

4.  Household  Books,  p.  270. 

5.  Vide  p.  268. 

272  The    Ejected   of  1662 

Richard  Gibson,  1633. 

The  authority  for  this  also  are  the  "  Household  Books  " 
from  which  the  following  have  been  extracted  :  — 

1633  Dec.  13.  To  Richard  Gibson  Viker  of  Cumwhitton  for  his 
halfe  yeare's  wages  for  serving  the  cure  ther  due  at  St.  Thomas* 
Daye  iijli.  i 

Adhuc  Cumwhitton. 

Dec.  13,  1633.     Rec.  of  Rich  Gibson  Clerk  for  the  halfe  year's  rent 
of  the  demaine  of  Cumwhitton  due  at  Martinmas  1633  iijli  xs.  2 

He  is  named  in  this  volume  until  Feb.,  1640-1. 

Nathaniel  Buenand,  1657. 

Cumwhitton,  like  Cumrew,  was  simply  a  Chapelry  of 
Castle  Carrock  at  this  time,^  and  possibly  Burnand 
occasionally  supplied. 

John  Stanwix,  1681—1689. 

In  the  Cumrew  Registers  appears  an  affidavit  of  a  burial 
in  woollen  dated  July  3,  1681,  which  was  written  "  coram 
Johnne  Stanwix  Curate  att  Cumwhitton."  He  «igns  the 
Transcripts  in  1689. 

In  an  Inquisition  at  Plumpton  Wall  held  Jan.  25,  1687, 
in  reference  to  the  "  rectory  and  parish  of  Cumwhitton 
and  a  messuage  or  tenement  in  Holme  wrangle  (in  plain- 
tiffs possession)  in  the  parish,  Tithes,"  John  Bird  appears 
as  the  plaintiff  and  "  The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  the 
Cathedral  Church  of  the  Holy  and  Undevided  Trinity  of 
Carlisle  "  *  as  the  defendants. 

William  Sommers,  1697. 

William  Robley,  1703. 

Bishop  Nicolson  is  the  authority  for. the  last  two  names. 
Writing  of  Cumwhitton,  in  October,  1703,  he  says:  — 

Mr.  Robley,  their  new  Curate,  is  not  yet  resident  amongst  them ; 

but  will   shortly  come,   and   take  the  office  of  teaching  out  of  this 

1.  Household  Books,  p.  339. 

2.  Ibid.,  p.  279. 

3.  Vide  p.  263. 

4.  Ex.  Dep.  Hil.,  8  (Rec.  Office). 



Cumwhitton  273 

illiterate  man's  [Parish  Clerk]  hand.  They  want  a  Bible,  and  a 
Book  of  Homilies ;  the  latter  being  very  Requisite  where  they  have 
a  Non-preaching  Minister. — The  Dean  and  Chapter  were  lately  at 
some  Charge  in  provideing  a  House  for  the  Curate ;  which  was  new- 
built  for  the  Accommodation  of  Mr.  Sommers  ye  late  Curate  here, 
and  he  (modest  and  humble  as  long  as  onely  Schoolmaster)  quitted 
them  soon  after  he  ,had  gotten  Deacon's  Orders.  Let  not  Robley 
do   ye  like.    ' 

Probably  this  is  William  Robley  who  married  Margaret 
IS'evinson  Feb.  17,  1708-9,  and  was  therefore  connected 
with  Bishop  Nicholson. 

Nicholas  Eeay,  1711 — 1718. 

He  married  Elizabeth  Morley  May  31,  1713,  and  became 
Rector  of  Nether  Denton  in  1718,  holding  along  with 
that  living  the  Curacy  of  Farlam.^  He  was  instituted  to 
the  Curacy  of  Cumwhitton  Nov.  23,  1711.  Mr.  Whitehead 
says  he  "  deserves  honourable  mention  as  an  exceptionally 
careful  registrar."  ^ 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  113.  The  Episcopal  Register  however  gives  the  date  of 
his  license  to  the  Curacy  as  May  31,  1706. 

2.  Vide  pp.  276,  277. 

3.  Cumberland   Parish   Registers,    &c. 


This  place  is  some  five  miles  nortii  east  of  Brampton, 
the  nearest  station  being  Low  Row.  The  Church  is 
dedicated  to  St.  Cuthbert,  and  the  Registers  begin  in 
1702.  The  first  volume  is  of  parchment  and  in  good 
condition.  A  few  leaves  at  the  beginning  are  clearly  a 
copy  of  earlier  fragments  which  have  perished,  the  copy 
having  been  made  by  Nicholas  Reay,  formerly  Curate 
of  Cumwhitton  and  Rector  of  Nether  Denton.  The  book 
is  headed  thus:  — 

The  Register  Book  of  the  Parish  of  Denton  wherein  the  Day  of 
every  Chrestening  Wedding  &  Burial  in  the  Sd  Parish  is  Registered 
since  the  year  of  our  Lord  God  1702. 

N.B.  The  Year  of  our  Lord  God  still  begineth  on  the  25th  day  of 

The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  —  J 

Christopher  Lowther,  1567 — 1576. 

Possibly  the  person  of  that  name  who  appears  at 
Kirkandrews-on-Eden  in  1576.^ 

Miles  Matmaugh  [Watmaugh],  1576. 

William  Thompson,  1586. 

He  was  collated  April  27,  1586,  by  Bishop  Meye,  and 
married  Grace  Dobson  at  Watermillock  on  Oct.  24,  1586. ^ 

Roland  Baxter,  1597. 

Ralph  Snowden,  1620—1633. 

He  was  collated  on  Sept.  16,  1620,  by  Bishop  Snowden, 
who  died  the  year  after,  and  was  possibly  a  relative. 
Ralph  Snowden  died  in  1633. 

1.  Vide  p.  216. 

2.  Watermillock  Registers,   p.    5. 


Nether  Denton  275 

Nicholas  Deane,  B.A.,  1633. 

He  was  collated  April  29,  1633,  by  Bishop  Potter. 
Doubtless  the  person  of  that  name  who  was  at  Great  Orton 
in  1623.^  After  Nicholas  Deane  is  a  large  gap  which  it 
has  been  found  impossible  to  fill  up. 

William  Culcheth,   1667 — 1692. 

He  was  probably  the  son  of  Mr.  Culcheth  mentioned  in 
Lady  Halketh's  Autobiography  as  steward  at  Naworth 
Castle  in  1649. ^  The  date  1667  is  that  of  the  earliest 
Transcript  of  the  Nether  Denton  Registers.  It  is  signed 
"  W.  Culcheth  rector."  How  long  he  had  held  the  living 
previous  to  this  we  have  no  means  of  knowing.  He  had  the 
Stapleton  living  along  with  Nether  Denton.^ 

Richard  Culcheth,  M.A.,  1692 — 1703. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Smith,  March  17,  1692-3, 
and  was  the  son  of  William  Culcheth,  his  predecessor. 
He  resigned  in  1703,  and  was  at  Stapleton,  Farlam  and 
Brampton.  * 

Thomas  Pearson,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1703—1717. 

He  was  collated  Mar.  13,  1702-3,  and  is  given  as  the 
son  of  John  Pearson  of  Orton  formerly  of  Brigham. 
Respecting  him  Foster  says: — "Queen's  Coll.  matric. 
24  Oct.,  1687,  aged  18;  B.A.  1692,  M.A.  12  March,  1695-6, 
principal  of  St.  Edmund  Hall  (9  Aug.)  1707-22,  B.D.  1707, 
D.D.  1708;  rector  of  Nether  Denton,  Cumberland,  1703, 
and  of  Sulhampstead  Abbots,  Berks.,  1708;  brother  of 
William."  The  latter  became  equally  distinguished, 
being  M.A.  of  Queen's,  and  LL.D.  of  Lambeth.^  There 
must,  however,  be  some  error  in  relation  to  Thomas 
Pearson;  for  he  was  dead  at  least  five  years  before  1722, 
when  he  is  said  to  have  been  Principal  of   St.   Edmund 

1.  Vide  p.  228. 

2.  Lord  William  Howard's  Household  Books,  p.   297  note. 

3.  Vide  p.  288. 

4.  Vide  pp.  261,  277,  288. 

5.  Al.  Ox. 

276  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Hall.  The  following  entry  in  the  Registers  makes  that 
clear :  — 

1717  January  27  Mr  Thos  Pearson  Eector  of  Denton,  Buried. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  writing  May  7,  1703,  speaks  of  him  as 
"  Mr.  Tho.  Pearson  newly  collated  to  that  little  Rectory," 
and  says  that  he  "  will  do  well  enough :  all  they  complain 
of  being  onely  his  Reading  too  fast."  ^  It  is  not  quite  the 
language  we  should  expect  to  be  used  of  so  distinguished 
a  scholar,  and  it  would  almost  appear  that  Foster  is  wrong 
in  his  identification. 

Nicholas  Reay,  1718 — 1736. 

A  notice  of  his  burial  in  the  Registers  is  thus  given  :  — 

Sept.  15,   1736,   Mr.   Nicholas  Reay  Rector  of  Denton — Buried. 

He  had  previously  been  Curate  of  Cumwhitton.^ 

A  few  miles  farther  north  is  Over  Denton,  a  reference  to 
whose  peculiar  position  in  the  Diocese  is  given  elsewhere.^ 
There  was  a  Yicar  here  in  1634,  for  in  Lord  William 
Howard's  "  Household  Books  "  the  fact  is  so  stated ;  and  in 
1640  a  name  is  given :  — 

Jan.  20,  1640.     To  Richard  Harrison,  Viker  of  Over  Denton  for 
his  halfe  yeares  wages  due  at  Michelmas  1640  xs.4 

The  living  was  held  along  with  Nether  Denton  by  Thomas 
Pearson  and  Nicholas  Reay;  but,  on  the  death  of  the 
latter,  in  1736,  it  was  transferred  to  Thomas  Fawcett, 
Curate  of  Lanercost,  whose  successors  served  it  until  1859, 
when  it  was  annexed  to  the  new  Parish  of  Gilsland. 

1.  Miscel.,   p.   3. 

2.  Vide  pp.  273,  277. 

3.  Vide  p.  71. 

4.  P.  363. 

YI.     FARLAM. 

About  three  miles  south  east  of  Brampton  is  Farlam. 
The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Thomas-a-Becket ;  the 
Registers  date  back  to,  at  least,  1663.  The  oldest  is  a 
parchment  volume,  somewhat  dilapidated,  whose  writing 
is  difficult  to  decipher.  It  is  without  covers  and  contains 
baptisms  1665 — 1724,  and  marriages,  1672 — 1724.  On  the 
first  page,  however,  m.ay  be  seen  the  date  1663,  but  whether 
it  notes  the  entry  of  a  baptism,  marriage  or  burial  cannot 
be  determined.  A  copy  was  made,  in  1886,  by  Mrs. 
Thompson  of  Farlam  Hall.  The  following  is  only  an 
imperfect  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Henry  Gill,  1674—1695. 

Possibly  son  of  Henry  Gill  of  Threshfield,  Yorkshire, 
who  entered  Sidney  Sussex  College,  Cambridge,  from 
Sedbergh  School,  in  1672,  at  the  age  of  16 ;  and  graduated 
B.A.  in  1675.^  He  signs  the  Transcripts  in  1674.  His 
burial  entry  reads  thus  :  — 

Mr.  Henry  Gill,  Curate,  Buried  June  25,  1695. 

Thomas  Milburn,  1700. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  refers  to  him  as  "  an  honest 
man,  and  deserves  a  better  Support."  ^ 

Richard  CuLCHETH,  M.A.,  1703.  ^ 

Nicholas  Reay,  1718 — 1736. 

He  was  perpetual  Curate  of  Farlam  as  well  as  Rector  of 
Nether  Denton.* 

1.  Sedbergh  School  Register,  p.  91. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.   4. 

3.  Vide  pp.  261,  275,  288. 

4.  Vide  p.  276. 


Lanercost  is  about  three  miles  north  of  Brampton, 
beautifully  sequestered  on  the  banks  of  the  Irthing.  The 
Priory  is  a  noble  pile  of  ruins,  and  the  Church,  dedicated 
to  St,  Mary  Magdalene,  is  part  of  the  venerable  structure. 
The  Registers  begin  in  1684,  the  earliest  being  a  thin,  flat 
volume  of  paper.  The  writing,  however,  is  in  good 
condition  and  quite  legible.     In  it  appears  the  following  : 

A  true  Kegister  of  ye  names  of  children  Baptiz'd  in  Leonard 
Coast  pish  1684. 

The  Registers  have  been  carefully  transcribed  by  the 
present  Vicar,  and  were  published  in  1908.  Bishop 
Nicolson,  in  1703,  says:  — 

There's  no  Register-Book  (either  here  or  at  Walton)  of  anything 
done  in  the  parish,  before  Mr.  Dickenson's  comeing  among  'em ; 
which  was  about  Twenty  years  agoe.  The  Church  of  Lanercost  was 
also  put  into  its  present  figure  in  his  time.' 

The  Historians  do  not  help  in  the  matter  of  the  In- 
cumbents.    The  following  is  an  imperfect  list :  — 

Samuel  Constantyne,  1666. 

In  this  year  he  signs  the  Transcripts;  but  how  long 
he  had  held  the  living  does  not  appear. 

George  Cowper,  1667. 

He  was  ordained   Deacon  Sept.  20,    1668,    and   Priest 
Sept.  25,    1670,   being  described   as   of   "  Chester  Dioc. 
He  signs  the  Transcripts  as  "  Curate  "  in  that  year. 

William  Birkett,  1668. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  Sept.  20,  1668,  being  given 
as  "  de  Lanercost,"  and  Priest  Sept.  24,  1671.  He  signs 
the  Transcripts  in  1668. 

1.  Miscel.,  p.   57. 

Lanercost  279 

Thomas  Bell,   1679. 

On  Sept.  28,  1661,  he  obtained  a  license  to  teach 
"pueros,"  being  then  "  literatus."  According  to  Bishop 
Nicolson's  Diary  he  was  licensed  to  Lanercost  in  1679. 
Almost  certainly  he  is  the  person  of  that  name  who  was 
subsequently  deprived  of  the  Askham  living  as  a  Nonjuror.^ 
His  brothers  were  George  and  David.  The  latter  succeeded 
him  at  Askham,  and  we  meet  with  the  former  at  Kirkam- 
beck  in  1703. ^  Bishop  Nicolson  has  the  following  in  his 
Diary  :  — 

Aug.  10,  1704.  Geo.  Bell  and  his  brother  David,  likewise  at 
Dinner ;  the  latter  desireing  a  Certificate  in  hopes  of  being  better 
preferr'd  by  his  Br.  Tom.^ 

William  Dickexson,  B.A.,  1681—1726. 

He  was  licensed  Dec.  8,  1681,  and  held  Walton  along 
with  Lanercost.  In  the  Walton  Registers  appear  the  two 
following  entries  :  — 

1726.  Mr.  William  Dickonson  Curate  of  Leonard  Coast  &  Walton 
was  Buried   June   4th. 

1724.     Mrs.    Chrisogon   Dickonson    wife    of    Mr.    Will    Dickonson 
Curate  was  buried   Novr.  27. 

The  following  extracts  from  the  Transcripts  are  worth 
insertion,  indicating,  as  they  do,  the  presence  of  a 
considerable  amount  of  Nonconformist  sentiment  in  the 
district  of  one  type  or  another.  They  are  taken  from  a 
copy  in  the  Jackson  Library,  Carlisle,  made  by  the  late 
Mr.  Whitehead  :  — 

The  following  presentments  for  not   coming  to  Church  : — 

Geo      EUote 

John  Ellote 

John  ffoster 

Tho.  Thompson 

Arch.  Little 

Lane.  Twilach 

John  Lamb. 

Geo.   Simpson. 

Kich.    Hetherington 

John  Taylor 

Robt.  Jameson 

David   Lamb 

John  Hudlasse. 

1.  Vide  p.  1221. 

2.  Vide  p.  281. 

3.  Trans.   (N.S.),  vol.  ii,  p.   202. 

28o  The   Ejected   of  1662 

John  EUote  for  baptizing  his  child  by  another  Minister  and  not 
acquainting  their  own  minister  with  the  same. 

John   Simpson  for  ye  like  offence 

John  ffoster  for  the  same 

John   Hetherington  and   Mary  Easson  for  Clandestine  Marriage 

John  Railton  for  ye  game 

John  Little  &  [blank]  for  the  like  offence 

For  not  paying  their  dues  [blank]  Bell  de  Banks 
Robt.    Jameson 

Armstrong  de  Highouse 

Anne  Bell  of  ye  Kenthead  house 

John   Simpson   de   Highrigg 

Tho  Carocks  of  Snowdon  Close 

John  Elliot  of  ye  Twedy  hill 

Wee  p'sent  will  Richardson  of  the  Ringon  hills 

Peter   Sowdon   of   ye  Bankes 

John  Tallantire  of  ye  Holme  (ffanatics)  for  refusing  Communion 
in  the  church   of  England. 

There  is   unfortunately   no   date,    but  the  Presentments 
follow  the  Register  for  1677. 

Presentments  Aug.   9,   1682. 

1.  Our  Church  is  in  good  repair  and  decently  kept  as  becomes  ye 
house  dedicated  to  ye  publick  worship  of  God. 

2.  We  have  a  large  Bible  of  ye  last  translation  and  a  Book  of 
Common   Prayer  last  set  forth. 

3.  Our  Churchyard  is  sufficiently  fenced  and  preserved  from 

4.  The  Curate  is  legally  ordained  and  settled  among  us  he  rever- 
ently and  regularly  officiates  on  the  Lord's  day  and  Holy  days 
instructing  ye  youth  of  ye  parish  in  the  Church  Catechism  and 
carefully  endeavours  to  reclaim  all  profane  persons  pressing  the 
duties  of  faith  and  repentance  justice,  charity  temperance  allegiance 
and  subjection.  Lastly  he  is  peacable  of  a  sober  conversation  and 
grave  in  his  demeanour. 

5.  We  have  no  adultery  or  fornication  committed  in  ye  parish. 

6.  We  have  none  married  clandestinely  or  without  Bans  duely 
published  or  license  duly  obtained. 

7.  The  churchwardens  who  serv'd  for  ye  last  year  have  made  up 
their  accounts  and  made  the  presentments  of  all  things  duely  pre- 
sentable by  them  not  neglecting  to  doe  ye  duty  of  this  office. 

In  1684-5  among  other  things  they  present :  — 

We  have  no  dissenters  but  such  as  are  already  excommunicate 
and  denounced  accordingly  as  ye  Canons  enjoyne. 

Kirkambeck  281 

Formerly  there  was  a  Clmrch  at  Kirkambeck  near  by,  in 
reference  to  which  Bishop  IN^icolson,  in  1703,  says:  — 

Here  are  some  small  Remains  of  a  very  little  Church ;  formerly 
a  Rectory,  and  afterwards  appropriated  to  the  Abbey  of  Lanercost. 
The  parishioners  pay  a  Composition,  of  so  many  pecks  of  Corn  from 
each  Tenement,  to  Mr.  Dacre ;  but  the  Gleab  Land  (worth  about 
3li  10s.  p.  An.)  is  held,  under  the  Dean  &  Chapter  of  Carlile,  by 
Mr.  Geo.  Bell.  The  people  suppose  themselves  to  belong  to  the 
parish  of  Lanercost ;  but  go  most  commonly  to  ye  Church  at  Staple- 
ton,  when  the  weather  is  good  and  they  are  sure  of  meeting  with 
Divine  Service.^ 

Seventy  years  later  J^icolson  and  Burn  say :  — 

The  fabrick  of  the  church  hath  long  been  in  ruins,  nothing 
remaining  of  it  but  part  of  the  old  walls.  No  curate  is  appointed 
to  take  care  of  the  parochial  duties.  For  the  rites  of  baptism  and 
sepulture,  the  people  commonly  repair  to  the  church  of  Lanercost ; 
and  for  their  instruction  in  religion,  they  -go  thither,  or  to  Stapleton, 
or  Bewcastle,  or  where  they  think  fit.  2 

1.  Miscel.,  p.   53. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.   506. 



This  is  about  two  miles  north,  east  of  Lanercost.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary ;  and  the  Registers  begin 
in  the  same  year  as  the  Lanercost  Registers,  1684.  The 
late  Mr.  Whitehead  says :  — 

Both  of  these  registers,  be  it  noticed,  begin  at  1684 ;  and  the 
Walton  register,  like  the  Lanercost,  is  manifestly  a  copy  down  to 
1711.  On  its  cover  is  a  note  stating  that  "this  book  was  bought 
March  ye  15th  1711;"  and  doubtless  the  Lanercost  book  was  bought 
at  the  same  time.  In  1684-5  the  Lanercost  churchwardens  reported 
"A  register  book  of  parchment  in  which  are  set  down  the  names  of 
all  persons  baptized,  married,  and  buried."  In  like  manner  the 
Walton  Churchwardens  in  1683-0  report  "A  register  book  of  parch- 
ment wherein  we  have  sett  down  the  names  of  all  persons  baptized 
maryed  and  buryed  with  a  transcript  thereof  caryed  every  year  into 
the  Bishop's  Register."  I  have  now  to  suggest  that  whatever  register 
book  was  used  at  Walton  or  Lanercost  before  Mr.  Dickenson's  time, 
and  for  some  years  after  his  coming,  was  common  to  the  two 
parishes.  The  Lanercost  transcript  for  1668-9  is  headed  "A  true  note 
of  all  ye  persons  baptized  married  and  buried  within  ye  parish  of 
Leonnardcost  and  Walton  from  September  ye  12  ('68)  till  May  ye 
6  (69)  " ;  for  1682-3  "A  true  note  of  the  Register  book  of  Abbey  & 
Walton " ;  and  for  1686-7  "A  note  of  the  Register  Booke  of  Walton 
p'ish  and  Leonardcost."  It  is  true  that  in  1682-3  and  1686-7  the 
entries  from  the  two  parishes  are  not  mixed  as  in  1668-9,  and  that 
in  other  years  there  is  no  such  heading  as  is  above  noticed.  But 
the  p.  curate  may  usually  have  sorted  the  entries  for  the  transcripts, 
while  occasionally  giving  in  the  heading  an  incidental  sign  that  there 
was  only  one  register  book.  This  arrangement,  I  suppose,  was  at 
last  found  to  be  inconvenient  and  two  new  books  were  procured  in 
1711,  into  which  the  entries  from  1684  to  1711,  properly  sorted,  were 
forthwith  copied.' 

Still  it  needs  to  be  stated  that  there  are  separate 
Transcripts,  which  begin  in  1666,  though  in  the  earlier 
years  the  entries  are  much  mixed.  The  two  livings  appear 
to  have  been  held  in  Plurality,  at  least,  from  1666,  and 
under  Lanercost  will  be  found  particulars  of  the  In- 

1.  Cvmiberland   Parish  Registers,   &c. 

2.  Vide  p.  278. 



Irthington  is  a  little  to  the  north  west  of  Brampton. 
The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Kentigern.  The  Registers 
begin  in  1704;  but  a  few  interpolated  entries  bear  datea 
1691  and  1692.     The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents:  — 

Egbert  Dobsox,  1585 — 1589. 

Foster  sajs  of  a  person  of  this  name  : — "Of  Cumberland, 
pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  1582,  aged  23 ;  B.A.  from 
St.  Edmund  Hall  4  May,  1583."  i  In  all  probability 
this  was  the  Irthington  Rector. 

Leonard  Scott,  1589 — 1597. 

Foster  names  a  Leonard  Scott  among  his  Oxford  Alumni, 
who  was  the  son  of  Bernard  Scott,  Yicar  of  Bampton, 
and  matriculated  Queen's  College,  1634,  at  the  age  of  20.^ 
A  person  of  this  name  appears  at  Castle  Sowerby  in  1585, 
and  Skelton  in  1598.^  According  to  Xicolson  and  Burn 
he  died  in  1597.  * 

Joseph  Lowden,  M.A.,  1597 — 1612. 

He  was  at  Kirkbampton  in  1598,^  holding  that  living- 
probably  in  Plurality  with  the  Irthington  one.  He  died 
in  1612. 

Richard  Lowden,  M.A.,  1612. 

He  was  instituted  July  12,  1612,  and  was  possibly 
the  son  of  his  predecessor.  How  long  he  remained  is  not 

Anthony  Salkeld,  1630-1642.  . 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Potter  Jan.  19,  1630;  and 
resigned  in  1642. 

1.  AI.  Ox. 

2.  Ihid. 

3.  Vide  pp.  479,  492. 

4.  Nicol^on  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  486. 

5.  Vide  p.  606. 

284  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Richard  Sibson,  B.A.,  1642. 

Instituted  by  "  Isaac  Singleton  and  John  Hasty,  masters 
of  arts,  Commissioners  of  Arclibishop  Uslier,"  on  a 
Presentation  by  Sir  Tbomas  Dacre,  Knight,  in  1642.^  A 
person  of  this  name  appears  at  Troutbeck  in  1656.^ 

John  Theakstoa',  B.A.,  1661—1666. 

He  was  instituted  Oct.  8,  1661,  and  held  the  living  of 
Crosby-on-Eden  at  the  same  time.^  The  Institution  Books 
give  the  name  of  the  place  as  "  Erdington." 

Philip  Fielding,  M.A.,  1666—1692. 

He  was  instituted  Sept.  16,  1666,  on  a  Presentation  by 
Thomas  Dacre,  Mil.* 

John  Gosling,  1692 — 1731. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  Dec.  21,  1684,  and  instituted 
to  Irthington  on  Sept.  12,  1692,  on  the  Presentation  of 
"  Henr.  Dacre  Ar."  He  held  the  living  until  his  death  in 
1731.  Bishop  Nicolson,  writing  in  1703,  is  especially 
severe  in  his  strictures  upon  him :  — 

The  Vicarage-House  lyes  in  most  Scandalous  Ruines.  It  fell  in 
the  time  of  ye  present  Vicar,  Mr.  Goslin;  who  is  the  wretched  and 
beggarly  father  of  ten  poor  Children,  Seven  whereof  are  with  him. 
One  girl  he  has  at  Service;  one  a  Boy  'prentice  to  a  Glover  at 
Brampton,  and  another  to  a  Black-Smith.  He  has  a  Gleab  worth 
71i  and  ownes  the  whole  Liveing  to  be  better  than  251i  P.  Ann.  5 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  486. 

2.  Vide  p.  1048. 

3.  Vide  p.  205. 

4.  Vide  pp.  205,  260. 

5.  Miscel.,  p.   52;  vide  also  his  Diary  for  a  reference  to  his  intem- 
perance (Trans.   (N-S.),  vol.  iv,  p.  4). 

X.     HAYTON. 

This  village  is  about  three  miles  south  east  of 
Brampton,  the  nearest  station  being  How  Mill,  a  mile 
and  a  half  away.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary. 
The  Registers  here  are  the  most  dilapidated  of  any  I 
have  seen.  They  consist  of  mere  fragments  of  paper 
ranging  over  about  a  hundred  years.  All  the  pages  are 
more  or  less  worn,  some  beyond  all  recognition.  The 
following,  however,  states  what  has  been  done  with  a  view 
to  their  preservation  :  — 

This  old  Register  dating  back  to  1619,  which  was  in  a  condition 
all  but  impossible  to  be  improved  has  been  restored  in  a  wonderful 
manner  by  Mr.  Thomas  Walters  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  I  have  since 
gone  over  the  Copies  of  the  Hayton  Transcripts  in  the  Diocesan 
Registry,  Carlisle,  dating  from  1665  with  the  result  that  we  have  now 
the  most  perfect  record  of  Baptisms,  Marriages  and  Burials  which 
it  is  possible  to  obtain. 

I  am  pleased  to  have  had  the  privilege  of  bringing  about  such  a 
result  both  in  the  Restoration  and  the  record.  It  is  my  last 
parochial  Effort  after  an  Eventful  period. 

Hayton  Vicarage,  J.   Wallace,  M.A. 
May   3,    1893. 

On  another  page  is  the  following :  — 

The  additions  made  by  me  have  been  written  on  the  new  paper 
in  order  not  to  interfere  with  the  Originals. 
J.   W. 

The  plan  adopted  is  to  place  each  fragment  in  the  centre 
of  a  page  of  the  book  fitted  to  receive  it,  to  which  it  is 
fastened  with  transparent  paper,  the  whole  being  bound 
into  a  good,  strong  volume.  It  is  ingeniously  done,  and, 
though  the  word  "  restore,"  is  perhaps  not  the  appropriate 
one  to  use  in  relation  to  it,  the  precious  fragments  are  now 
likely  to  be  preserved  for  many  years  to  come.  Unfortunately 
in  the  case  of  much  of  it  the  writing  has  become  quite 

286  The   Ejected   of  1662 

indecipherable.  The  early  dates  cannot  be  distinguished ; 
but  the  one  above  given  is  approximately  correct.  The 
Histories  have  not  a  sentence  about  any  Incumbent 
belonging  to  the  period  with  which  we  are  concerned. 
The  following  is  the  best  available  list :  — 

Christopher   Knight,    1627. 

This  name  is  put  forth  doubtfully,  because  the  read- 
ing  in    the    Registers   is    by    no    means    clear    as    to  the 

first   part    of   it.       It  appears    to  be  as    follows  :  — " 

Chrestopher  ( ?)  Knight  Cler.  baptizatus  September,  1627." 
Lord  Howard's  "  Household  Books  "  contain  the  following, 
but  they  do  little  to  illuminate  the  darkness  in  reference 
-to  the  Knight  family.  They  merely  show  that  they  were 
a  family  of  considerable  importance  :  — 

Hayton    Dec.    17,    1633.     Rec.    of    Chrestopher    Knight    for    the 
half  years  rent  of  a  tenement  ther  late  Thompson's  xxxs,    ' 

June  12,  1634.  Rec.  of  Chrestopher  Knight,  scone  of  Chrestopher 
late  deceased  and  Bailiffe  ther  as  parcell  of  the  issues  of  his  office, 
due  at  Pentecost  1634  vijli  xvij  s.  October  4.  Rec.  of  Widdow  Knight 
for  the  halfe  yeare's  rent  of  one  tenement  ther  late  Thompson's 
xxxs.    ' 

Thomas  Knight,  1641—1677. 

He  was  ordained  Priest  Dec.  14,  1623.  The  following 
entries  respecting  Thomas  Knight,  the  Incumbent,  appear 
in  the  Registers  :  — 

Chrestoferus  filius  Thomas  Knight,   r   [Vicar  or   Cler.]   de 

Hayton  baptizatus  fuit  die  Novembr  1641. 

Maria  filia  Thomas  Knight   de   Hayton   Cler.    Sepulta  fuit  xi  die 

May  1641.     filia  Thomas  Knight  Cler.  die  Novembr  1644. 

Isabell  the  daughter  of  Thomas  Knight  Minister  buried  the  5th 
dale  of  October  1646. 

Margarett  the  wife  of  Thomas  Knight  of  Hayton  Minister  buried 
the  20th  dale  of  June  1647. 

Thomas  Knight  is  mentioned  as  "  Minister  "  in  June, 
1666 ;  he  is  referred  to  as  "  Curate  "  in  1672,  and  up  to 
1677.     Whether  this  is  the  same  person  throughout  has 

1.  P.  278. 

2.  Ibid. 


Hay  ton  287 

not  been  ascertained ;  but,  if  so,  there  would  appear  to 
have  been  a  continuous  ministry,  through  all  the  changes 
of  the  Commonwealth  and  Restoration.  The  late  Mr. 
Whitehead  says  :  — 

This  register,  alone  of  the  registers  in  Brampton  deanery,  is 
extant  from  a  time  earlier  than  the  Restoration ;  but,  unlike  most  of 
the  pre-Restoration  registers,  it  does  not  contain  a  single  trace  of  the 
changes  in  registration  ordered  by  the  Barebones  Parliament.  Nor 
can  any  indication  be  detected  in  its  pages  of  disturbance  arising 
from  the  Civil  Wars  and  Commonwealth.  It  pursues  the  even  tenor 
of  its  way  just  as  if  no  such  events  had  occurred.    ' 

It  is  well  not  to  be  too  dogmatic  in  these  matters  in 
the  absence  of  positive  evidence.  The  area  was  a  very 
disturbed  one;  and  if  Thomas  Knight  exercised  a  con- 
tinuoiis  ministry,  as  previously  suggested,  it  was  doubtless 
because  he  somewhat  adjusted  himself  to  the  changes  of 
the  times. 

George  Hodgson,  1680. 

lie  was  subsequently  at  Ainstable.^ 

Cheistopher  B/ICkerby,  1681 — 1717. 

His  name  appears  as  Curate  in  these  dates  and  he  was 
licensed  as  such  April  16,  1681.  He  held  the  Castle 
Carrock  living  as  well.^ 

Among  the  marriage  entries  occur  the  following,  which 
unfortunately  are  seriously  mutilated.  The  Minister 
named  was  undoubtedly  Nathaniel  Burnand,  then  at 
Castle  Carrock :  — 

Thomas  Graine  of  Hayton 

Knight  of  the  same 

of  Februarie  1657 

Burnam  Minister  of- 

Richard  Milborne  of- 

Ellis  Skellicke  of  Tal [Talkin] 

married  the  same  daie 
by  the  sd  Minister. 

1.  Cumberland  Registers,  &c. 

2.  Vide  p.  404. 

3.  Vide  p.  265. 


ALont  eight  miles  north  of  Brampton  and  midway 
between  Bewcastle  and  Kirklinton  is  Stapleton.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  and  the  Registers  begin 
in  1745,  the  older  ones  having  disappeared.  The  following 
is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

HexVry  Hudson,  1603—1606. 

He  was  instituted  Oct.  7,  1603.  The  Hudsons  of 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  sent  many  into  the 
ministry  of  the  Church,  and  Foster  has  a  large  list  in 
his  Oxford  Alumni;  but  no  Henry  appears  among  them. 
There  was,  however,  a  person  of  that  name  at  Brampton 
in  1600  and  Brigham  in  1617.^ 

Gawin  Blayth,  1606. 

This  is  a  new  name,  Nicolson  and  Burn  leaping  over 
eighty  years  after  naming  Henry  Hudson.  He  was 
instituted  Oct.  22,  I6O6.2 

William  Culcheth,  1669 — 1683. 

The  Transcripts  supply  the  first  date,  though  he  had 
probably  held  the  living  for  some  time  previously.  He 
had  Nether  Denton  as  well,  and  resigned  in  1683  in  favour 
of  his  son.^ 

Richard  Culcheth,  M.A.,   1683—1714.* 

He  was  instituted  May  26,  1687.  Bishop  Nicolson, 
writing  of  the  place  and  the  "  Parson,"  in  1703,  does  not 
spare  either.     He  says  :  — 

The  parishioners  follow  the  Example  of  their  Parson ;  and  have 
the  Body  of  the  Church  in  as  nasty  a  pickle  as  the  Quire.  The  Eoof 
is  so  miserably  Shatter'd  and  broken,  that  it  cannot  be  safe  sitting 

1.  Vide  pp.  250,  747. 

2.  Institution  Books  (Record  OfiBce). 

3.  Vide  p.  275. 

4.  Vide  pp.  261,  275,  277. 

Stapleton  289 

under  it  (considering  upon  what  an  Ascent  the  Church  stands)  in 
stormy  weather.  Not  one  pane  of  Glass  in  any  of  the  Windows ;  no 
Reading-Desk ;  nor  did  they  ever  hear  that  they  had  a  Bell.  The 
Font  is  abominable,  the  Seats  most  scurvily  low,  (and  in  a  word) 
everything  very  wretched.  They  hapned  to  bring  a  Corpse  to  be 
buryed  (according  to  the  custom  of  the  place)  without  any  Service, 
whilst  we  were  there.  I  desired  Mr.  Benson,  my  Chaplain,  to 
Officiate  :  But  he  could  find  onely  some  few  Scraps  of  a  Common- 
prayerbook,  and  an  insufferably  torn  Bible  of  the  old  Translation. 
There  was  no  Surplice  to  be  found ;  nor  did  ever  any  such  thing  (as 
far  as  any  present  could  remember)  belong  to  this  Church.  One  of 
'em  told  us  that  sometimes,  on  an  Easter-day,  the  Parson  had 
brought  a  Surplice  with  him ;  had  Administer'd  ye  Sacrament  in  it  : 
But  even  that  Ordinance  (amongst  the  rest)  was  most  commonly 
celebrated  without  one.  The  present  Rector  (Mr.  Culcheth)  is  Mr.  of 
Arts ;  and  has  alwaies  been  represented  to  me  as  one  of  a  good 
Conversation.  His  Father  &  he  have  many  years  kept  this  Liveing ; 
and  are  answerable  for  all  its  Deficiencyes.  ^ 

James  Jackson,  B.A.,  1714—1771. 

Foster  gives  the  following :  — "  Son  of  John  of 
Cockbridge,  Cumberland,  pp.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  10 
March,  1706-7,  aged  17;  rector  of  Scaleby  and  of 
Stapleton,  (both  Cumberland)  1714."  2  He  held  the  living 
until  his  death  in  1771. 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  55. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 


Scaleby  is  about  six  miles  north  east  of  Carlisle,  Scaleby 
Castle,  long  the  residence  of  the  Gilpin  family,  being  the 
centre  of  the  district.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  All  Saints. 
The  Registers  begin  in  1724.  This  early  volume,  which 
is  of  parchment,  was  given,  along  with  an  engraved,  silver 
gilt  chalice,  by  William  Gilpin  of  Scaleby  Castle,  son  of 
Dr.  Gilpin,  and  singularly  enough  his  is  the  first  burial 
entry  which  it  contains.^  The  following  is  the  list  of  In- 
cumbents :  — 

Christopher  Witton,  1587 . 

He  was  instituted  June  18th,  1587,  and  was  previously 
at  Cliburn.2 

Thomas  Kirkby. 

No  information  whatever. 

Thomas   Sibson,   1605. 

This  is  a  new  name.     He  was  instituted  April  18,  1605. 

Thomas  Wilson, 1641. 

A  person  of  lihis  name,  "  literatus,"  was  ordained 
Deacon  Dec.  22,  1622,  being  given  as  of  "  Cest  Dio." 
Foster  says  : — "Of  co.  Durham,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric. 
17  Nov.  1581,  aged  18,  B.A.  7  Feb.  1583-4,  M.A.  7  July, 
1586 ;  perhaps  rector  of  Scaleby,  Cumberland,  1600."  ^ 
The  latter  date  must  be  incorrect.  He  died  in  1641. 
There  was  a  Thomas  Wilson  at  Crosby-on-Eden  in  1585.* 

William  Green,  M.A.,  1642. 

He  was  collated  May  21, 1642,  and  at  the  same  time  com- 
pounded for  his  First  Fruits.     Foster  gives  a  number  of 

1.  Trans.  (N.  S.),  vol.  viii,  p.  378. 

2.  Vide  p.   1242. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  Vide  p.  200. 

Scaleby  291 

persons  of  this  name  in  his  Oxford  Alumni;  but  he  does 
not  identify  the  Scaleby  Rector.  A  person  of  this  name 
was  at  Bootle  in  1647.^ 

Robert  Priestman,  1662 — 1679. 

He  was  collated  on  Feb.  4,  1662,  by  Bishop  Sterne,  and 
signs  the  Transcripts  in  1671  as  "  Robert  Priestman 
Minister  ibm."  Under  Kirklinton  fuller  information 
about  him  appears.^ 

Nathaniel  Bowey,  1680 . 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Rainbow  Aug.  26,  1680.^ 

James  Jackson,  B.A.,  1713 — 1723. 

He  held  Stapleton  some  part  of  this  time  also.'* 
The  following  Presentments  were  made  in  1694  :  — 

1694.  There  are  dissenters  called  Quakers  in  our  pish  that  have 
not  subscribed  ye  declaration  of  fidelity  to  their  Majesties  nor  to  our 
knowledge  have  pformed  the  oathes,  things  required  in  ye  Said 
Articles  viz. 

John  pearson 

Tho  :  Bulman 

James  Blacklocke 

Tho  :  Gibson 

John  Scot 

Tho.  Scot 

Edward  Tweddle 

Tho  :   Scot.  6 

1.  Vide  p.  860. 

2.  Vide  p.  309. 

3.  Vide  p.  206. 

4.  Vide  p.  289. 

5.  Scaleby  Transcripts 


This  is  the  most  northern  Parish  with  which  we  are 
concerned,  being  some  ten  miles  north  of  Brampton,  and 
close  to  the  range  of  hills  which  divides  Cumberland  from 
Northumberland.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Cuth- 
bert,  and  the  Registers  begin  in  1737.  "  The  Incumbents 
of  this  church,"  write  Nicolson  and  Burn,  "  living  obscure 
in  this  remote  part  of  the  diocese  have  nothing  memorable 
recorded  of  them."  ^  It  is  curious  that  this  place  should 
be  singled  out  for  a  comment  of  that  kind,  because  its 
isolated  character  preeminently  fits  it  to  be  the  centre  of 
much  romance;  and,  while  most  of  the  others  were  more 
than  average  men,  with  at  least  one  name,  William 
Patrick,  tradition  has  linked  some  very  "  memorable " 

The  following  is  the  list :  — 

William  Lawson,  1580. 

Foster  gives  several  of  this  name  as  Alumni  of  Oxford, 
but  he  identifies  none  with  the  Bewcastle  Incumbent.  A 
person  of  this  name  was  at  Wigton  in  1592,  and  at 
Hutton-in-the-Forest  in  1612. ^ 

Charles  Forebench,  M.A.,  1623. 

He  was  instituted  on  the  25th  of  April,  1623,  on  a 
Presentation  by  the  King.  A  person  of  this  name  under 
Henny  Magna,  Essex,  appears  among  the  1660  Petitioners 
to  the  House  of  Lords. ^ 

William  Patrick,  1632. 

This  name  is  not  given  by  "Nicolson  and  Burn.  He  is 
described  as  "  a  notorious  freebooter,"  who  had  John 
Nelson  as  his  Curate. 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  478. 

2.  Vide  pp.  520,  486. 

3.  H.  M.  C.  Seventh  Report,  Part  I,  p.  106. 


Bewcastle  293 

Henry  Sirson,  D.D.,  1644. 

He  appears  in  that  year  among  the  contributors  to  the 
Carlisle  garrison.^ 

Egbert  Lowther,  B.C.L.,  1663—1670. 

He  was  instituted  May  29,  1663,  on  a  Presentation  by 
the  Dean  and  Chapter.  Foster  has  the  following  respect- 
ing him  :  "  B.C.L.  from  Jesus  College  11  Oct.  1631  (S.  of 
William  of  Ingleton,  Yorks),  rector  of  Ingleton,  and  of 
Bentham,  Yorks,  1660,  sequestered;  rector  of  Bewcastle, 
Cumberland,  1663 ;  chancellor  of  Carlisle  1666 ;  brother  of 
Lancelot  1624."  ^  It  would  have  been  well  if  the  auth- 
ority for  the  statement  of  his  Sequestration  had  been 
given.  Walker  does  not  name  him  in  his  list,  and  1660 
is  a  late  date  for  a  "  Sequestration."  It  also  appears  from 
the  following  that  his  appointment  to  Bewcastle  was 
anterior  to  the  date  supplied  by  the  Institution  Books 
unless  we  are  to  assume  a  second  Institution. 



Dispensacon  to  Mr.  Robert  Lowther  of  Carlesley  to  hold  Bentham 
in  Com.  Ebor.  &  Diocess  Cestriens  wth  Bewcastle  Com  Camb  [Cumbr] 
&  Diocess  of  Carlesle  both  Rectorys  17  Feby  1661-2.  3 

He  compounded  for  his  First  Fruits  at  Bentham  in  1660. 
The  Registers  of  St.  Mary's  Church,  Carlisle,  give  the 
following  :  — 

1665  Abbeygate  Eliz.  ye  daughter  of  Robert  Lowther  Chancel,  ye 
last  dale  [April]. 

Burial  Hen.  ye  Sonne  of  Mr.  Robert  Lowther  ye  5th  daie 
[January]  1661-2. 

1665  Rebecca  Lowther  wife  of  Robt  Chanclr  ye  5  Decembr. 

1670  Abbeyg.  Mr.  Robert  Lowther  Buried  ye  8  daie  November. 

1.  Vide  p.  134. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 

3.  S.     P.    Dom.     Entry    Book,     1661-1662,     Eccleeiastical    Benefices. 
(Record  Office.) 

294  I'h®   Ejected   of  1662 

The  following  also  occurs,  though  whether  he  was  any 
relation  is  not  known  :  — 

1671  October  Mr.  Richard  Lowther  a  stranger  buried  ye  7th. 
In  1667  John  Roper  served  as  Curate. 

Ambrose  Myers,  M.A.,  1671—1673. 

He  was  instituted  July  8,  1671,  on  a  Presentation  by 
the  Dean  and  Chapter.  Foster  says :  "  S.  Briscoe  of 
Staindrop,  co.  Durham,  deceased,  sizar  St.  John's  Coll,  28 
May  1662  aged  16 ;  B.A.  1665-6,  M.A.  1669 ;  incorporated 
11  July  1676,  rector  of  Bewcastle,  Cumberland."^  He 
died  in  1673. 

George  Usher,  B.D.,  1673. 

He  was  instituted  June  11,  1673,  being  also  Rector  of 
Arthuret.  ^  In  an  Inquisition  taken  at  Longtown,  April 
19,  1679,  he  appears  as  plaintiff  in  a  dispute,  with  Henry 
Foster  as  defendant,  respecting  the  "  Rectory  and  parish 
of  Bewcastle  Grounds  called  '  Kirsop '  and  Blackleven, 
and  the  parish  of  Kirkanders,  miles  and  bounds,  Tithes."* 
In  1686  William  Frazer  was  serving  him  as  Curate.  Frazer 
was  M.A.  of  Aberdeen  and  ordained  Priest  March  15, 

James  Lamb,  M.A.,  1689—1698/9. 

He  received  Institution  July  26,  1689,  on  a  Presentation 
from  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Carlisle ;  and  for  some  time 
held  the  Lectureship  at  Carlisle.  He  resigned  March  23, 
1698/9,  and  was  subsequently  at  Appleby.* 

Jeffrey  Wybtjrgh,  LL.B.,  1699. 

He  was  a  graduate  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and 
was  instituted  July  14,  1699,  on  the  same  Presentation. 
He  held  the  living  for  a  few  months  only,  being  subse- 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Vide  p.  305. 

3.  Excheq.  Dep.  East.  11.     (Rec.  Off.) 

4.  Vide  pp.  184,  1136. 

Bewcastle  295 

quently  at  Lamplugh  and  Caldbeck.  ^  Foster  says  :  "  S. 
of  G.  ( ?  Galfridus)  of  Innerdale,  Cumberland  pp.  Queen's 
Coll.  matric.  3  Nov.  1688,  aged  17;  rector  of  Bewcastle 
1699,  of  Lamplugh  1700  and  of  Caldbeck  (all)  Cumberland 
1701."  2 

There  are  numerous  references  to  him  in  Bishop 
Nieolson's  Diaries,  from  which  it  appears  that  he  was  in 
the  habit  of  contracting  serious  debts.  He  was  in  prison 
for  such  in  1708  and  in  1712  is  described  as  "  in  a  poor 
state,"  out  of  prison  but  not  out  of  debt.  ^  The  Cocker- 
mouth  Registers  give  the  baptism  of  "  Thomas  Son  of  Mr. 
Jeffrey  Wibergh  "  on  "  ye  7th  1674."  Of  course  this  is 
not  the  same  person, 

Edwaed  Tonge,  M.A.,  1700—1713. 

He  was  instituted  January  3,  1700/1,  on  the  same  Pre- 
sentation.    Bishop   Nicolson,    in  1703,   says:  — 

The  Parsonage- House  is  lately  rebuilt  by  Mr.  Tong ;  who  has 
made  it  a  pretty  convenient  Dwelling.  Into  this,  Mr.  Allen  (the 
Curate,  who  also  assists  Mr.  Culcheth  at  Stapleton)  is  now  remove- 
ing  his  family.  The  Man's  a  poor  ejected  Episcopalian  of  the 
Scottish  Nation.  The  Men  of  Beaucastle  would  be  well  content  with 
him,  if  they  had  him  wholly  (as  in  Justice  they  ought)  to  them- 
selves. 4 

Matthew  Soulby,  1713—1737. 

He  was  previously  at  Greystoke  and  Watermillock.  He 
died  September  28,  1737.  ^ 

It  will  be  noticed  that  there  is  a  considerable  gap  about 
the  time  of  the  Restoration,  which  we  have  no  means  of 

The  following  Presentments  were  made  in  1667  and 
1686  respectively :  — 

Bewcastle  ye  28  of  June  1667. 

We  present  John  Armestrong  of  Cleughside  and  Jane  Armestrong 
for   committing  of  ffornication.     Wee   present   Jeffrey   Bowerbye  and 

1.  Vide  pp.  553,  776. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 

3.  Trans.  (N.  S.),  vols,  i— v. 

4.  Miscel.,  p.  57  :  for  Allen  or  Allan  vide  pp.  268,  271. 

5.  Vide  p.  512. 

296  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Jennett  Ffoster  for  ye  like.  Wee  present  Adam  Eoutledge  of  ye 
Cragge  and  Elizabeth  Ffoster  of  thys  pish  for  ye  like.  We  present 
Annie  Nixon  for  bearing  a  child  to  Archibald  ye  supposed  ffather. 

John  Roper,    Curate. 

William    Croser,    Churchwarden. 

1686.     The  presentments  of  the  Parish  of  Bewcastle  Imprimis  the 
dissenters  from  the  Church  are  those  following 
Adam  Hogg  of  the  Crew 
John  Armstrong  of  the  Flatt 
Thomas  Routledge  of  the  Low  Toddhills,  Quaker 
James  Routledge  of  Nixonstown   Quaker 
Thomas  Nixon,  Quaker 
Rowland  Ffoster  of  Low  Grange 
Signed  William  Frazer,  Curate.^ 

1.   Trans.  (N.S.),   vol.   ii,  p.   242.     St.  Cuthbert's  Church,  Bewcastle. 
by  J.  F.  Curwen,  F.R.I.B.A.     A  very  useful  article. 



This  place  is  a  few  miles  north  of  Longtown,  near  the 
Scottish  border.  The  nearest  station  is  Scotch  Dyke.  The 
Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew;  and  the  earliest 
Register  Book  is  a  small,  square  volume  of  paper,  in  good 
condition,  except  that  the  edges  are  a  little  frayed  away. 
The  writing  is  beautiful,  and  the  book  begins  with 
"  Weddings,"  under  date  Sep.  28,  1654 :  burials  begin 
with  Aug.  14,  1654.  There  is,  however,  an  unfortunate 
break  from  1658  to  1683,  and  it  is  clear  that  a  number  of 
pages  have  gone.  A  feature  of  the  Registers  is  the  record 
of  births  instead  of  baptisms  in  the  first  few  pages.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Charles  Usher,  M.A.,  1637—1650. 

He  was  the  first  Rector,  the  Parish  having  been  newly 
created,  though  a  Church  had  been  in  existence  for  some 
years  previously.  His  Institution  was  on  Aug.  28,  163T, 
on  a  Presentation  by  "  Richard  Graham  Mil.  et  Baronet." 
Dr.  Todd  says  that  Charles  Usher  was  a  relation  of  the 
patron.  He  was  a  contributor  to  the  besieged  garrison  in 
Carlisle,  in  1644,  to  the  extent  of  £3  Os.  Od.,^  and  was 
sequestered  by  the  Cromwellian  Commissioners.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  out  of  his  living  about  ten  years ;  if  that 
is  correct  the  Sequestration  would  be  about  1650. 

Thomas  Courtxey,  1650—1660  ( ?). 

Both  Calamy  and  Palmer  give  this  as  the  name  of  the 
person  who  was  ejected  from  Kirkandrews.  It  is  unfor- 
tunate that  the  statement  leaves  us  in  doubt  as  to  the  exact 
place,  being  in  Calamy  merely  :   "  Kirkanders  :    Mr.  Tho. 

1.  Vide  p.  134. 

298  The   Ejected    of  1662 

Courtney."  ^  Palmer  in  no  way  improves  upon  this,  the 
only  change  being  that  he  inserts  '"  h  "  into  the  place 
name,  and  gives  us  "  Kirkhanders."  ^  The  evidence, 
however,  such  as  it  is,  points  to  Kirkandrews-on-Esk  and 
not  Kirkandrews-on-Eden.  We  have  no  information 
about  Thomas  Courtney  beyond  the  fact  that  he  preached 
at  Carlisle  during  the  "  vacancy "  of  Ministers  there.^ 
Foster  gives  quite  a  number  of  "  Courtneys  "  or  "  Court- 
enays  "  among  his  Oxford  Alumni,  all  from  Cornwall  and 
Devon ;  and  it  may  be  that  Thomas  Courtney  was  a  native 
of  those  parts,  and  that  after  his  Ejection  he  went  thither. 
Certainly  he  disappears  from  this  district.  Edward 
Wiltshire,  referring  to  these  matters,  says  that  after  the 
Sequestration  of  Charles  Usher,  "  then  an  Incumbent 
distinct  from  ye  Rector  of  Arthuret  was  put  into  ye  Living 
of  Kirkandrews-upon-Eske,  Who  enjoy'd  ye  sd  Living 
and  its  profits  till  Mr.  Usher  was  restored."  * 

Charles  Usher,  M.A.,  1660—1681/2 

In  June,  1660,  immediately  after  the  Restoration,  like 
many  others,  Charles  Usher  petitioned  the  House  of  Lords 
for  restoration  to  his  living.  The  following  is  a  copy  of 
his  Petition :  — 

To  ye  Eight  Honble  ye  Lords  in 
Parliament  Assembled. 
The   Humble  Petition  of  Charles 
Usher  Clerk,  of  Kyrk-Andrews 
in  ye  County  of  Cumberland. 

That  ye  Rectory  of  Kyrk-Andrews  Aforesayd  was  divers  years 
since  Sequestred  from  yor  Petnr  by  ye  Powers  then  in  being  for  his 
affection  to  ye  Late  King  of  blessed  Memory. 

Your  Petnr  humbly  prayeth  yt  a  fifth  part  of  ye  Profits  of  ye 
Rectory  aboue  sayd  wth  ye  Arrears  thereof  be  forthwith  payd  unto 
yor  Petnr  &  ye  Rents,  issues  &  profits  of  ye  sayd  Rectory  secured  in 

1.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.   159. 

2.  Noncon.  Mem.,  vol.  i,  p.  388. 

3.  Vide  p.  154  and  note  2. 

4.  The  Registers  and  Account  Books  of  Kirkandrews-upon-Esk,  by 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  p.  293. 

Kirkandrews-on-Esk  299 

ye  hands  of  some  reasonable  men  untill  ye  Parliamnt  take  farther 
order  therein,  or  yor  Petnr  restored  thereunto  by  due  course  of  Law. 
&  yor  Petnr  shall  pray 
Charles  Usher. 

23  Junii  1660. 
Charles  Usher  Cler.  Expd.i 

No  Certificates  appear  upon  this  document.  Tlie  Peti- 
tion was  successful.  Charles  Usher  signs  the  Registers  in 
1668;  and  he  held  the  living  until  his  death.  The 
following  is  the  record  of  his  burial :  — 

Mr.  Charles  Usher  the  first  Rector  since  ye  Church  was  rebuilt 
of  the  Parish  Church  of  Kirkanders  deceased  the  eleventh  day  of 
January  &  was  buried  in  his  own  Parish  Church  the  sixteenth  day 
following  1681-2. 

William  Graham,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1682—1685. 

Foster  says :  "  S.  of  George  of  Netherby,  Cumberland, 
bart.  Christ  Church  matric.  3  July  1674,  aged  18;  B.A. 
1678,  M.A.  11.  March  1680-1,  D.D.  (by  diploma)  14  June 
1686;  licensed  (Y.G.)  26  Sept  1688  to  marry  Mary  Offaly, 
of  the  Strand,  Middlesex,  spinster ;  prebendary  of  Durham 
1684,  and  rector  of  Kirkandrews-on-Esk,  1682,  of  Whick- 
ham,  Cumberland  [must  be  a  mistake  for  Durham]  1685- 
1713,  chaplain  in  Ordinary  to  Princess  Anne  of  Denmark, 
dean  of  Carlisle,  and  of  Wells  1704,  until  his  death  4  Feb. 
1712-13 ;  buried  at  Kensington."  ^  if  all  the  statements 
above  given  are  correct  he  must  have  been  a  Pluralist. 
His  Institution  to  Kirkandrews  is  thus  noticed  in  the 
Registers  :  — 

Mr.  William  Graham,  the  Second  Rector  of  the  Parish  of  Kirk- 
anders was  instituted  into  this  Church  ye  6th  day  of  Aprill  1682  by 
Mr.  George  Usher  rector  of  Arthuret. 

The  date  given  in  the  Institution  Books  is  March  27, 
1682;  and  the  patron  "  Comes  Preston,"  &c. 

1.  House  of  Lords'  Library.     H.  M.  C,  Seventh  Report,  Parti,  p.  108. 

2.  Al.   Ox. 

300  The    Ejected    of  1662 

Edward  Wiltshire,  M.A.,  1685—1730. 

He  was  instituted  Nov,  20,  1685,  on  the  same  Presenta- 
tion.    In  the  Registers  appears  the  following:  — 

Memorandum  that  Mr.  Edward  Wiltshire  Mr.  of  Arts  was  Inducted 
into  this  Rectory  of  Kirkanders  together  wth  the  Rights  and  Appur- 
tenances thereunto  belonging  upon  the  Thirtyeth  day  of  January  1685 
And  pformed  all  what  the  Law  requires  after  Such  Induction  upon 
Sunday  the  31st  of  the  said  Instant  being  ye  next  day  after. 
J.   Todd. 

The  following  also  supplies  us  with  some  further 
information  about  him  :  — 

I  Edward  Wiltshire  came  down  wth  my  family  out  of  Lincoln- 
shire to  Kirkandrews-upon-Eske  June  10th  1686,  And  found  ye  parish 
Church  in  such  a  Ruinous  condition  that  had  it  staid  a  yeare  longer  it 
would  have  fallen  I  got  it  Repair'd  into  ye  condition  it  is  now  in,  at  a 
small  expense  to  my  parishioners,  The  Repairing  of  ye  Church  has 
not  cost  them  one  yeare  wth  another  twenty  shillings  a  yeare.  The 
parish  Repairs  ye  porch,  church  and  Vestry,  But  I  as  Rector  do 
Repaire  ye  Chancel  at  my  own  proper  Cost.  The  parish  Repairs  ye 
church  yard  gates  and  fence.  The  Lady  Dowager  Preston  gave  a 
pulpit  cloth,  a  pulpit  cushion.  And  a  comon  prayer  book  to  my 
church,  And  five  pounds  towards  the  flagging  of  the  church,  The 
Lord  Preston  Repairs  his  own  seat. 

Witness  my  hand 

Edw.  W'iltshire,  Rector,* 

The  baptism  is  thus  recorded  of  :  — 

Isabell  daughr  of  Edw.  Wiltshire  Cler.  &  Anne  his  wife  bap.  Oct. 
7.   1690. 

In  the  Brampton  Registers  is  the  following :  ■ 

1692.  Mr.  Edward  Wiltshire  Rector  of  Kirkandrs  upon  Eske  and 
Judith  ffeilding  of  ye  parish  of  Brampton  were  married  Sep.  29. 

Probably  she  was  the  widow  of  Philip  Fielding,  Ticar 
of  Brampton,  who  had  died  in  the  June  previous.  In  the 
Kirkandrews  Churchyard  is  a  tombstone  thus  inscribed  :  — 

Judith,  second  wife  of  Edward  Wiltshire  Rector  of  this  Church 
who  departed  this  life  on  Thursday  the  third  of  January  in  the  sixty 
ninth  year  of  her  age  Anno  Domini  1716-17. 

1.  The  Registers  of  Kirkandrews,  &c.,  p.  299. 

Kirkandrews-on-Esk  301 

There  is  no  record  of  Edward  Wiltshire's  own  burial  in 
the  Registers,  but  he  died  in  1730. 

It  was  during  his  Incumbency  that  Dr.  Todd,  Rector  of 
Arthuret,  put  forth  a  claim  to  the  tithes  of  the  Parish  of 
Kirkandrews,  as  well  as  those  of  Arthuret,  on  the  ground 
that  the  former  had  not  been  legally  divided  from  it. 
Edward  Wiltshire  undertook  to  answer  this  claim,  and  he 
did  so  with  considerable  ability  and  skill.  The  docu- 
ments on  both  sides  were  printed  by  the  late  Chancellor 
Ferguson  in  the  paper  referred  to  in  this  account  several 
times. ^  Edward  Wiltshire  was  one  of  few  men  in  his 
Diocese  for  whom  Bishop  Nicolson  had  words  of  unrestrained 
praise. 2  He  appears  to  have  been  on  somewhat  intimate 
terms  with  the  Bishop,  who  has  the  following  curious  entry 
in  his  Diary  respecting  him  :  "  Oct.  3.  Tuesday  [1704]  Mr. 
Wiltshire  hill  of  ye  Running  dry  of  Liddel,  a  forerunner 
of  ye  death  of  all  or  [our]  last  Kings.^ 

In  the  possession  of  the  present  Rector  is  a  fine  old  oak 
chest,  which  almost  certainly  was  formerly  the  property 
of  Richard  Baxter,  the  distinguished  divine.  The  carving 
is  rough,  and  a  small  door  in  front,  near  the  top,  has  upon 
it  the  following  :  — 

X    God    X 

X     Love.     X 

Richard  Baxter  was  born  at  Eaton  Constantine,  Salop, 
^on  a  small  farm,   whose  effects  had   not  been  disturbed 
tsiDce  the  days  of  the  Stuarts;  and  this  chest  was  part  of 
the  furniture. 

1.  The  Kegisters  of  Kirkandrews,  &c. 

2.  Mi.scel.,  pp.  141,  212. 

3.  Trans.  (N.  S.),  vol.  ii,  209. 


The  Church  of  this  name  is  about  a  mile  from  Longtown, 
and  is  dedicated  to  St.  Michael  and  All  Angels.  There 
are  no  Registers  here  earlier  than  the  18th  Century,  the 
older  ones  having  perished.  There  is,  however,  a  well 
bound  volume  by  Dr.  Todd,  which  contains  much  inter- 
esting information  and  is  thus  described  by  its  author  :  — • 

Liber  Rationum  Ecclesiae  Parochialis  de  Arthuret  infra  Dioeceseon 
Carleolensem  et  Comitatum  Cumbriae  Ano  Domini  M.DCXCIX 
Rectore  D.D.  Hugone  Todd,  S.T.P.  Ecclesiae  CoUegialis  et 
Cathedralis   Carliol  Canonico. 

The  following  extracts  are  taken  from  it :  — 

Novr  10. 

A.D.  1687  in  the  Night  There  hapened  a  very  high  Flood  wch 
endangered  the  whole  Holm.  The  Wind  blew  hard  from  West  N.W. 
with  a  high  Spring  Tide.  There  had  been  little  or  no  Rain ;  and  the 
Rivers  of  Esk  and  Line'  were  not  mov'd.  It  did  great  Damage  at  ye 
Burnfoot,  Lardstow  Stew  House  &  Stagmyre  And  at  ye  Broad-brest 
were  drowned  one  woman  and  her  4  children ;   &  one  other  boy. 

Arthurett  or  Arthuredd  or  Arthur-hured,  has  its  Mame  from  the 
famous  King  Arthur ;  King  of  the  Ancient  Britons ;  in  whose  Time 
there  was  a  Battle  fought  here  (probably)  on  the  Moor  Called  by  that 
Name.  In  Latin — a — .  [Not  given.]  There  is  no  Place  particularly 
called  Arthuret ;  but  the  Parsonage  and  Church ;  wch  give  Denomina- 
tion to  the  whole  parish.  The  Church  is  Dedicated  to  St.  Michael ; 
stands  on  an  Eminence,  as  most  Churches  doe  :  that  are  dedicated  to 
That  Saint.  It  was  Anciently  in  a  very  poor  Condition  :  of  a  narrow 
building  and  covered  with  Heather  or  Ling  :  It  &  the  Parish  having 
been  frequently  lay'd  .waiste  by  the  Scotts  as  appears  by  the  Bp's 

Anciently  the  Parish  was  of  much  greater  Extent,  as  appears  by 
the  Boundary  prefix'd  :  and  in  the  Valuation  taken  21.  Edw.  I.  it  is 
rated  at  401i  &  the  Vicarage  at  301i  per  Annu  tho  in  ye  Book  of  Rates 
taken  26  H.  8.  not  long  after  the  Battle  of  Sollem-Moss  when  all  the 





Country  was  almost  laid  Waiste,  it  was  valued  only,  the  Rectory  at 
2li — 0 — 0  and  the  Vicaridge  at  Olli — 02 — 00.  Under  wch  Valuation  it 
Stands  now  in  the  Kings-Books  so  payes  no  first  Fruits  to  the  King ; 
for  both  The  Tenths  OOli— 06— 04.  In  the  year  lb09  The  old  Church 
was  taken  down  and  the  New  Falosch'  erected ;  as  appears  by  the 
Date  sett  over  the  Porch-door.  The  Expenses  were  supply'd  by  a 
Brief,  granted  by  K  James  I.  to  that  purpose ;  who,  endeavouring  by 
two  Proclamations,  to  abolish  the  very  Name  of  Borders,  was  very 
cjirefull  to  have  the  Concerns  of  Religion  well  provided  for,  in  these 
Parts.  Tis  commonly  reported  (by  Some  that  can  remember  the 
Building  of  the  Church)  That  Bolts  were  cast  &  ready  in  Kendall ; 
&  that  the  Persons  employ'd  to  fetch  them  went  off  with  the  money 

Called  Chapple-Eusten  The  Chap- 
pie Stood  till  the  Civil  Warrs  1640 
when  it  was  neglected.  At  the 
Restoration  of  K  Ch.  II.  1660  Mr. 
Constable  caused  a  chappie  of  Earth 
to  be  built  in  a  very  poor  manner ; 
whereat  he  preach 'd  once  a  Month 
for  some  years.  This  is  now  quite 

At  Easten  there  was  a  Chappie 
somewhat  Independent  of  the  Church 
(a  sort  of  Vicaridge  under  the  Rec- 
tory) wch  had  a  Vicar  of  its  own 
&  was  valued  distinct  from  the  Rec- 
tory ;  but  of  late  years  this  Rector 
has  had  Possession  to  both,  by  one 
Institution  and   Induction. 


The  The   Revenues  (?)   of    this    chappie   appear   yet,    and  I 

Inhabitants        intend  to  have  it  united  again  for  the  Ease  &  Benefit 

did  of  that  Quarter  of  the  Parish.     Some  have  been  buryd 

oppose  in  the  Chappie  yard  in  Memory  of  Man.     The  Condi- 

the  tion  of  the  Living,   &  the  Right  to  at  least  the  Title 

Division  to  Present  to  it  have  been  very  various  and  uncertain. 

It    was    first    a    Rectory  :    then    Appropriated    to    the 

Abbat  &  Convent  of  Jeddboragh  Then  a  Rectory  again 

and  sometimes  the  King  of  England  Presented  to  it ; 

Sometimes    the    Abbat    &    Convent   of    Jeddard ;    and 

sometimes   the   Private   Persons.     All  wch    Differences 

and  Disorders  seem  to  have  been  settled  5  Ed.  6.  when 

the   Bounds    of    the    Kingdoms    wiere    ascertained    by 

Comissioners ;    &    the    Dyke    call'd    the    Scotch    Dyke 

made.     Then    upon    the    Death    of    that   Prince    they 

broke  out  again  ;  for  Queen  Eliz.     was  so  incensed  at 

the  Rudeness  of  the  People  of  these  Parts,  that  Shee 

sent   Soldiers  to  burn  their   Houses,  and   Transported 

two  Ship-load  of  them  (most  of  the  name  of  Grahme) 

to  BrislI  &   Flushing  in  Holland ;   and   never  suffered 

them  to  return,  never  all  of  them. 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn  (vol.  ii,  p.  474)  speak  of  the  Chapel  Flosh. 

304  The    Ejected    of  1662 

The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Michael  Frissell,  1565. 

He  was  instituted  on  the  Srd  of  Sept.,  1565. 

CUTHBERT  CURWEN,  D.D.,  1618—1639. 

The  first  is  the  date  given  by  Dr.  Todd  in  the  book  just 
named.  Cuthbert  Curwen  was  a  younger  brother  of 
Christopher  Curwen  of  Camerton,  a  branch  of  the  Curw^ns 
of  Workington  Hall.  He  went  from  St.  Bees  School  to 
Pembroke  Hall,  Cambridge,  in  1586,  and  probably  became 
Rector  of  Ai-thuret  much  earlier  than  the  date  given  by 
Dr.  Todd.  He  is  frequently  referred  to  in  Lord  William 
Howard's  "Household  Books"  as  "the  Doctor,"  and  was  in 
the  habit  of  sending  "  geese  "  to  Naworth.  The  following 
is  a  specimen :  "  Rewards  1618  Nov.  12.  To  parson 
Curwen's  man  bringing  geese  vs."  ^ 

In  his  "  Case  "  for  the  unity  of  the  two  Parishes,  Dr. 
Todd  says  :  — 

In  ye  yeare  1636,  the  Rector  of  Arthuret,  Cuthbert  Curwen, 
D.D.,  being  sick  and  aged,  and  happening  to  differ  with  ye  patron 
about  some  gleab  land,  who  had  not  long  before  purchased  ye 
advowson  of  the  Rectory  and  ye  lands  of  ye  whole  parish  of  Arthuret ; 
The  patron  having  great  power  among  his  Tenants  wthout  any  Act 
of  Parliament  or  Letters  patent  from  ye  King  for  wt  he  did  Repairs 
another  ruinated  chappell  wthin  ye  p'cincts  of  ye  sd  parish  neare  to 
his  own  mansion  house,  And  attempts  to  make  it  parochial  and 
independent   of  ye   mother   church.    ' 

Cuthbert  Curwen  resigned  in  1639,  the  Bishop  accepting 
the  resignation  on  Dec.  5th  of  that  year,  and  he  died 
shortly  after.  Bishop  ISTicolson,  writing  in  1704,  says  that 
before  the  altdr  in  the  Church  was  a  monument  thus 
inscribed:    "  Cuthbertus  Curwen.   S.T.P.R.   1642."  ^ 

His  Will,  dated  June  28,  1639,  directs  that  his  body 
shall  be  buried  in  the  "  Chancell  of  the  pish  Church  of 
Arthuret."  In  a  codicil,  dated  Feb.  7,  1639-40,  he  recalls 
and  makes  void  certain  provisions  of  his  previous  Will. 

1.  P.  88. 

2.  The  Registers  of  Kirkandrews,   &c.,  p.   289. 

3.  Miscel.,  p.    136. 

Arthur  et  305 

He  ordains  and  appoints  hereby  "  that  John  Wardman  my 
Curate  have  the  houses  and  landes  now  in  his  possession 

at dureing  my  Lease  at  the  same  yearly  rent  if  he 

continue  Curate  at  Arthuret."  ^ 

George  Constable,  1639 — 1673. 

He  was  instituted  the  same  day  that  Cuthbert  Curwen's 
resignation  was  accepted,  "Ricus  Graham  Mil.  et  Baronet" 
being  patron.  In  his  "  Case  "  Dr.  Todd  ^eaks  of  George 
Constable,  a  "  poore  Relation "  of  the  patron,  in  the 
following  terms  :  — 

In  ye  year  1641,  Dr.  Curwen  ye  Rector  dyes,  And  ye  patron  to 
p'vent  ye  Recovery  of  ye  Rights  of  ye  Rectory  as  may  be  supposed 
p'sents  one  Mr.  Constable,  a  poor  Relation,  who  during  his  time 
was  content  wth  his  allowance  of  tithe,  wch  was  till  ye  yeare  1675  2 

In  his  list  of  Incumbents,  however,  he  describes  him  as 
"A  Yorkshire  man  of  Good  Family — Died  in  Yorkshire."^ 
In  the  margin  he  adds  : — "  For  some  years  after  1640  the 
church  lay  vacant  in  the  heat  of  the  Civil  Warr."  It  is  not 
easy  to  see  how  this  could  be  in  view  of  the  previous 
statement.  It  is  quite  possible  that  George  Constable  was 
sequestered  as  well  as  the  Rector  of  Kirkandrews;  but 
there  is  no  documentary  evidence  of  any  kind  to  show 
that  such  was  the  case.  He  died  in  1673.  "  On  ye  South 
side  of  ye  Church  in  ye  Wall,"  says  Bishop  Nicolson,  in 
1704,  a  monument  bears  the  following  inscription  :  — 

Here  lyes  the  Body  of  Mrs.  Thomasin  Story,  Daughter  of  Mr. 
George  Constable,  last  Rector  of  this  Church,  who  was  marryed  to 
Mr.  Thomas  Story  of  Justice  Town  the  12th  of  January  1658.  She 
left  Issue  George,  Christopher,  Thomas  and  Anne,  and  dyed  the  1st 
of  Febr.   1674.  i 

George  Usher,  B.D.,  1673—1688. 

He  was  instituted  Dec.  19,  1673,  on  a  Presentation  by 
"Richard    Graham    Mil.    and    Bart.,"^    and    had    also 

1.  The  Curwens  of  Workington  Hall,  &c.,  p.  63. 

2.  The  Registers  of  Kirkandrews,  &c.,  p.   290. 

3.  Liber   Rationum,    &c. 

4.  Miscel.,  p.   137. 

5.  Institution  Books. 


3o6  The   Ejected    of  1662 

Bewcastle.^  He  was  the  son  of  Charles  Usher  of 
Kirkandrews  and  received  his  University  training  at 
Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge.  The  following  entries 
in  the  Kirkandrews  Registers  refer  to  his  family : 

1673  June  17.  Isibbell  Daughter  to  Mr.  George  Usher  of  Kirk- 
anders  baptized,  Mr.  Arthuer  fforster  of  Kingfield  God  father,  Mrs. 
fforster  and  Mrs.  Gumpson,  God  mothers. 

1675   July   29    Charles    Sonne   to   Mr.    George    Usher    Minister   of 
Arthurett  borne  j^e  24  of  July  &  baptized  ye  29th. 

Bishop  Kicolson  says  that  in  1704,  in  the  centre  of  the 
chancel,  was  a  monument  thus  inscribed  :  — 

Depositum  Viri  Reverendi  Georgij  Usheri 
S.T.B.  Collegij  Emanuel,  Cantabrig.  Socij 
Rectoris  de  Arthuret,  qui  obijt  Septemb.  4 
die  Mensis,   Anno  Doi  1688  2 

Hugh  Todd,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1688—1728. 

He  continued  to  hold  this  living  even  after  becoming 
Vicar  of  Penrith  in  1699  and  Prebendary  of  the  Cathedral.^ 
Bishop  Nicolson  in  his  Diary  for  May  3,  1707,  refers  to 
a  Mr.  Smith  of  "  ye  Holme,"  who  desired  "  leave  to  go 
Curate  to  Arthuret  at  251i  allowance."  * 

The  Episcopal  Register  has  the  following  referring 
probably  to  the  Chapel  at  Easten  named  by  Dr.  Todd  ^  :  — 

Licentia  erudiendi  pueros  aut  legendi  preces  &c.  in  Capella  de 
floresta  infra  pochiam  de  Kirkhanders  Super  Esk  in  Com.  Cumbriae 
Concessa  est  Gulielmo  Blathwait  literato  quinto  die  Mensis  ffebruarij 
Anno    Dni    1663. 

1.  Vide  p.  294. 

2.  Miscel.,   p.    136. 

3.  Vide  pp.  436,  &c. 

4.  Trans.  (N.S.),  vol.  iv,  p.  2. 

5.  Vide  p.  303.  '  - 


In  older  documents  this  village,  wliich  lies  about  four 
miles  south  east  of  Long-town,  and  eight  north  west  of 
Brampton,  appears  as  "Kirk  Leventon,"  "Kirk  Levington" 
and  "  Kirk  Leavington."  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Cuthbert,  and  the  Registers  begin  in  1655,  though 
they  are  not  very  legible  for  the  rest  of  that  Century. 
In  1904,  a  Transcript  was  carefully  prepared  in  reference 
to  which  we  have  the  following  :  — 

This  Transcript   of  the   Early  Eegisters  of  the   Parish   of   Kirk- 
linton   for    the    years    1655    to    1705    carefully    compared    with    and 
cpmpleted    by   means    of   the  Duplicates    in   the    Bishop's    Registry, 
Carlisle,  was  finished  January  28th  1904 
Alfred  John   Hoi  den 

It  begins  thus  :  — 

A  proper  register  Booke  of 

all  the  Baptisms  in  the  pish 
of  Kirklinton  for  the  present 
yeare   1655. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents :  — 

Robert  Beck,  1576—1599. 

Probably  the  person  of  this  name  who  appears  at 
Brampton  in  1579,  and  at  Crosthwaite  in  1592. ^  If  so  he 
would  be  a  Pluralist.     He  died  in  1599, 

George  Watson,  1599—1604. 

Foster  gives  George  Watson,  M.A.,  as  of  Trinity  or 
Pembroke  College,  Cambridge,  1593,  incorporated,  Oxford, ^ 
July  10,  1599.  Whether  this  was  the  Kirklinton  Rector 
he  does  not  say.     He  resigned  in  1604. 

1.  Vide  pp.  249,  648. 

2.  AI.   Ox. 

3o8  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Edward  Johnson,  M.A.,   1604—1611. 

He  was  instituted  Feb.  21,  1604;  and  probably  held  tbe 
living  of  Beaumont  1  as  well  as  that  of  Kirklinton. 

Christopher  Parrett  or  Parrot,  M.A.,  1611 — 1643. 

The  Parrots  were  a  local  family,  a  person  of  this  name 
appearing  in  the  Cockermouth  Registers.  Christopher 
Parrett  was  instituted  to  Kirklinton,  Sept.  26,  1611.  He 
is  given  as  the  grandfather  of  Christopher  Story,  the 
eminent  Quaker  preacher.  Nicolson  and  Burn  say  that 
he  resigned  "  to  the  Commissioners  of  Archbishop  Usher 
(commendatory  Bishop  of  Carlisle)  in  1643."  ^  Such, 
however,  does  not  appear  to  be  a  correct  view  of  the  case. 
Christopher  Parrett  was  evicted  by  Sir  Edward  Musgrave, 
the  patron  of  the  living,  though  for  what  reason  is  not 
clear ;  but  as  to  the  fact  itself  the  following  is  decisive  :  — 

Kirkelinton.  31    August    1646. 

Upon  complt  made  by  Chrestopher  Parrett  Gierke  yt  he  hath 
beene  Legally  Incumbent  of  ye  Rectory  of  Kyrkelinton  in  ye  County 
of  Cumberland  for  30  yeares  together  Mr.  Edward  Musgrave  Knt  & 
Baronett  did  about  fower  years  since  by  force  evict  ye  sd  Mr.  Parrett 
out  of  ye  Rectory  and  placed  therein  on  [one]  Robt  Priestman  for  yt 
appeareth  nothing  in  ye  behalfe  of  or  agt  ye  sd  Minister  for  his 
said  eviction  &  this  Comittee  doe  referr  ye  same  to  ye  Comtee  of 
Parliamt  for  sd  County  who  are  desired  to  exine  ye  truth  thereof 
and  in  case  they  find  yt  hee  hath  a  legal!  tytle  thereunto  then  ye 
sd  Comtee  bee  desired  to  reestableshe  &  settle  him  in  ye  sd  Rectory 
&  ye  quiett  and  peaceable  posson  thereof.  3 

The  appeal,  however,  does  not  seem  to  have  had  any 
immediate  result;  but  whether  we  are  to  see  its  influence 
in  the  Sequestration  which  followed,  about  two  years  later, 
cannot  be  determined.  Information  about  Christopher 
Parrett  after  this  date  is  not  forthcoming.  Possibly  the 
marriage  of  a  daughter  is  referred  to*  in  the  Registers 
thus  :  — 

1657  William  Graham  and  Jane  Parratt  Mar.    March  xi. 

1.  Vide  p.  219. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.   ii,  p.   463. 

3.  Add.   MSS.,   Brit.   Mus.,   15670. 

Kirklinton  309 

Egbert  Priestman,  1643— 1648  (?). 

The  writers  previously  quoted  say  in  reference  to  this 
appointment  that  the  name  of  the  person  presenting  is  not 
known ;  but  from  the  foregoing  document  it  appears  it  was 
Sir  Edward  Musgrave.  Also  from  the  fact  that  the  same 
writers  go  on  to  mention  Robert  Priestman's  death  in 
1679,  the  impression  conveyed  is  that  his  ministry  was 
continuous.  This,  however,  was  not  so.  He  suffered 
Sequestration  about  1648,  though  Walker  does  not  mention 
his  name.  The  evidence  for  this  is  the  Petition  which 
is  given  a  little  later.  Unfortunately  a  gap  of  eight 
years  occurs  after  him.  Can  it  be  that  Christopher  Parrett 
returned  ? 

Robert  Hooper,  1657/8 — 1660. 

The  following  notifies  his  appointment :  — 

Kirklington    in 
ye   County  of 

Eobert  Hooper  Gierke — admitted  the  25th  day  of  January  1657  to 
ye  R.  of  Kirklington  in  ye  County  of  Cumberland  upon  a  pres. 
exhibited  the  same  day  from  his  Highnesse  The  Lord  Protector  under 
ye  great  Seale  of  England  And  Certificates  from  Tho.  Craister,  Cuth. 
Studholme,  Tim.  Tully  of  Carlile  Jos.  Nicholson  of  Orton  Comfort 

Calamy  and  Palmer  mention  him  as  an  Ejected  Minister, 
but  they   give   no   further   information   concerning   him. 
They  do  not  even  supply  his   Christian  name.     In  each 
case   the   place   is   given    as   "  Kirklevington."        Robert 
Hooper  passes  out  of  sight  at  this  point. 
The  following  belong  to  this  period :  — 
Stanton  and 
Houghton  November  3,   1657. 

9  Nov. 

Sr.  Edward  Musgrave  haveing  not  hitherto  made  out  his  title  to 
the  tithes  of  Stanton  and  Houghton  in  the  County  of  Cumberland 
according  to  former  ordr  in  that  behalfe  ordered  that  Mr.  John 
Pococke  acquaint  Mr.  Cooke  the  sd  Sr.  Edward's  Solicitor  with  the 
said  neglect  that  so  the  saide  cause  may  be  at  length  brought  to  a 
determination.  2 

1.  Lambeth    MSS.    (Plund.    Min.),    998. 

2.  Ibid.,  980. 

3IO  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Stanton  & 
Houghton.  May   27,    1658 

Whereas  the  Lease  of  the  tithes  of  Stanton  &  Houghton  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  is  long  since  expired  (vizt)  the  3rd  of  Aprill 
1649  since  when  Sr.  Edward  Musgrave  possor  of  the  said  tithes  hath 
not  accounted  for  the  mesne  profitts  of  the  same  It  is  ordered  that 
Mr.  Edmond  Branthwayte  recr  doe  make  particular  inquirie  after 
the  true  value  of  the  said  profitts  and  demands  and  receive  the  same 
of  the  said  Sr  Edward  and  in  default  of  payment  thereof  to  certifie 
the  same  to  these  Trustees  that  such  further  proceedings  may  be  had 
thereupon  as  to  justice  shall  appertaine. 
Edward  Cresset  Jo  Pocock  Ea.   Hall  Jo.   Humfrey  Ri.   Yong.  1 

Robert  Priestman,  1660 — 1679. 

Like  many  others  similarly  circumstanced,  Robert 
Priestman  petitioned  the  House  of  Lords,  in  June,  1660, 
for  restoration  to  the  living,  from  which  he  had  been 
"  illegally  ejected  and  Thurst  out,"  and  his  suit  was 
successful.     His  Petition  reads  thus  :  — 

To  the  right  honorble  the  Lords  in  parliamt  assembled  : — 
The  humble  peticon  of  Robert  Preistman  Clearke. 

That  yor  petr  for  these  twelve  yeares  last  past  hath  beene  most 
illegally  ejected  and  Thurst  out  of  his  parsonage  of  Kirklinton  als 
Kirk  leavington  in  the  County  of  Cumbland  and  from  exercize  of  his 
Ministeriall  duty  there  onely  for  his  Loyalty  and  good  affecon  to  his 

May  it  therefore  please  yor 

Lordpps  to  grant  yor  ORDER  for  the  secureing  of  the 

tythes  gleabes  and  profitts  thereof 

into  the  hands  of  Such 

persons   as   yor   Lordpps 

shall  thinke  fitt  untill  yor 

petrs  tytle  to  his  said  parsonage 

shall  be  determined  by  due  Course 

of  Law. 

And  yor  petionr,   shall 

dayly  pray   &c. 

I  can  testifie  the  truth  of  this  petition  for  ye  Petitioner  was  presented 
by  me ;   and   forcably  elected  for  his  Loyalty  this  twelve  yeares  or 
there  abouts,  and  he  is  a  Conscientious  man. 


1.  Lambeth  MSS.    (Plund.   Min.),   980. 

Kirklinton  3 1 1 

Sr.  Edw.  Musgrave  Knt  of  Hayton  in  Cumbland. 
[On  the  outside  of  the  document  appears  the  following]  : — 23  of  June 
1660  The  peticon  of  Robt.  Preistnian,  Clearke 
Expd.     ' 

The  Priestman  entries  in  the  Registers  are  as  follows  :  — 

1656  Eichard  .  .  .  son  of   Robert   Priestman  Minister,   Bur.   ye   17 

1656  Mary  daughter  of  Mr.   Robert  Priestman  born  Feb.   24:th. 

1657  Mary  daughter  of  Robert  Preistman  bur.  Dec.   28. 
1658 Son  of  Robert   Priestman   born   Oct.    5. 

1660  Jane  daughter  of  Mr.   Robert  Priestman  Chry[stened]  Jan  .  .  . 

1661  John  Sonne  of  Robert  Preistman  Clerk  Bur.  Aprill  13. 

1663  Katherine  daughter  of  Mr.  Robert  Priestman  Chryst  .... 

1664  Elizabeth  daughter  of  Mr.  Robert  Preistman  Chryt. 

1666  Dorothie  daughter   of  Mr.    Priestman   Bapt.    November   6. 
1668-9  January   Jane  daughter   of   Robert   Priestman   Minister   Bapt. 

1671  Aprill  Arthur  Sonne  of  Robt  Preistman  Minister  Bapt  3rd 
1677  June  Richard  son  of  Mr.  Preistman  ^Bur.  29th. 

It  would  appear  from  the  foregoing  that  Robert  Priestman 
was  resident  in  the  district  during  the  period  of  his 
Sequestration.  He  remained  here  until  his  death,  in  1679, 
and  held  the  Scaleby  living  as  well.^  He  was  active  in 
his  opposition  to  the  Quakers  who  Avere  numerous  in  the 
neighbourhood.  At  a  suit  instituted  by  him  for  "Predial 
Tithes"  John  Jackson  of  Kirklinton  was  imprisoned  Sept. 
•30,  1677.^  It  was  in  his  time  also  that  the  following 
Presentments  were  made  :  — 


We  do   present  these   psons   under   written   as   Quakers   and  Non- 
Conformists — 

Christopher  Taylor  of  Hitherside 

Christopher  Story  of  Righead 

George  Grame  of  Rigg 

Andrew  Martin 

George   Hetherington  of  Grainhead 

Andrew   Hetherington  of  Ash 

1.  House  of  Lords'  Library ;  also  H.M.C.,  Seventh  Report,  Pt.  I,  p.  107. 

2.  Vide  p.  291. 

3.  Besse's  Sufferings,  &c.,  vol.  i,  p.  132  :  First  Publishers  of  the  Truth, 
p.  63. 

312  The   Ejected    of   1662 

Symond   Armestrong   alias   Groont 
William  Blacketter 
John  Ivyson 
John  Jackson  Junr 
John  Summervell 
Christopher   Hetherington. 
We  do  present  these  underwritten  for  non  payment  of  Church  dues 
William  Hetherington  of  Rigg 
Thos  Graham  of  the  same 
Edward  Grame  of  ililtown 

George   Grame  of   Rigg  ■  ' 

Robert  Phillipp  of  Whamtown 

John  Grame  alias  Blackhouse  late  deceased  whose  Will  &  Testmt 
is  to  present.' 

Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  says:  — 

In  the  Church-yard   (which  is  pretty  well  fenced)  there  is  great 
Store  of  Graves;  notwithstanding  the  mighty  Swarms  of  Quakers  in 
the  parish,   who  have  also  a   Sepulchre   of   their  own  within   View. 
On  a  Tomb-Stone  here  I  found  the  following  Epitaph,  ill  speli'd  : 
Here  lyeth  the  Body  of  jNIr.  Robert  Priestman 
leat   Rector  of  this   Church,   who  lived   Mi- 
nister the  Space  of  38  years,  and  dyed 
April  the   16th,    1679.= 

George  Story,  1681—1694. 

He  was  instituted  May  30,  1681,  on  the  Presentation 
of  the  Archbishop  of  York.  He  appears  to  have  been 
exceedingly  active  both  against  Conventiclers  and  Quakers. 
On  Dec.  1,  1684,  Sir  Greorge  Fletcher  writes  to  Sir  Daniel 
Fleming  in  the  interests  of  "  Cousin  "  Warwick  against 
whom  it  was  charged  by  "one  Story,  parson  of  Kirklinton," 
that  he  had  refused  to  give  a  warrant  for  the  suppressing 
of  a  Conventicle  which  "  the  constables  and  church- 
wardens "  had  also  refused  to  disturb.^  George  Story  * 
resigned  Dec.  6,  1694,  on  being  nominated  to  the  Deanery 
of  Connor  in  Ireland. 

1.  Parish  Registers. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.  107. 

3.  Fleming  MSS.,  H.M.C.,  Twelfth  Report,  p.   195. 

4.  Vide  "The  First  Publishers  of  the  Truth  "  (p.  64)  for  George  Story 
and  the  Quakers. 


Kirklinton  3 1 3 

David  Bell,  M.A.,  1695^1706. 

He  was  instituted  April  27,  1695,  on  the  Presentation 
of  "  Edmund  Appleby,  Gen.,"  having  previously  been  at 
Askham.  In  1706  he  removed  to  Aspatria,  and  was  at 
Great  Orton  in  1710.^ 

John  Murray,  M.A.,  1707—1722. 

He  was  instituted  April  4,  1707,  on  the  Presentation  of 
Joseph  Appleby,  and  inducted  two  days  afterwards. 
Foster  says  : — "  Son  of  John  of  Stirling,  Scotland,  Univer- 
sity Coll.  matric.  12  Dec,  1695,  aged  17  :  one  of  these 
names  rector  of  Ivirklington,  Cumberland,  1707."  ^  He 
remained  until  his  death  in  1722.  His  burial  entry  reads 
thus  :  — 

1722  July  27  John  Murray  Rector  of  this  Parish  Buried. 

Anthony  Wilton,  B.A.,  1722—1731. 

The  Registers  state  that  he  was  inducted  Sept.  29,  1722, 
by  "  Mr.  Edward  Birkett  Rector  of  Kirkland."  He  signs 
the  Lanercost  Transcripts  in  1726  and  1728,  and  was 
probably  Curate  of  Walton,  being  therefore  like  many 
others  of  that  period,  a  Pluralist  on  a  considerable  scale. 

L  Vide  pp.  233,  646,  1221. 
2.  Al.  Ox. 


This  place  is  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Eden  about  six 
miles  north  west  of  Carlisle.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Mary ;  and  the  Registers  date  back  to  1679.  "  On  the 
fly-leaf,"  writes  Dr.  Wilson,  "  in  a  neat  bold  band  is  tbe 
following : 

Cumberland,  Roecliffe  at  Easter  1679  John  Litle  and  Jeff  Urwin 
being  ch[urch]wardens.  This  Register  book  was  bought  at  ye  insti- 
gation of  Mr.  Tho.  Stalker  Mr.  A.  Coll,  Reg.  Oxon  curate  yn  of  this 
ch.  of  Roecliffe  lectr  of  St.  Cuthberts  Carlile  and  Minor  canon  of  ye 
Cathedll  ch  in  yt  citty.  There  was  not  one  yr  [there]  before  for 
many  yeares  being  taken  away  with  other  utensills  of  ye  Church  by 
Scott's  armyes  and  last  of  all  by  Ld  Duke  Hamilton's  in  ye  year 
1648.    ' 

Previous  to  1754  it  was  a  Curacy  first,  in  connection  with 
the  Cathedral  of  Carlisle,  and  subsequently  under  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  there,  who  nominated  a  perpetual 
Curate.  Of  these  no  complete  list  is  possible,  but  tbe 
following  scraps  of  information  have  been  obtained :  — 

William  Cox,  1656. 

The  authority  for  this  is  the  following  :  — 

Mar  6,  1656. 

Know  all   men  by   these   psents  that   there  was  exhibited  &c.    an 
Ordr  of  ye  Trustees  for   &c.   for  ye  settlemt  of  Mr.   Wm  Cocke  in 
ye  Curacy  of  the  parish  Church  of  Rowcliffe  in  ye  County  of  Cum- 
berland  Together   &c   Upon   pusall   &c  the   Comrs   &c. 
Dated  Att  Whitehall  the  26th  day  of  Deer  1656. 
A   true   copy 

Jo.  Nye  Regr.^ 

Rowcliffe.  March  20,  1656. 

Whereas  the  Curacy  of  the  pish  Church  of  Rowcliffe  in  the  County 
of  Cumberland  is  at  the  Care  and  provision  of  these  Trustees  It  is 

1.  Vict.  Hist.,  &c.,  Cumb.,  vol.  ii,  p.  93  note  6. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.   Min.),  968. 

Rocliff  e  3 1 5 

ordered  that  Mr.  Wm.  Cocks  (approved  by  the  Comrs  for  Approbacon 
of  publique  preachers  the  26th  of  December  1656)  be  and  he  is  hereby 
constituted  and  appointed  Minister  of  Rowcliffe  aforesaid,  and  that 
he  doe  officiate  in  the  pish  Church  and  preach  unto  and  diligently 
instruct  the  Inhabitants  of  the  sd  pish  And  that  he  shall  have  for  his 
paines  therein,  all  Stipends  Salaries  pencons  and  allowances  whatso- 
ever to  the  Curate  or  Minister  of  the  sd  pish  Church  belonging  or  in 
any  wise  appteining  And  it  is  further  ordered  that  the  yearely  Sume 
Seaventeene  poundes  six  Shillinges  be  from  time  to  time  paid  unto 
him  out  of  the  rents  and  profitts  of  the  Rectory  of  Rowcliffe 
aforesd  to  hold  for  such  time  as  he  shall  descharge  the  duty  of  the 
Minister  of  the  sd  place  or  untill  further  order  of  these  Trustees  to 
be  Accompted  from  the  25th  day  of  December  last  and  that  Mr. 
Edmund  Branthwaite  Receiver  doe  pay  the  Same  unto  the  sd  Mr. 
Cocks  accordingly. 

Ra.  Hall,  Jo.  Humfrey,  Edw.  Cressett 

Jo.   Pocock  Ri.   Yong.  i 

Foster  gives  quite  a  number  of  persons  of  this  name  among- 
his  Oxford  Alumni ;  but  he  does  not  identify  the  person  in 
question.     What  became  of  him  we  do  not  know. 

Henry  Skarrow,  M.A.,  1668. 

This  is  the  date  in  the  Transcripts  when  he  signs  as 
"  Curat  ibidem."     He  was  subsequently  at  Castle  Carrock.^ 

Thomas  Stalker,  M.A.,  1679—1680. 

He  was  previously  at  Thursby,  and  was  also  Lecturer  at 
Carlisle.  3 

Richard  Shepherd,  1682. 

This  again  is  the  date  of  his  signature  in  the  Transcripts, 
though  his  license  to  serve  the  Cure  is  dated  Apr,  17,  1683. 
Almost  certainly  this  is  the  person  of  that  name  referred 
to  as  "  late  Schoolr "  under  date  Dec.  20,  1683,  in  the 
account  of  Carlisle.  He  was  at  Cliburn  in  1688,*  and 
married  Jane  Stalker,  the  daughter  of  his  predecessor  at 

1.  Lambeth   MSS.    (Plund.    Min.),   993. 

2.  Vide  p.  265. 

3.  Vide  pp.  186,  544. 

4.  Vide  pp.  182,  1245. 

3i6  The   Ejected    of  1662 

John  Calvert,  1690— 1719  (?). 

He  was  admitted  to  the  Curacy  Dec.  22,  1690. 
He  signs  the  Transcripts  in  1691  and  continues  to  do  so 
until  1719.  He  had  been  Curate  of  Cumrew  from  1679  to 
1690.^  Bishop  Nicolson,  in  1703,  slightly  reflects  upon  his 
lack  of  training  thus  :  — 

In  a  neighbouring  House  the  Children  are  taught  by  Mr.  Moor, 
a  Scotch  Mr.  of  Arts  of  Aberdene ;  who  has  contracted  with  ye 
Parishioners  for  a  salary  of  3li  and  his  Diet;  He  is  also  Clerk  of  the 
Parish,  worth  about  10s  under  a  Curate  who  never  saw  either  an 
University  or  a  College  excepting  that  in  the  Abbey  at  Carlile, 
where  he  is  a  Petty  Canon.    ^ 

The  Transcripts  furnish  several  interesting  items,  in  one 
of  Avhich  a  tribute  is  paid  to  the  devotion  of  the  Minister 
notwithstanding  his  want  of  University  training  :  — 

[About  1692.] 

We  psent  ye  pish  for  not  buying  a  new  Surplice  that  wch  we 
have  is  all  in  tatters  &  raggs  even  a  shame  to  see  !  We  have  nothing 
else  (yt  we  know  off)  to  p'sent  this  yeare. 

This  is  signed  by  the  Churchwardens  "  old  "  and  ''  new." 

April   22,    1702. 

We  psent  William  Hill  a  Whigg  for  teaching  School  in  Rockliffe 
pish   without  a   Licence. 

May  2,  1704,  among  other  things,  they  report :  — 

Our  Minister  is  episcopally  ordained  never  absent  from  us  any 
Sunday  or  on  any  occaon  but  Sometime  when  necessarily  detained  in 
the  Cathedrall  upon  his  Duty  being  a  Minor  Canon  there  as  diligent 
as  any  man  can  be  in  the  discharge  of  his  Duty  required  in  the 
Articles  under  this  Title. 

There  is  a  Meeting  held  in  George  Davison's  house  at  the  Cross 
evry  week  twice,  vizt  on  Sunday  &  Thursday  night,  To  which  there 
come  a  great  number  of  People  from  sev'all  Parishes. 

Calamy  names  Daniel  King,  born  at  Bridge  of  Allan, 
near  Stirling,   "  brought  up  in  the  College  of  Glasgow, 

1.  Vide  p.  269. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.   14. 

Refugees  3 1 7 

and  ordain'd  at  Edinburgh,"  as  obtaining  a  living  in 
Cumberland  through  the  "  Interest  of  the  Earl  of  Queens- 
berry,"  whence  he  was  ejected  for  his  Nonconformity. 
He  adds  :  "  As  some  that  were  ejected  and  silenc'd  in 
these  Parts  [Cumberland]  went  afterwards  into  Scotland, 
so  some  that  were  harrass'd  there,  came  and  took  shelter 
here."  ^  No  places  are  named ;  but,  as  the  part  of  the 
County  with  which  this  Chapter  is  concerned  is  contiguous 
to  Scotland,  probably  it  was  here  that  these  interchanges 
took  place. 

1.  Calamy,   vol.   iii,  p.  229. 




This  is  a  good  sized  village  in  the  Eden  Yalley,  about 
midway  between  Appleby  and  Carlisle.  The  Cliurcb, 
dedicated  to  St.  Nicholas,  is  an  old  foundation,  though 
the  present  structure  is  modern.  The  Registers  begin  in 
1638,  the  earliest  possible  date.  They  are  in  excellent 
condition,  the  ink  being  faded  in  only  a  few  places.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  Incumbents :  — 

Edward  Denton,  M.A.,  1588—1614. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Meye.  Foster  says  that  he 
was  the  son  of  Thomas  Denton  who  first  built  Warnall  in 
the  Parish  of  Sebergham :  "  Tabarder  of  Queen's  Coll, 
1566,  B.A.  9  July  1568,  fellow  1569,  M.A.  18  June  1572, 
vicar  of  Ditchling  Sussex  1581-8."  ^  The  Registers  note 
his  burial  thus  :  — 

1614,  Mr.  Edward  Denton,  vicar  was  buried  the  5th  of  October. 
His  wife  was  buried  January  7,  1629-30. 

Anthony  Haydock,  1614 — 1638. 

He  was  collated  Oct.  8,  1614.  Foster  has  the  following, 
but  whether  referring  to  the  person  before  us  he  does 
not  say  :  "  Haydock  Antony  B.A.  from  Magdalen  Hall  27 
May,  1587,  M.A.  9  July,  1590,  son  of  James  of  Greywell, 
Hants."  2     The  Registers  note  his  interment  thus :  — 

1638.     Mr.  Anthony  Haydock  vicar  buryed  the  xix  of  January. 

Jonathan  Goodwin,  M.A.,  1637/8 — 1645. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Potter,  Feb.  27,  1637-S,  and 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Ibid. 

Lazonby  3 1 9 

the  place  is  given  as  "  Laysingby,"  ^  His  Induction  took 
place  on  "Mareli  ye  first  16'37-8,"2  and  his  Sequestration 
by  the  Plundered  Ministers'  Committee  about  1645.  In 
this  year  his  name  occurs  in  the  Registers.  Walker  finds 
him  a  place  in  his  list. 

Simon  Atkinson,  1645 — 1660. 

He  signs  the  Registers  as  Yicar  in  January,  1645—6. 
The  following  documents  are  of  the  utmost  importance  on 
several  accounts.  They  give,  among  other  things,  the 
true  reason  for  Goodwin's  Sequestration,  the  date  of  Simon 
Atkinson's  appointment,  the  insistence  of  the  Committee 
upon  the  full  and  regular  payment  of  "  Fifths  "  to  Mrs. 
Goodwin,  and  the  examination  of  Simon  Atkinson  by 
Cromwell's  "  Triers."  These  documents,  and  others  of 
a  similar  character,  serve  to  show  that  the  charge  of 
oppression,  frequently  brought  against  the  Commonwealth 
regime,  has  often  mingled  with  it  considerable  exaggera- 
tion :  — 
Lazonby.  28  Martii  1646. 

Whereas  ye  vicarage  of  ye  parish  church  of  Lazonby  in  ye  County 
of  Cumberland  standeth  sequestred  by  ye  Comittee  for  ye  sd  County 
from  Jonathan  Goodwin  for  yt  hee  deserted  his  Cure  and  betooke 
himselfe  to  ye  King's  forces  This  Comittee  doe  confirme  ye  sd  seques- 
tracon  to  ye  use  of  some  godly  and  orthodox  divine  And  whereas 
Symon  Atkinson  INIinister  of  ye  word  hath  peticoned  for  Satisfaccon 
for  his  farther  service  of  ye  Cure  of  ye  sd  Church  This  Comittee  doe 
referr  ye  same  to  ye  Comtee  for  ye  sd  County  who  are  desired  to 
exaine  what  tyme  hee  hath  served  ye  sd  Cure  and  to  allow  him  such 
satisfaccon  for  his  sayd  service  out  of  ye  pfitts  of  ye  sd  benefice  as  to 
them  shall  seeme  iust  &  equall.* 

Lazonby.  1  April,   1646. 

Whereas  ye  vicarage  of  ye  Parish  Church  of  Lazonby  in  ye  County 
of  Cumberland  standeth  sequestred  by  ye  Comtee  for  ye  sd  County 
from  Jonathan  Goodwin  for  deserting  his  Cure  and  betaking  him- 
selfe to  ye  King's  forces  And  ye  sd  Sequestracon  is  by  order  of  this 
Comittee  of  ye  xxviij  of  March  last  Confirmed  to  ye  use  of  some 
godly  and  orthodox  divine  It  is  ordered  yt  Symon  Attkinson  a  Godly 

1.  Institution  Books. 

2.  Parish  Registers. 

3.  Add.   MSS.,  Brit.   Mus.,   15670. 

320  The   Ejected   of  1662 

and  orthodox  Divine  doe  prsently  officiate  ye  Cure  of  ye  sd  Church 
and  preach  diligently  to  ye  pareshioners  there.' 

Lazonby.  Junii  20,  1646. 

Upon  the  humble  peticon  of  Jane  the  wife  of  Jonathan  Goodwyn 
from  whome  the  vicarage  of  Lazonby  in  the  Countie  of  Cumberland 
is  sequestred  It  is  ordered  that  the  said  Mrs.  Goodwin  shall  have  for 
&  towards  the  maintennce  of  her  and  her  children  the  full  cleere  5th 
pte  of  all  the  tithes  rents  glebe  lands  &  Easter  booke  of  the  said 
viccarage  (all  taxes  &  charges  first  deducted  out  of  the  whole)  unlesse 
good  cause  be  shown  to  the  contrarie  the  sd  Mr.  Goodwyn  and  his 
wife  yeilding  all  due  obedience  to  the  said  Sequestracon.  The 
examinacon  of  wch  cause  (if  there  be  any)  this  Comittee  doe  referre 
to  the  Cotee  of  Parliamt  for  the  Countie  of  Cumberland  who  are 
desired  to  heare  the  pties  on  both  sides  therein  &  to  call  before  them 
and  examine  the  witnesses  that  shalbe  produced  as  well  for  proofe  of 
the  said  cause  as  on  the  pte  and  behalfe  of  the  sd  Mris.  Goodwin  for 
the  Justifying  of  her  &  of  the  said  paymt  of  the  said  ffifth  pte  &  to 
determine  the  dilferences  betweene  them  if  they  can  or  otherwise  to 
Certifie  the  same  to  this  Cotee. 
Ord.  ye  June  23,   1646.2 

Lazonby  August   19,   1646. 

Upon  consideracon  had  of  the  peticon  of  Symon  Atkinson  Minister 
of  Lazonby  in  the  County  of  Cumbland  this  Coittee  do  declare  and 
order  that  Joane  the  wife  of  Jonathan  Goodwin  from  whom  the 
Rectory  of  Lazonby  aforesd  is  sequestred  shall  have  the  5th  pte  of  the 
profitts  of  the  said  Rectory  from  the  time  that  the  said  Mrs.  Goodwin 
did  pticon  for  the  sd  5th  pte  &  not  before  &  that  all  taxes  and 
charges  be  first  deducted  out  of  the  whole  &  that  the  same  be  paid 
in  money  by  the  sd  Mr.  Atkinson  and  not  in  specie  wch  the  Comittee 
for  the  said  County  are  desired  upon  exacaion  of  pties  on  both  sides 
concerning  the  vallew  of  the  said  Living  to  ascertaine  &  see  paid 
accordingly.  3 

Lazonby  Junii  12,   1647. 

Upon  consideracon  had  of  the  peticon  of  Joane  the  wife  of  Jonathan 
Goodwin  from  whom  the  Vicarage  of  Lazonby  in  the  Countie  of 
Cumberland  is  sequestred  (a  coppy  whereof  is  hereto  annexed)  It  is 
ordered  that  the  said  Mrs.  Goodwyn  shall  have  a  fift  pte  paid  her 
according  as  the  Comittee  of  the  said  Countie  have  value  the  same 
vizt,    after   the   rate  of   seaventy   poundes   a   yeare,    which   the   said 

1.  Bodl.   MS.  322. 

2.  Add.  MSS.,  Brit.  Mus.,  15670. 

3.  Ibid. 

Lazonby  321 

Comittee  are  desired  to  see  paid  unto  her  accordingly  togeather  with 
all  arreares  due  from  the  time  that  the  said  fift  pte  was  first  graunted 
her.  And  whereas  it  is  certified  by  the  Comittee  of  the  said  Countie 
that  on  ffrancis  [Symon]  Atkinson  who  is  not  in  orders  hath  intruded 
himselfe  into  the  said  Benefice  and  Church  It  is  ordered  that  he  doe 
Answere  before  this  Cottee  on  the  tenth  day  of  August  next  his  said 
Intrusion.  1 


Tyne.         By  the  Comrs.  the  third  day  of  November,  1652. 
Lazonby  & 

Whereas  Mr.  Symond  Atkinson  being  recomended  for  a  godly  and 
painfull  preacher  and  of  able  guifts  and  knowledg  for  the  worke  of 
the  ilinistry  and  of  approved  Conversacon  for  piety  hath  come  before 
us  and  upon  Tryall  and  examinacon  of  his  guifts  by  Divers  godly 
Ministers  according  to  ye  direcon  of  the  Parliament  is  found  fitt  to 
preach  the  Gospell  of  Jesus  Christ  and  to  be  duly  qualifyed  and 
guifted  for  yt  holy  Imployment  These  are  therefore  by  Vertue  of  the 
power  and  Authority  to  us  given  by  the  Parliament  to  appoint  the 
said  Mr.  Symond  Atkinson  to  preach  att  Lazonby  and  Heskett  in  the 
County  of  Cumberland  &  to  bee  Itinerant  in  those  places  And  for 
his  support  &  Mayntenance  It  is  hereby  appointed  and  Ordered  that 
the- vicaridge  of  Lazonby  ye  Tythe  of  petterill  Crookes  ye  reservacon 
rent  of  ye  Tythe  of  Heskett  and  the  proffitts  of  the  proctor  office  of 
Cuthberts  in  Carlisle  with  all  Gleabe  Lands  houses  Tythes  Rents  and 
other  proffitts  to  ye  same  belonging  be  vested  and  setled  upon  the 
said  Symond  Atkinson  And  he  is  hereby  invested  in  the  same  &  as 
lawfully  seized  thereof  to  all  intents  and  purposes  as  if  he  had  beene 
instituted  and  inducted  according  to  any  former  Course  of  Law. 
G.  Vane  :  Tho.  Cholmley,  Jo.  Clavering,  Wm.  ffenwick,  Jo.  Ogle 
Wm.  Vane  Lu.  Rillingworth,  Wm.  IMawson,  Tho.  Craister,  Tho. 
Langhorne,  Geo.  Dawson,  Hen.  Horsley,  Edw.  Winter. 

It  is  ye  true  intent  of  ye  Comrs.  that  the  abovesaid  reserved  rent 
of  the  tithe  of  Heskett  is  the  six  poundes  thirteene  Shillinges  &  fouer- 
pence  payable  by  the  Lady  ffletcher  ye  15th  of  March  and  ye  first 
day  of  August. 
Exd.  &  Entr 

Ant.  Parsons.  2 

Lazonby.  The  like  [approval]  for  Mr.  Symon  Atkinson  of  Lazonby 
in  the  County  of  Cumberland  Dated  att  Whitehall  the  ffifteenth  day  of 
April!  ["Aprill"  is  erased  and  "ffebruary"  inserted]  1665.    Jo.  Nye,  Reg.* 

1.  Add.  MSS.,  Brit.  Mus.,  15671. 

2.  Lambeth  MSS.  (Plund.  Min.),  1006. 

3.  Ibid.,  968. 

322  The   Ejected   of   1662 

Simon  Atkinson  was  one  of  the  few  men  who  took  the 
Engagement,  the  date  being  Oct.  20,  1649.  Like  many 
of  the  Ministers  of  the  time  he  came  into  conflict  with  the 
Quakers.  In  the  Jackson  Library,  Carlisle,  is  a  scarce 
volume  which  was  intended  to  be  a  reply  to  some  of  his 
utterances.  On  the  first  page,  evidently  by  a  later  hand, 
appears  the  following  :  — 

The  Lamb's  Innocency. 

defended  against  Lyes  and  Slanders  In 

Answer  to  a  second  reply  of  a  Priest 

who  is  called  a  Minister  at  Lazonby 

in  Cumberland,  called  Simon  Atkinson 

who  hath  shewed  his  Wolfish 

nature  against  those  People  called 

Quakers  :  ranking  them  up  with  Papists  &c 

written  in  defence  of  the  Truth  as 

it  is  in  Jesus,  by  a  Foole  to  the  Wisdom 

of  this  World,  who  according  to  measure, 

hath  tasted   and  obtained  of  the 

Wisdom  of  God  :  whose  bodily  name  is 

called  Joseph   Helling. 

[No  Printer's  name  or  place  supplied] 

It  is  an  extremely  bitter  production,  and  the  plan 
adopted  is  to  take  the  "  Priest's  "  points  and  reply  to  them 
seriatim.  Evidently  Simon  Atkinson  had  contended  that 
the  similarity  between  the  Quaker  position  and  that  of 
Rome  was  .very  real.  It  was  a  contention  put  forward  by 
not  a  few  who  opposed  the  Quaker  luovement,  and  Helling 
deeply  resented  it.  The  following  extracts  give  a  good 
idea  of  the  character  of  the  work :  — 

Pr.  [Priest],  first  accusation.  The  Babylonish  Merchants  (1  meane 
Papists)  have  their  severall  sorts  of  Wares  to  sell  which  you  nre  their 
onely  chapmen  for,  and  hath  taken  them  of  their  hands  :  That  the 
Common  light  in  all  is  sufficient  to  salvation,  provided  men  doe  not 
stifle  it,  nor  extinguish  it  by  Wilfull  sinning  against  it  :  Sir,  say  not 
you  so  too  ? 

Ans.     This  accusation  is  false  and  confused ;  we  never  was  at  the 
Popish  Colledges   to   learne   a   trade   as  most   of   you   have   bin,    at 
Trinity   Colledge,    Christs   Colledge,   Jesus  Colledge   St.   John's   Col 
ledge   &c.      these  Colledges  was  instituted   by  the   Popes   Law,    and 
named  after  Saints  for  nursing  up  of  Jesuits ;  as  also  your  Churches 

Lazonby  323 

with  the  Popes  Crosses  upon  the  most  of  them  and  called  by  the 
name  of  Saints,  as  St.  Peters  Church,  St.  Pauls  Church  St.  Maries 
Church  &c  so  I  have  not  given  you  a  wrrong  title  viz.  Merchants  of 
Babell,  which  comes  nearer  you  in  the  Ministry,  then  Papists  outward 

Pr.  And  why  should  Pearles  be  cast  before  Swine,  that  will  trample 
them  under  feet  and  turne  again  and  rend  us? 

Ans.  We  doe  not  look  for  Pearles  at  your  hands ;  for  how  can  a 
Fountain  send  forth  at  one  hole  sweet  water  and  bitter?  Or  how 
can  a  lyar  and  a  false  Accuser  comunicate  Pearles?  and  Although 
thou  tearm  us  to  Swine  yet  doe  we  chew  our  Cud,  and  knows  our 
Manna,  the  food  of  life,  and  the  Swine  we  know,  thou  that  feeds 
upon  the  Huske,  putting  the  letter  for  the  word  and  tryall  of  Spirits 
and  for  your  rule  and  not  the  new  Creature.  Therefore,  I  say,  deale 
honestly  with  thy  soull  and  take  heed  that  thou  be  not  found  a 
Swineheard  instead  of  a  Shepherd,  take  notice  of  that  thou  that 
trades  with  the  letter. 

Dealing  later  with  the  Tithe  Question  he  says  :  — 

The  parish  Masters  of  our  dayes  having  got  a  fairer  forme  is  found 
filling  up  the  measures  of  both  Scribes  and  Pharisees  and  the  Papists, 
persecuting  and  fighting  themselves  as  hath  been  proved  and  as  I 
can  witnes  from  Eichard  Gilpyn  of  Graystocke,  who  pushed  me  with 
his  hand,  calling  me  simple  foole  and  threatening  me  with  prison  and 
clapping  by  the  heels  &c  so  to  us  you  are  made  manifest,  and  shall 
no  more  weare  a  rough  garment  (to  deceive)  or  a  black  dyed  Inke 
garment ;  but  the  Lord  will  cut  olf  the  name  of  the  Kimerims,  or  the 
name  of  the  Black  coats ;  so  look  to  it  you  sons  of  the  Sorcerers ;  for 
the  lack  of  Wages  hath  stopped,  and  will  stop  the  mouthes  of  the 
idol  shepherds,  that  calls  the  Scriptures  the  word  of  God  and  Tryall 
of  Spirits. 

Simon  Atkinson's  name  appears  in  the  Registers  as  late 
[as  Nov.,  1659.     The  following  entries  relate  to  members 
)f  his  family  :  — 

1653  Samuell  Atkinson  Sonne  of  Simon  -Atkinson  vicar  and 
Ellinor  his  wife  was  born  the  xxixth  day  of  September. 

1655  Sarah  Atkin.son  daughter  of  Simon  &  Ellinor  his  wife  borne 
the  xiiij  of  Aprill. 

1657  Abigail  Atkinson  daughter  of  Simon  and  Ellinor  his  wife  borne 
ye  same  day  [27]  of  July. 

N'icolson  and  Burn  find  no  place  in  their  History  for 
[Simon  Atkinson,  nor  does  Hutchinson  in  his,  whilst 
iWhellan  and  Jefferson  simply  give  the  name  without  date. 

324  The   Ejected    of   1662 

Calamy   places  him  among    his    Ejected    Ministers    and 
gives  the  following  brief  account  of  him :  — 

Lasenby  :  Mr.  Simon  Atkinson.  A  very  Acute  Man,  and  of  a 
good  Judgment.  Especially  Nice  in  his  School  Learning.  He  dy'd 
in  Sept.  1694  upon  a  Cold  caught  Travelling  from  Penrith,  where 
he  Preach'd  at  the  opening  of  a  Lecture,  encourag'd  by  Dr.  Thomas 
Gibson  of   Hatton   Garden  in  London.' 

As  in  the  case  of  so  many  others,  Simon  Atkinson's 
Ejection  appears  to  have  taken  place  in  1660,  and  he  was 
one  of  few  who  remained  in  the  neighbourhood  after  that 
event.  He  figures  both  in  the  Conventicle  Returns  of 
1669,  the  Indulgence  Licenses  of  1672  and  the  Presenta- 
tions of  1670-1678.  His  home  was  in  the  Hesket  district, 
and  he  ranks  with  Gilpin  and  others  as  one  of  the 
Founders  of  Nonconformity  in  the  County.^ 

In  the  Hayton  and  Crosby  Registers  respectively  appear 
the  following :  — 

Simond  Atkinson  in  the  parish  of  Crosbie  and  Jane  Skollecke  wid. 
in  the  parish  of  Hayton  Marred  the  xviij  dale  of  Aprill  1667. 

1687-8.  Weddng  ffeb.  4  Tho.  Wilson  &  Jane  Atkinson  of  Lazonby 
Married  by  Licence  1687-8. 

Probably  the  latter  was  a  connection  of  the  Minister; 
but  whether  the  other  was  we  do  not  know.    The  Atkinsons, 
however,  were  a  prominent  family  about  the  Brampton 
Jonathan  Goodwin,  M.A.,  1660 — 1661. 

His  Petition  in  June,  1660,  to  the  House  of  Lords  for 
restoration  to  his  living  is  as  follows :  — 
To  the  right  honorble  the  Lords  assembled  in  Parliament. 
The  humble  Peticon  of  Jonathan  Goodwin  CI.  &  Vicar  of  the  pish  of 
Lazonby  in  the  County  of  Cumberland. 

That  yor  petionr  haveing  for  twenty  yeares  last  past  beene  lawfull 
minister  and  viccar  of  the  pish  of  Lazonby  aforesaid  hath  beene 
sequestred  and  ejected  without  due  Course  of  Law  in  the  tyme  of 
these  late  warrs  for  his  Loyalty  to  his  Matie. 

Ydr  petionr  therefore  humbly  prayeth  that  the  tythes 
Gleabes  and  other  pfitts  belonging  to  the  said  Viccarage 

1.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.   158. 

2.  Vide  pp.  1253,  1258. 

Lazonby  .  325 

may  be  stayed  and  secured  in  the  hands  of  the  Church- 
wardens and  Ouerseers  of  the  poore  of  the  said  pish 
untill  yor  petitionrs  tytle  thereto  be  tryed  by  due 
Course  of  Law,  or  further  Ordr  of  Parliamt  by  Order 
from  yr  handes. 
And  yor  Petionr  shall  dayly 
pray  &c. 

Johnathan  Goodwin. 
[What  follows  is  in  a  different  hand  from  the  rest.] 
I  know  the  petitioner  to  be  an  able  and  conscientious  Divine  and 
Certefy  that  the  Contents  there  are  true  and  that  he  was  put  out  of 
the  said  place  for  his  loyalty  to  the  King. 

Eichard  Singleton. 

Capt.  Lancelott  Walker  of  Torpennoe  in  Cumberland. 

[On  the  outside  of  the  document]  : — 

ddi  [delivered]  28  July  1660  Mr.  Jonathan  Goodwin 

A  person  of  this  name  compounded  in  1657  for  his  First 
Fruits  as  follows  :  — 

November  1657. 
Nottingham        Bound   William   Tomlinson  of         In  hand  xvijli 

E.  Barton       Martins    in    the    ffields    Taylor     ffirst  May  1658      ixs.  iiijd. 
in  the  and     Thomas     Savage     of     St.     ffirst  Nov.  1658 

Beaves  Thomas  Appostles  Lond.  ffirst  May  1659 

ffor  Jonathan  Godwyn  CI.  [Clerk].^ 

Can  this  be  the  Sequestered  Vicar  of  Lazonby?  The 
similarity  of  name  is  not  decisive,  but  it  is  significant; 
and  it  is  the  sort  of  thing  that  happened  in  several  cases. 
If  the  surmise  be  correct  it  is  evidence  of  the  easier  lot  of 
the  Sequestered  than  is  often  supposed. 

Jonathan  Goodwin's  petition  met  with  success ;  but  when 
he  returned  to  his  living  at  Lazonby  he  must  have  been 
an  old  man.  He  remained  therefore  only  a  short  time, 
resigning  in  May,  1661.  ^ 

Egbert  Symson  or  Simpsox,  1661 — 1668. 

He  signs  the  Registers  March,  1660-1 ;  but  his  collation 

1.  House  of  Lords'  Library,  H.M.C.,  Seventh  Eeport,  Pt.  i,  p.  106. 

2.  Composition  Books  (Eecord  Office),  No.  22,  1656—1660. 

3.  Episcopal  Eegister,  Carlisle. 

326  .     The    Ejected   of   1662 

by  Bishop  Sterne  was  on  May  8,  1661,  and  Induction  on 
June  4tli,  1661.  He  read  the  Articles,  etc.,  on  June  9th, 
being  the  first  vSunday  after  his  Induction.  There  appear 
to  have  been  two  persons  of  this  name,  in  this  neighbour- 
hood, at  this  time,  and  the  fact  has  given  rise  to  some 
confusion.  Foster  has  the  following :  "  Simpson  Robert 
(Symson)  'Ser.'  Queen's  Coll.  matric.9  Dec.  1653,  B.A.  18, 
July  1657;  vicar  of  Lazonby,  Cumberland,  1661,  and 
rector  of  Long  Marton,  Westmorland,  1661,  and  perhaps 
vicar  of  Bywell  St.  Andrew,  1668,  and  rector  of  Wark- 
worth,  Northumberland,  1686."  ^  All  after  "  perhaps  " 
should  certainly  be  deleted ;  for  the  Registers  show  that 
Robert  Simpson  "  Yicar  "  died,  in  1668,  and  was  "  buryed 
the  xiiij  day  of  October." 
John  Simpson,  B.A.,  1668—1680. 

Foster  again  says  :  "  Ser.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  26  Oct. 
1660,  B.A.  1665  :  vicar  of  Lazonby,  Cumberland,  1668, 
rector  of  Ormside,  Westmorland,  1680."  ^  He  was 
collated  Nov.  2,  1668 ;  and  inducted  on  "  ye  24th  day  of 
November  "  following. 
Robert  Hume,  M.A.,  1680—1703. 

He  was  collated  to  Lazonby,  Mar.  26,  1680;  and 
inducted  on  April  19  following.  He  was  at  Crosby-on- 
Eden  in  1670.3  His  son,  Timothy,  went  from  Sedbergh 
School  to  St.  John's,  Cambridge,  entering  there  in  1704 
at  the  age  of  20.  ^ 
George  Parker,  M.A.,  1703 — 1737. 

He  was  from  Glasgow  University,  collated  Oct.  18, 
1703,  and  inducted  Nov.  17  following,  by  Thomas  Nevin- 
son.  Vicar  of  Torpenhow,  His  marriage  with  Mary 
Symson,  probably  daughter  of  Barnabas  Simpson,  is  thus 
given  in  the  Long  Marton  Registers :  — 

1706  October  1st  Mr.  George  Parker  vicar  of  Lazonby  in  Cumber- 
land and  Mrs.  Mary  Symson  of  Long  Marton  was  marryed  by  Mr. 
Wickins  at  Kirkby  Thore. 

He  died  in  1737. 

1.  Al.  Ox. 

2.  Ibid. 

3.  Vide  p.  206. 

4.  Sedbergh .  School  Kegister,  p.   115. 


A  very  extensive  Parish  including  quite  a  number  of 
Townships,  and  bordered  on  the  east  by  the  Parish  of 
Lazonby.  The  Church,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary,  is  situated 
in  High  Hesket,  the  nearest  railway  station  being  South- 
waite.  Dr.  Todd  relates,  as  a  tradition,  that  "  the  first 
erection  of  a  chapel  here  was  about  the  year  1530,  when 
an  infectious  distemper  raging  in  the  country,  and  the 
people  bringing  their  dead  as  usual  to  be  buried  within 
the  city  of  Carlisle,  the  mayor. and  citizens  shut  the  gates 
upon  them,  and  from  the  walls  advised  them  to  carry 
back  the  corpse  and  bury  the  same  at  a  place  then  called 
Walling  Stone;  and  that  if  they  did  so,  and  complied  with 
their  advice,  they  and  others  would  endeavour  to  prevail 
with  the  bishop  of  the  diocese,  to  have  a  chapel  built  and 
consecrated  there,  which  would  be  of  perpetual  use  to 
them  and  their  posterity.  And  on  their  complying  with 
this  proposal,  as  soon  as  the  plague  was  ceased,  a  chapel 
was  built,  and  the  then  bishop  (John  Kite)  attended  by 
Sir  Christopher  Dacre,  knight,  Sir  John  Lowther,  knight, 
and  a  great  number  of  gentlemen  and  others  of  the  country 
and  neighbourhood,  did  in  a  solemn  manner  consecrate  it 
and  the  church  or  chapel  yard  and  by  proclamation  set  out 
and  fixed  the  bounds  thereof."^  "All  which,"  remark 
Nicolson  and  Burn,  "  perhaps  may  amount  to  this,  that 
the  church  or  chapel  was  then  rebuilt,  and  had  then  first 
the  right  of  sepulture  granted  to  it."  - 

In  the  period  with  which  we  are  concerned  it  was  a  mere 
Chapelry  in  the  Parish  of  St.  Mary's,  Carlisle,  it  being 
the  duty  of  the  latter  to  supply  it  with  religious  provision. 
The  Historians  make  no  attempt  at  a  list  of  Curates.  The 
Registers  begin  in  1662,  the  first  volume  being  long, 
narrow,  and  of  parchment.     It  is  in  fair  condition;  the 

1.  Leath  Ward,  by  Jefferson,  p.  209. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  339. 

328  The   Ejected   of   1662 

writing  is  a  little  faded  in  places,  but  with  labour  the 
entries  can  be  deciphered.     It  begins  thus:  — 

Heskett  Regester 


Anno  Dom   1662 


The    second   volume   is    of   paper    and    is   much   more 
dilapidated.     It  begins    in    1693.     The    following    is    an 
imperfect  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 
Simon  Atkinson,  1652. 

For  a  time  at  least  Hesket  and  Lazonby  were  worked 
together.  That  was  the  arrangement  which  held  during 
part  of  Simon  Atkinson's  ministry  at  Lazonby.  It  would 
appear  that  after  his  Ejection  he  kept  to  the  neighbourhood 
of  Hesket,  and  towards  the  end  of  his  life  made  his  home 
at  Calthwaite.  Calamy  gives  correctly  the  date  of  his 
death,  ^  but  it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  known  where  he 
was  interred.  This,  however,  is  settled  by  the  Hesket 
Registers,  which  give  the  following  :  — 

1694  Cathwaite   Simon  Atkinson,   Clerk  was  buried   Sept  6th. 

The  following  also  probably  refers  to  his  wife  :  — 

1696  ffrances  Atkinson  was  buried  June   18th. 

John  Pearson,  1659. 

The  authority  for  this  is  the  following :  — 

Hesketh.  March  2d  1659. 

Whereas  ye  Chappell  of  Hesketh  is  within  ye  parish  of  Maries  in 
Carlisle  &  the  Cure  of  the  said  parish  Church  &  Chappell  is  under 
the  care  of  these  Trustees  ye  Rectory  of  Maries  aforesaid  Being 
parcell  of  ye  possions  of  ye  late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  Ordered 
that  the  yearely  Sume  of  Threescore  &  ten  poundes  be  graunted  to 
&  for  increase  of  the  Maintennce  of  Mr.  John  Pearson  this  day  Setled 
Ministr  of  the  said  Chappell  To  hold  from  this  psent  second  day  of 
March  for  such  time  as  he  shall  continue  faithfully  to  discharge  ye 
duty  of  Ministr  of  the  said  place  or  further  ordr  And  that  Mr. 
Edmund  Branthwayte  Recr.  doe  pay  the  same  unto  him  Accordingly 
out  of  ye  pticulars  following  vizt.  ye  yearely  sume  xxli  out  of  the  rents 
and  profitts  of  ye  tithes  of  Plimpton  the  further  yearely  sume  of  ixli  & 
xs  out  of  the  rents  &  profitts  of  the  tithes  of  Armithwayte  &  Nunclose 
the  further  yearely  sume  of  viijli  xiijs  iiijd  out  of  the  rents  &  profitts 

1.  Vide  p.  324. 

Hesket-in-the-Forest  329 

of  the  tithes  of  Potterell  Crookes  &  the  further  yearely  sume  of  xxvijli 
vjs  viijd  out  of  the  rents  &  profitts  of  the  tithes  of  Upper  Hesketh  & 
Nether  Hesketh  all  in  ye  pish  of  Hesketh  aforesaid  &  parcell  of  the 
possions  of  the  late  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlisle  the  leases  of  which 
tithes  are  lately  expired. 

Jo.  Thorowgood  Geo.  Cowper  Ri  Yong. 
Wm  Skynner  Jo.  Pocock.^ 
A  person  of  this  name  appears  at  Brigham  in  1661,  and 
Great  Orton  in  1665. ^ 
Christopher  Rickerby,  1675. 

In  the  Registers  occurs  the  following  :  — 

1675  John  Slack  and  Jane  Garth  were  married  att  Armathwaite 
Chappell  by  Mr.  Rickerby  3d  of  ffebruary. 

Armathwaite  Chapel  was  erected  by  Richard  Skelton 
soon  after  the  Restoration ;  and  by  his  Will  he  gave  .£100 
for  its  endowment.  "  It  is  supposed,"  say  Nicolson  and 
Burn,  "  it  had  been  an  ancient  Chapel  long  before  his 
time,  and  that  he  only  rebuilt  it."  ^  Christopher  Rickerby 
was  Schoolmaster  at  Lazonby,  in  1672,  and,  about  that 
time  also,  Curate  at  Armathwaite  Chapel.*  The  habit  of 
poetizing,  and  especially  anagrammatic  poetizing,  appears 
to  have  been  much  practised  by  the  Ministers  of  those 
days,  and  among  the  pieces  written  in  1672  in  praise  of 
Mary  Wilson,  "  the  Yirgin  Saint,"  is  one  from  the  pen 
of  Christopher  Rickerby.  The  conjecture  is  hazarded, 
but  it  is  only  a  conjecture,  that  in  addition  to  Armath- 
waite he  may  have  served  Hesket.  It  would,  at  any  rate, 
appear  that  later  some  association  of  the  two  places  existed, 
though  it  is  not  easy  to  define  its  character.  Bishop 
Nicolson,  writing  of  Armathwaite  in  1703,  says  :  — 

The  present  Rascally  Curate  (Mr.  Hodgson,  Vicar  of  Ainstable) 
has  carryed  off  the  Lock  and  Key,  where  the  Books  and  other 
Utensils,  given  in  the  year  1670,  are  kept  :  and  lets  all  go  to  Wrack. 

He  adds :  — 

There  are  no  Burials  here,  nor  many  Christenings ;  the  Register  for 
both  being  kept  by  the  Curate  of  Hesket.5 

1.  Lambeth   MSS.   (Plund.   Min.),   987. 

2.  Vide  pp.  231,  754. 

3.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  342. 

4.  Ibid. 

5.  Miscel.,  94. 

330  The   Ejected    of   1662 

Christopher  Rickerby  was  subsequently  at  Cumrew  and 
Castle  Carrock.  1 

William  Barrow,  1680. 

He  was  ordained  Deacon  Aug.  17,  1662,  and  Priest 
Sep.  20,  1663.     The  Registers  contain  the  following:  — 

1680  Mr.  Wm.  Barrow,  Curate  of  Heskett  Sept.  [Sepultus]  6  Julij. 
Two  days  after  we  get  the  following  :  — 

1680  Thomas  Sawor  and  ffrances  Robinson  married  by  Horneby 
8  Julij. 

We  have  no  information  about  "  Horneby,"  but  possibly 
he  was  merely  called  in  to  do  temporary  duty. 

Thomas  Wells,  1680—1710. 

He  was  licensed  Curate  here  in  1680.  The  following 
entries  occur  in  the  Registers  :  — 

•    1681  John  Rumney  CI.   &  Issabell   Sand'son  were  married  the  9th 

May  by  Mr.  Wells. 

1685  Hillehouse,  Robert  ye  son  of  Thomas  Wells  &  Mary  his  wife 

was  borne  Jan.  25  &  bap.  ffeb.  3rd  1685. 

Hill  houses  1710. 
Mr.  Thomas  Wells  curate  of  Heskett  dyed  ye  31st  of  Augt  &  was 

Buried  at  Heskett  Church  on  ye  2d  of  September  1710. 

Thomas  Wells  was  one  of  few  men  about  whom  Bishop 
Nicolson,  on  his  Visitation,  in  1703,  had  a  good  word  to 
say:  — 

The  Curate  (Mr.  Wells)  is  Regular  in  his  own  person ;  and  keeps 
the  parishioners  in  the  like  Order.  He's  forced  to  stand  throughout 
the  whole  Service,  in  the  Reading-Desk ;  and  has  neither  Gleab  nor 
House  annex'd  to  his  Curacy.  He  resides  on  a  purchased  Tenement 
of  his  own  at  Sceugh ;  about  two  miles  from  the  Church.2 

It  appears  that  once  a  month  he  was  accustomed  to  go 
to  Wreay  when  "  yir  Parish  Clerk  preaches  "  to  the  Hesket 
people.  3 

To  this  may  be  appended  the  following  about  the 
Schoolmaster :  — 

1692  Church  Town  John  the  Son  of  John  Malleson  Scholemr.  was 
bapt.  Nov.  2.  4 

1.  Vide  pp.  265,  269. 

2.  Miscel.,  p.  93. 

3.  Nicolson's  Diary,  Trans  (N.S.),  vol.  iii,  p.  9. 
4-  Hesket  Register. 


Dignified  with  the  name  of  "  town,"  this  place  lies  about 
a  mile  north  east  of  Lazonby  up  the  Raven  Valley.  The 
ruins  of  a  castle,  formerly  the  seat  of  the  Dacre  family, 
are  a  conspicuous  object,  and  a  college  of  considerable 
importance  was  once  among  its  attractions.  The  Church, 
a  quaint  structure,  at  the  foot  of  a  hill,  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Oswald,  and  thus  gives  the  name  to  the  place.  It  is 
unique  in,  at  least,  one  respect :  "  The  campanile  or  bell- 
tower,  a  low  square  building  containing  three  bells,"  ^ 
stands  on  the  summit  of  the  hill  at  the  bottom  of  which  the 
Church  is  situated.  Its  Registers,  which  have  been 
recently  published,  date  from  1577.  The  County  Histories 
are  quite  disappointing  in  reference  to  the  Incumbent  list. 
Nicolson  and  iiurn  give  one  name  only  for  the  years  1561 
to  1668,  and  after  the  latter  date  simply  add :  "  George 
Yeates,  rector  of  Croglin,  had  a  license  to  serve  this  cure, 
by  way  of  sequestration  in  the  hands  of  the  bishop,  it  not 
being  worth  the  expence  of  a  presentation  under  the  great 
seal."  2  Fortunately  the  Registers  come  to  our  assistance, 
though  care  needs  to  be  taken  or  they  may  lead  consider- 
ably astray.  It  would  appear  that  where  "  clerk "  or 
"  clericus  "  is  used,  we  are  to  understand  a  Minister  of 
some  kind  or  other;  but,  as  the  Nonconformist  Ministers 
of  the  neighbourhood  buried  and  baptized  here  it  is 
necessary  to  discriminate.  The  Parish  Clerk  is  distin- 
guished by  the  words  "  Parish  "  or  "  Register."  The 
following  is  the  list  as  far  as  can  be  ascertained  :  — 

James  Shepherd,  1566 — 1577. 

According  to  the  Institution  Books  he  was  instituted 
July  3,  1566.  These  give  "  Kirkoswald  R.  271i  17s-0  " ; 
and   again,    "  Kirkoswald  Y.   81i-0-0,"   the   latter  being 

1.  Hist,  of  Leath  Ward,  Jefferson,  p.   285. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  428. 

332  The   Ejected   of   1662 

against  the  name  of  '"  Jacobus  Shepherd."     The  Registers 
record  his  burial  thus  :  — 

Anno  Dni  1577 — Shippeard  Vicar  buryed  xth  of  Maye. 

Thomas  Carter,  1592—1601. 

He  was,  at  least,  here  in  1592,  as  the  following  from 
the  Registers  makes  clear  :  — 

Christnyngs  Anno  Dni   1592.     Willm   sonne   to  Sr   Thomas  Carter 

ixth  Aprill. 

How  long  he  had  been  here  at  this  time  we  do  not  know. 
He  remained  until  his  death  in  1601,  the  following  being 
a  notice  of  his  burial :  — 

Thomas  Carter  Clerke  vicar  of  Kyrkoswald  beryed  the  xvi  of  Jan.(?) 

John  Allan,  1607. 

In  the  list  of  christenings  for  this  year  appears  the 
following  :  — 

Ane  daughter  to  John  Allam  Clerke  bapt  the  xxviiith  of  Ffebruarye. 

A  son  "  Ffrancis  "  was  baptized  Dec.  12,  1609.  In  1611, 
John  Allan  appears  as  Rector  of  Croglin ;  but  whether  he 
had  charge  also  of  Kirkoswald  is  not  clear. 

Wm.  Bewman,  1614. 

This  name  is  inserted  tentatively  on  the  authority  of 
the  Exchequer  Depositions.  Unfortunately,  the  informa- 
tion supplied  is  extremely  scanty.  Only  the  name 
of  the  place  "  Kirkoswald,"  the  date  of  the  Inquisition 
"  1614,"  and  the  matter  in  dispute  "  Manor  of  Wm. 
Bewman,  clerk,"  are  given.^  The  Bowmans,  probably  the 
same  as  the  Bewmans,  appear  frequently  in  the  Registers 
of  this  and  even  earlier  dates ;  and  evidently  they  were  a 
family  of  considerable  importance. 

WiLLLiM  Wilson,  1636. 

In  the  Registers  we  have  the  following  :  — 
John  sonn  to  Willm  Wilson  Clark  was  buried  the  28th  of  July  1636. 

A  son,  Robert,  was  baptized  April  13th,  1637,  and  the 
daughters,  "  Jaune  and  Ann,"  on  Feby.  5,  1639-40. 
Foster  has  the  following,  which  may  well  refer  to  the 
person  in  question,  as  the  Wilsons  appear  to  have  been 

1.  Exchequer  Dep.  8/c  (Record  Office). 


Kirkoswald  S33 

long  connected  with  Kirkoswald  and  district :    "  Wilson 
William  of  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll.  matric.  April, 
1594,  aged  16,  B.A.  24  April  1599,  M.A.  30  June  1602."  i 
A  person  of  this  name  was  at  Haile  in  1657.  ^ 

Egbert  Milburn,  1647. 

Possibly  the  following  from  Foster  refers  to  this  person  : 
"  Milborne  llobert  of  Cumberland  sacerd.  fil.  Queen's  Coll 
matric.  21  Nov.  1628,  aged  18."  ^  Appended  are  entries 
in  the  Registers  as  follows  :  — 

1648,  March  29  Maria  Milborne  filia  Bob  baptizt. 

1648  Decemb.   10  Leo.   Milborne  fils.   Robert  Clerici  sepultus. 

1649-50,  January — Prizilla  Milborne  filia  Roberti  de  Kirkoswald 

1650-1  Ffebruary  Mr.  Robert  Milburne  de  Kirkoswald  sepult. 

April  1657  2th  Grizilla  daughter  to  Mrs.  Milburne  of  Kirkoswld 

In  addition  to  these  the  Addingham  Registers  give  the 
following  :  — 

Baptism  [about  1643]  Lewes  Milburne  son  of  Robert  Milburne. 

and  the  Hay  ton  Registers  note  the  marriage  of  Richard 

Milburn  by  Nathaniel  Burnand  in  1657.  * 

It  is   suggested  that  Robert   Milburn  was   the   son   of 

Leonard  of  Ousby  and  Skelton,^  and  brother  to  Thomas, 

who  matriculated  the  same  day  as  Robert,  took  his  B.A. 

in  1631,  and  M.A.  in  1634.6 

The     following     document    is     somewhat     ambiguous. 

Whether  the  Church  v/as  vacant  or  the  Minister  had  only 

to  be  approved  by  the  Commissioners  does  not  appear :  — 
Kirkoswould.  Decembr  21,  1649. 

By  vertue  of  an  ordr  of  Parleament  of  ye  Second  of  May  1646  It  is 
ordered  that  the  yearely  Sume  of  fifty  pounds  bee  paid  out  of  the 
Tithes  of  the  Impropriate  rectory  of  Kerkoswould  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland    Sequestred    from    Sr.    Timothy    FetTierstonhaugh   Delin- 

1.  AI.  Ox      ~ 

2.  Vide  p.  831. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  Vide  p.  287. 

5.  Vide  pp.  387,  479. 

6.  The  Flemings  in  Oxford,  p.  2  and  note  10 ;  also  Al.  Ox. 

334  The   Ejected    of    1662 

quent  for  the  increase  of  the  maintenance  of  such  Minister  as  the 
Comtee  shall  approve  of  to  officiate  the  Cure  of  the  Parish  Church 
of  Kerkoswould  aforesaid  the  present  maintenance  of  the  said  Church 
being  not  worth  above  eight  pounds  per  ann.  and  the  Sequestrators 
of  the  premisses  are  required  to  pay  the  same  accordingly  at  such 
tymes  and  seasons  of  the  yeare  as  the  same  shall  grow  due  and  payable. ' 

John  Davis,  1657. 

In  the  Registers  we  get  the  following :  — 

September  1657  29th  Mr.  John  Davis  preacher  of  the  Word  att 
Kirkoswald  and  Renwick  and  Mrs.  Anna  Ridgeley  de  Newcastle 
marry  ed. 

Calamy  gives  an  interesting  account  of  this  man.  He 
says  that  he  was  born  in  Worcestershire,  "  bred  at 
Oxford,"  2  sent  by  Cromwell  to  supply  places  in  the  north, 
settled  first  at  Kirkoswald,  where  his  ministry  was  very 
useful,  and  afterwards  removed  to  By  well  in  Northum- 
berland, which  was  greatly  in  want  of  "  a  faithful 
minister,''  while  "  Kirkoswald  had  several."  The  Uni- 
formity Act  silenced  him  at  Bywell  and  he  lived  for  a 
time  at  Weldon,  or  Walton,  about  three  miles  distant, 
"where  he  preaeh'd  all  the  Time  of  the  Severities  in  K. 
Charles's  Reign,  sometimes  in  his  own  House,  and  some- 
times at  Sir  Wm.  Middleton's  at  Belsay :  sometimes  at 
Mr.  Bourflower's  at  Apperly,  and  sometimes  at  other 
places."  Though  of  the  "  Congregational  Way,"  he  had 
*'  a  general  Hespect  from  those  of  different  Perswasions. 
He  was  a  lover  of  all  good  Men,  and  all  good  men  lov'd 
him."  In  Mr.  Henry  Hudson  of  Newbiggin,  a  Baptist,  he 
had  a  warm  friend,  "  who  took  Care  of  his  Son's  Educa- 
tion whom  he  left  Fatherless  at  Five  years  of  age;  and 
continu'd  his  kindness  to  him  also  after  his  Entrance  on 
the  ministry."  After  being  silenced  he  was  strongly 
urged  by  an  elder  brother  to  conform,  and  on  refusing  to 
do  so  was  utterly  disowned  by  him.  He  had  a  great 
affection  for  his  people  at  Kirkoswald  and  visited  them 
frequently ;  he  took  "  many  painful  Journeys  over  the 
Mountains,  not  regarding  the  Weather,  to  the  good  people 

1.  Bodl.  MS.,   326. 

2.  Fellow   of   Magd.    Coll.,    Camb.,   according  to  Randal   (vide   Non. 
Mem.,  vol.  iii,  p.   60). 

Kirkoswald  335 

in  Weresdale  and  Allendale  where  he  did  much  good." 
On  the  Declaration  of  Indulgence  he  "  licensed  several 
houses  and  was  continually  going  from  place  to  place  to 
preach  the  word."  Among  his  friends  he  was  able  to 
count  "  old  Sir  Wm  Blacket  of  Newcastle."  In  the 
"  Conformists  Fourth  Plea  for  the  Nonconformists,"  the 
author  "  speaking  of  some  Ministers  that  to  avoid  Offence 
and  Dangers,  and  to  shew  poor  Souls  the  Way  to  Ever- 
lasting Life,  went  under  the  Protection  and  Concealment 
of  the  Darkness  of  the  Night  and  preach'd  and  pray'd  in 
Caves  and  Pits,  venturing  their  Health  and  Lives  to  save 
Sinners  from  everlasting  Destruction,  mentions  Mr.  Davis 
of  Cumberland  as  preaching  in  one  of  them,  and  getting 
a  Cold  that  prov'd  mortal,  leaving  six  Children  to  the 
Charity  of  good  People,  and  particularly  to  the  Care  of 
Mr.  Pichard  AVilson,  a  Gentleman  of  a  small  Estate,  but 
of  great  Piety  and  Usefulness  in  the  North,  and  one  who 
had  like  to  have  been  ruin'd  on  the  35th.  of  Eliz.  I 
suppose  this  Mr.  John  Davis  was  the  Person  intended."  ^ 
Calamy  further  says  that  he  was  "  a  Man  of  exemplary 
Piety  and  Prudence  and  dy'd  as  he  had  liv'd,  with  Comfort 
and  in  Peace,  in  the  year  1676,  and  of  his  Age  50." 
Foster  gives  quite  a  number  of  persons  of  the  name  of 
John  Davis,  or  Davies,  trained  at  Oxford;  but  he  makes 
no  attempt  to  identify  any  of  them  with  the  Kirkoswald 
Minister.  Quite  appropriately  Calamy  puts  the  accent 
strongly  on  the  sufferings  of  John  Davis.  The  Cocker- 
mouth  Church  Book  throws  additional  light  upon  this 
matter.  The  following  has  been  extracted  from  it:  — 
The  20th  of  the  said  Mo  :  (being  the  Lords  day)  [March  1669—70] 
on  [one]  Mr.  Nicholson  Teacher  of  the  Ch  :  abt.  Kirkoswald  carried 
on  the  worke  of  the  day.  After  both  exercises  there  was  a  Collection 
for  a  distressed  Minster  (one  Mr.  Jo.  Davyes)  the  Ch  :  gathered 
36s  lOd. 

In  his  History  of  the  Cockermouth  Congregational 
Church,  Mr.  Lewis  prints  a  letter  from  George  Larkham 
which  appears  in  Thomas  Larkham's  Diary.  He  heads 
it  "  to  the  Minister  at  Crossfield,"  which  was  the  residence 

1.  Calamy,  vols,  ii,  p.  518,  and  iii,  p.  684  :  Non.  Mem.,  vol.  iii,  p.  60. 

336  The   Ejected   of    1662 

of  Eichard  Wilson,   father  of   Mary  Wilson,    and  John 
Davis's  generous  and  faithful  friend.     The  writer  says  :  — 

I  recd  yrs  long  since,  am  glad  that  or  poore  mite  was  acceptable  .  . 
It  is  comfortable  to  us  to  heare  That  yu  reckon  not  wt  yu  have 
Suffered,  That  your  Spirits  are  above  your  losses,  wt  you  write  of 
being  or  debtrs  as  also  of  yr  readinesse  to  serve  us  in  the  same  way 
of  duty  and  Love,  we  say,  you  are  not  indebted  to  us  at  all  .  .  you 
may  perceive  the  Fame  of  yr  Sufferings  is  Spreed  abroad,  and  you 
are  much  upon  the  hearts  of  those  yt  have  heard  of  you,  and  of  yr 
losses  .  .  .  Fare  ye  well  in  the  Lord ;  and  let  it  be  said  of  Crosefield 
Jehovah  Shama. 

Yr.  affectionate  Xtian  bro. 
G.  L. 

If  this  were,  as  Mr.  Lewis  suggests,  sent  to  a  Minister, 
John  Davis  would  be  the  one;  but  the  address  is  not  in 
the  original,  and  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  it  was  meant 
for  any  one  but  Eichard  Wilson  and  his  family.  The 
date  also  is  slightly  illegible,  the  MS.  being  somewhat 
frayed  at  this  point.  All  that  can  be  deciphered  is  "  the 
31st  of  the  —mo.  71." 

It  is  extremely  difficult  to  follow  the  ministerial  thread 
in  relation  to  this  district  through  these  years,  because 
from  1653  onwards  there  was  "  a  gathered  church  "  of  the 
"  Congregational  persuasion,"  "  in  and  abt  Kirkoswald."  ^ 
That  phrase  occurs  several  times  in  the  Cockermouth 
Congregational  Church  Book,  and  is  clearly  quite  inten- 
tional. Here  as  in  the  case  of  Cockermouth  itself,  the 
Church  was  the  Church  of  a  district  rather  than  of  a 
particular  place,  Kirkoswald,  Huddlesceugh,  Parkhead, 
Melmerby  and  Eenwick  being  included ;  and,  in  the 
account  of  John  Davis  from  Calamy  just  given,  it  is  said 
that  there  were  several  Ministers.  The  Cockermouth 
Church  appointed  Brother  Benson,  the  Vicar  of  Bridekirk, 
Brother  Blethwaite  and  Brother  Bolton,  on  Nov.  19,  1653, 
"  as  chosen  men  to  go  to  ye  Chu.  gathered  in  &  abt 
Kirkoswald  at  ye  ordinaon  of  their  Pastour."  Unfortu- 
nately the  name  of  the  Pastor  is  not  given.  On  March 
26,     1658,    the    Cockermouth    Church    again    appointed 

1.  MS.  Min.  Bk.  Cock.  Ch. 

Kirkoswald  2)2>7 

"  Brother  Benson  and  Bro.  Eaglesfield "  to  be  their 
"  Messengers "  to  the  Church  "  about  Kirkoswald,"  in 
connection  with  the  ordination  of  "  one  of  their  members 
(Mr.  John  Daviss)  as  a  Teaching  elder  among  them."  l 
In  the  next  Chapter  more  will  appear  in  relation  to  this 
gathered  Church  "  in  and  about  Jvirkoswald." 

Precisely  what  happened  here  on  the  passing  of  the 
Act  of  Uniformity  is  not  clear.  John  Davis  had  gone 
and  who  succeeded,  if  any  one  did  so,  immediately,  has 
not  been  ascertained ;  but  it  will  be  convenient  in  this 
place  to  give  an  account  of  George  Nicholson,  who  played 
a  prominent  part  in  the  history  of  Nonconformity  in  this 
district,  and,  who,  if  any  one,  must  be  regarded  as  the 
Ejected  Minister  of  Kirkoswald. 

George  Nicholson,  1661. 

He  was  a  native  of  Kirkoswald,  his  baptismal  entry  in 
the  Registers  appearing  thus  :  — 

1636  George  sonn  to  John  Nycholson  was  bap  the  xxth  of  November. 

He  went  to  Oxford  University  and  respecting  him 
Foster  gives  the  following :  "  Ser'  Magdalen  Coll.  matric 
15  June  1657,  chorister  1658-61,  sometime  minister  at 
Melmerby,  at  Glassenbury,  and  Kirkoswald  in  Cumber- 
land; licensed  as  a  '  Congregational  minister,'  preached  at 
Huddleskew,  until  his  death  20  Aug.,  1697  aged  about 
60."  2  jje  did  not  proceed  to  any  degree.  Calamy's 
account  of  him  is  full  and  interesting,  and  may  be  sum- 
marised thus  :  — A  little  before  the  Bartholomew  Act  was 
passed  he  came  down  into  Cumberland  and  took  charge 
of  the  Church  at  Melmerby  which  Mr.  Hopkins  resigned 
into  his  hands.  By  the  connivance  of  Lewis  West,  who 
succeeded  Mr.  Broadley  at  Glassenby,  he  preached  for 
about  a  year  at  Glassenby  and  Kirkoswald,  Mr.  West, 
then  a  Prebendary  at  Carlisle,  thinking  to  "  draw  him 
into  Conformity  by  mildness  and  fair  Promises  of  the 
great  things  he  would  do  for  him."  At  Kirkoswald  a 
Curate  "  set  on  by  others,"  on  one  occasion  when  George 
Nicholson    was   praying   before   his   sermon,   "  began   the 

1.  Wrongly  given  as  John  Jany  in  Lewis's  History,  p.  22. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 


338  The    Ejected   of    1662 

Common  Prayer,  but  ceas'd  upon  perceiving  a  general 
dislike  of  it."  After  the  Act  which  "  kept  him  out  of  the 
Publick  Churches  unless  he  Conform'd  "  he  "  Preach'd  in 
private  Houses,  as  opportunity  offer'd."  At  one  of  his 
mee'tings  he  was  surprised  by  Sir  Philip  Musgrave,  and 
^'  thereupon  the  goods  of  the  Master  of  the  House  were 
Seiz'd  and  some  goods  also  of  Mr.  Xicolson's  :  and  they 
were  forc'd  to  Pay  down  the  Money  which  the  Law 
requir'd."  Subsequently  a  dispute  with  a  Curate,  in  Sir 
Philip  Musgrave's  presence,  led  this  gentleman  to  con- 
siderably moderate  his  conduct  towards  him.  He  appears 
in  the  Conventicle  List  of  1669 ;  in  the  Indulgence 
Licenses  of  1672;  and  in  the  Presentments  for  1670 — 
1678.^  The  date  of  his  death  has  already  been  given, 
and  Calamy  says  :  — - 

He  administred  the  Lord's  Supper,  the  Lord's  Day  before  and 
quoted  that  Text  Luk.  22.  18.  which  was  fulfilled  in  him,  who  kept 
the  next  Sabbath  in  the  Upper  World.  He  appear'd  more  than 
brdinarily  affected  in  that  Administration,  and  a  flood  of  Tears  almost 
stopp'd  his  Voice ;  the  cause  of  which  was  unknown.  He  had  good 
Skill  in  the  Hebrew  Tongue,  and  was  a  Popular  Preacher,  and 
Instrumental  in  doing  good  to  many.  There  is  one  Sermon  of  his 
extant,  in  a  Book  call'd  "The  Virgin  Saint."  ^ 

Bishop  ^icolson,  writing  in  1704,  gives  the  following 
respecting  the  Kirkoswald  "  Dissenters "  and  their 
Ministers :  — 

The  Church  yard  [Kirkoswald]  is  in  that  ruinous  and  disjoynted 
condition,  which  is  common  where  many  of  the  parishioners  (as  the 
Case  is  here)  are  Dissenters  :  Who  nevertheless  are  generally  willing, 
and  desireous,  to  be  buryed  here.  Two  of  'em  have  the  following 
Inscriptions  on  their  Gravestones.     On  ye  South  Side  of  ye  Church  : — • 

The  very  Reverend  Mr.  George  Xicholson 
late  Pastor  of  the  ChurcK  at 
Huddleskeugh,  some  time  of 
Magdalene  College,  Oxford,  changed 
this  for  a  better  Life,  August 
20.  1697.  Anno  Aetatis  60. 

1.  Vide  pp.  1329,  1338,  1367.  Giles  Nicholson  is  a  mistake  in  the 
Licenses  for  George  Nicholson. 

2.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  160. 

Kirkos  wald  339 

As  also 
Elisha  his  second  son,  a  youth  of  most 
pregnant  parts,  departed  June  24.  the 
same  year.  Anno  Aetatis  21. 

(This  George  was  Chorister  of  Magd. 
Coll.  but  never  took  any 
Degree.     There  are  many 
of  this  Surname  in  the 
Parish. ) 

On  the  South  Side  of  the  Quire  : — 

Here  lies  the  first  born  of  that  name  from  Crossfield 

God  grant  that  place  may  many  such  flowers  yield. 

Her  early  Budds  that  place  did  so  perfume. 

As  tho'  her  Soul  had  brought  it  from  the  Womb. 

No  pains  she  thought  too  hard  God's  sacred  word  to  hear. 

And  when  she  harrowed  it  she  watter'd  it  with  Tear. 

And  yet  she  would  complain  of  her  unfruitfulness. 

Tho  she  foretold  her  death  much  like  a  prophetess, 

Her  dying  breath  was  such  as  fill'd  the  Eyes  and  Ears 

Of  her  Spectators  all  with  joy,  and  yet  with  Tears. 

As  to  her  Natural  parts,  her  Genius  still  was  such. 

What  Learning  ere  she  saw,  to  tak't  in  was  not  much. 

Her  Works  behind  her  left  most  amply  have  declar'd 

That  not  unlike  she  may  to  Dorcas  be  compar'd. 

She,  She,  She  was  most  singly  set  apart 

To  be  the  joy  of  her  poor  parents  heart. 

But  now  she's  gone  to  her  eternal  Rest, 

Amongst  the  Saints  for  ever  to  be  Blest. 

Upon  the  Death  of  Mrs.  Mary  Wilson,  who 

was  buryed  Aug.  4.  1672. 

(This  girl  had  not  only  the  honour  of  this  fair  Epitaph ;  but  ye 
inspired  poets  of  ye  same  Congregation  with  her  clubb'd  yir  Wits  in 
several  Poems  in  her  praise,  which  they  printed  under  the  Title  of 
The  Virgin  Saint.)  ' 

With  reference  to  the  poems,  written  in  honour  of  "  The 
Virgin  Saint,"  Bishop  Xicolson  is  at  fault  in  attributing 
them  to  the  "  wits  "  of  the  "  same  Congregation."  What- 
ever opinion  may  be  entertained  as  to  the  poetic  quality 
of  the  pieces,  they  were  the  work  of  honoured  Ministers; 
and   the    fact   shows   the   high    place   which   the   Wilson 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  117. 

340  The    Ejected    of   1662 

family  occupied  in  the  regard  of  the  Nonconformists  of 
that  day.  Three  copies  of  this  exceedingly  rare  little 
book  are  known  to  exist.  One  is  in  the  British  Museum, 
and  two  are  in  the  Jackson  Library.  The  contributors 
give  their  initials  only,  and  in  one  of  the  Jackson  Library 
copies  are  MS.  additions  to  the  initials;  but  they  are  not 
always  correct.  The  following  brief  summary  of  Mary 
Wilson's  life  together  with  some  other  interesting  passages 
is  extracted  from  it :  — 

The  Virgin  Saint  : 


A  Brief  Narrative  of  the 

Holy  Life,  and  Christian  Death  of 

Mary  Wilson 

With  some  Memorable  Passages 

and  occasional  Speeches  a  little 

before  her  Death  added  thereunto 

To  which  is  also  adjoyned 

A  Sermon, 

Preached  at  her  Funeral 

by  Mr.  Geo.  Nicolson 

Together  with 

Several  Consolatory  Letters  written 

by  divers  Ministers,  to  her 

Mournful  Father,  Mr.  Richard 

Wilson  of  Crosfield  in 


London,  Printed  for  Jonathan 

Robinson,  at  the  Golden-Lion 

in  Pauls  Church  yard,  1673. 

To  the  Christian  Readers ;  especially  to  the  Members  of  the 
Congregated  Churches  in  Leathward,  Cumberland  :  Assembling  for 
Publick  Worship  in  their  Licensed  Places  respectively,  in  Kirkoswald 
and  Hesket  Parishes,  by  his  Majies  Most  Gracious  Permission, 
Authority ;  and  Protection,  Grace  Mercy,  and  Peace  in  Jesus  Christ. 

This  Epistle  to  the  reader  is  signed  "  S.A.,"  given  in 
the  Jackson  Library  copy  as  "Atkins  " ;  but  it  is  almost 
certain  that  it  was  Simon  Atkinson,  the  Ejected  Minister 
of  Lazonby,  still  resident  in  the  district.  It  contains  the 
following :  — 

Kirkoswald  341 

One  would  think  that  no  serious  Professors  of  Christianity,  were  in 
any  peril  of  Popery ;  yet  Quakers  are  an  Artificial  product  of  it 
though  they  know  it  not. 

In  the  Introduction,  among  other  things,  we  have  a  brief 
narrative  of  Mary  Wilson,  who  was  born  at  Crosfield,  in 
the  Parish  of  Kirkoswald,  Nov.  19,  1652.  Her  father's 
name  was  Richard  Wilson,  and  mother's  maiden  name 
Mary  Martendale.  When  she  was  about  eight  years  of  age 
she  was  attacked  by  small  pox,  and  Dr.  Gilpinwas  called  in 
to  see  her.  About  the  "9th  year  of  her  age  a  gentleman 
coming  to  her  Father's  house  in  Discourse  with,  her 
Father,  told  him  That  there  was  a  strong  report  that  the 
Parliament  was  about  to  put  forth  An  Act  for  the  Banish- 
ment of  all  the  Nonconformists  in  England."  She  over- 
heard this ;  and  on  being  asked  by  her  father  whether  he 
should   conform,   replied   "  No  my  Father,   though   they 

should  do  with  you  as  they  did  with  Mr. I  would  not 

have  you  conform."  There  is  also  an  account  of  her  own 
experiences  given  by  herself  in  her  15th  year,  under  date 
1667.  She  tells  about  hearing  Mr.  Nicholson  on  Matt.  7, 
21;  again  on  Gen.  17,  1;  also  Mr.  Davis  on  Mai.  4,  2; 
Mr.  Nicholson  again  on  Numb.  14,  24,  also  John  5  "  the 
latter  part  of  V.  14."  Mr.  Nicholson  was  sent  for  as  sbe 
lay  dying;  and  it  is  stated  that  the  doctor  and  Mr. 
Wilkinson  sat  with  her  immediately  before  the  end 
"  between  four  and  five  "  in  the  morning  of  Aug.  3,  1672. 
George  Nicholson's  Funeral  Sermon  for  her  was  on  Luke 
12,  40 ;  and  verses  14  to  18  of  Psalm  103  were  sung.  The 
poetic  pieces  in  praise  of  the  deceased  are  signed  by 
"M.C.";  "Christopher  Rickerby  School-Master  of 
Lazonby";  and  "  G.L."  [George  Larkham].  In  the 
volume  is  a  letter  ending :  "  Your  unworthy  Brother 

Aug.  27,  1672." 

Another  lengthy  one  is  "to  Mr.  Rich.  Wilson  of  Crosfield 
after  the  Death  of  his  dear  and  only  Daughter;  upon  the 
receipt  of  a  Letter  of  Complaint  from  him  for  long  Absence 
after  promise  of  Presence."     It  begins  thus: — "  My  very 


The   Ejected   of   1662 

Dear  and  Beloved  Son  in  the  Faith,  through  our  well- 
beloved  Saviour." 

Signed  : 

"  From  Wei  den  the 
25  of  the  8th 

"  Who  is,  and  ever  will 
be  ready  to  be  a 
server  of  your  Faith 
and   an   helper  of 
your  Joy  J. D. [avis]. 

Yet  another  is  signed  :  — 

**  Octob.  18.  From  your  Fellow-feeling 

1762  [misprint  Brother  G.L.[arkham]." 

for  1672]. 

It  is  followed  thus  :  — 
Anagr.  Mary  Wilson 

Your  Nam'  liv's 
Dear  little  Soul,  now  shrined  above  in  Glory 
Though  thee  we  may  not  See,  We'le  view  by  Story ; 
Tis  true,  it  is  but  short,  yet  sweet,  and  we 
Will  chear  our  selves  with  this  that's  left  of  thee, 
When  as  Elijah  hence  in  Whirlwind  flew 
He  cast  a  mantle,  so  hast  thou  done  too  : 
We'le  take  it  up,  there's  in  it  some  relief, 
By  it  we  may  in  part  wade  through  our  grief, 
For  thy  removal  :  you  are  gone  we  know 
But  your  Nam'  liv's  and  shall  with 
Saints  below. 

G.  L. 

Another :  — 
per  eundem 

What !  ripe  so  soon  marvel  we  not ; 
Fruit  ripes  fast  in  a  Garden  plot. 
In  warm  Soyl  there  good  trees  will  bear 
Assoon  as  planted,  the  first  year. 
This  little  tender,  precious  tree, 
Dropt  Mellow-fruit,  as  you  may  see. 
Here's  but  a  little,  loads  she  bore, 
But  gathering  vessel  held  no  More. 
What  here  you  find  collected  by 
A  Sobbing  Heart,  a  Weeping  Eye ; 
(A  Father  mourning  for  his  loss, 

Mary  Wilson 
In  Warm  Soyl 

Kirkoswald  343 

To  him  th'  heaviest  outward  cross) 
Take  notice  of,  use  to  your  good, 
Such  fruit  from  young  ones  is  choice  food 
When  old  trees  fruitless  grow,  God  then 
Will  raise  fruit-bearing  Childeren. 
You  that  in  Warm  Soyl  are,  0  mind 
What  this  warm  Soul  hath  left  behind. 
Good  Families  and  Churches  are. 
The  warmest  Soyls  i'th  world  by  far. 

G.  L. 

In  the  Kirkoswald  Registers  are  some  Latin  verses  by 
"  Georgius  Nicolson,"  probably  the  Minister  in  question; 
and    his    burial    entry    there    reads    thus :  — 

1697  Mr.  George  Nicolson  buryed  August  the  22nd. 

Bishop  Nicolson  adds:  — 

There's  a  Third  Monumental  Inscription  preparing  for  one  Dawes; 
who  (from  teaching  a  few  petty  boyes  and  girls  at  Salkeld-yeats) 
advanced  to  ye  profession  of  a  Pastor  in  ye  same  way  with  G. 
Nicolson  ye  Independant.' 

George  Yates,  1668—1670. 

There  is  an  unfortunate  gap  in  the  Registers  after  1659 
to  1685,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  odd  entries ;  but,  as 
previously  stated,  George  Yates,  Rector  of  Croglin  '^ 
obtained  a  license  to  serve  this  Cure.     He  died  in  1670. 

George  Sanderson,  1671. 

He  was  at  Gainford,  Durham,  in  1652,  and  Forcett, 
in  Richmondshire,  in  1661.  He  wrote  freely  to  Lord 
Wharton,  and  his  letters  are  in  the  Rawlinson  MSS.^  In 
one  of  them  he  suggests  that  he  would  like  to  succeed 
Francis  Higginson  at  Kirkby  Stephen,  who  was  "  not 
likely  to  return "  after  his  Ejection.  Nicolson  and 
Bum  say  that,  on  succeeding  George  Yates  at  Croglin, 
he  had  a  similar  license  for  Kirkoswald.  The  arrange- 
ment held  until  1685,  when,  for  some  reason  or  other, 
the     Kirkoswald     living     was     sequestered     from     him. 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  118. 

2.  Vide  p.  415. 

3.  Bodl.  Library. 

344  The   Ejected   of    1662 

Nicolson,  in  his  Diary  under  May  13,  1685,  thus  refers  to 
the   matter :  — 

A  new  Sequestration  order'd  for  Kirk-oswald. 

25th  Serv'd  ye  Sequestration  on  Mr.  Sanderson  at  Kirk-oswald ;  & 
Mr.  Rumney  put  in  by  ye  Sequestrators.  1 

John  Rumxey,  1685—1738. 

He  first  appears  in  the  Registers  thus,  though  his 
license  as  Curate  is  dated  Oct.  3,  1687  :  — 

Roberbtus  fil  Jonis  Rumney  baptizatus  Octobris  10™°  4to.  1685. 

He  married  "  Issibell  "  Sanderson,  the  daughter  doubtless 
of  his  predecessor,  in  1681. ^  and  probably  was  serving  as 
Curate  at  the  time.  In  addition  to  Kirkoswald  he  had 
charge  of  Renwick,  until  his  death  in  1738.  His  burial 
is  thus  recorded  :  — 

1738  The  Revd.   Mr.  Rumney  Minister  of  Kirkoswald  &  Renwick 
Novr  16th. 

A  person  of  this  name  was  at  Cross  Canonby  in  1712.^ 

John  Mandeville,  1739 — 1761. 

He  was  instituted  in  1739,  under  a  Presentation  by  the 
Great  Seal,  and  remained  until  his  death.  His  burial 
entry  is  given  thus  :  — 

1761  The  Revd.  Mr.  John  Mandeville  Vicar  July  ye  19th. 

Such  would  appear  to  be  the  list ;  but  it  has  to  be  admitted 
that  the  case  is  not  free  from  difficulty.  Nicolson  and 
Burn  state  that  the  place,  not  being  worth  "the  expense  of  a 
Presentation  under  the  Great  Seal,"  was  successively 
served  by  way  of  sequestration  by  George  Sanderson,  John 
Rumney  and  James  Wannop.  In  1714  they  add  that 
James  Wannop  "  tendred  a  presentation  under  the  Great 
Seal  and  was  thereupon  instituted  " ;  "  in  1719  William 
Milner  was  licensed  to  be  Curate ;  so  also  John  Rumney 
in  1723  upon  whose  death,  in  1739,  John  Mandeville  was 

1.  Trans.  .(N.S.),  vol.  i,  pp.  29,  30.  The  Registers  give  : — "Richardus 
Harrison  Clericus  sepult  ffebii  24th  ano  1686,"  though  its  precise 
significance  does  not  appear. 

2.  Vide  p.  330. 

3.  Vide  p.  737. 

Kirkoswald  345 

instituted."  ^  The  matter  is  not  clearly  put,  and  appear- 
ances point  rather  in  the  direction  of  a  continuous  ministry 
for  John  Rumney,  from  1685  to  1738,  the  persons  named 
serving  as  his  Curates.  At  any  rate  until  further  evidence 
is  forthcoming  it  must  be  left  thus.^  The  Registers  give 
the  following  respecting  Wannop  :  — 

Mr.  Wannup  and  Mrs.  Dor.  Towry  Aug.  9th,  1719  married. 

She  was  buried  Sep.  12,  1747,  and  is  described  as  "widow." 
The  baptism  also  of  "  Mary  the  daughter  of  Wm.  Milner 
Clerk  Sepbr  the  27th  1722  "  appears  in  them.  To  these 
must  be  added  the  name  of  Joseph  Tangate,  Curate,  whose 
wife  "  Jannett "  was  buried  on  "  lObr  ye  7  1712." » 

The  Lowthion  or  Lowthian  family  were  of  considerable 
importance  in  the  neighbourhood.  There  was  a  George 
Lowthion,  B.  A.,  who  was  ordained  Deacon  Sept.  20,  1668,  to 
whom  Foster  refers  as  follows  : — "George  Lowthian  '  Serv' 
S.John  of  Kirkoswald,  Cumberland,  pleb.  Queen's  Coll., 
matric.  14  Dec,  1660,  aged  18;  B.A.  1665,  rector  of  Whit- 
field, Northumberland,  1666.^'  In  the  Kirkoswald  Registers 
is  the  following  entry  :  — "  Ulrick  son  of  George  Lowthion 
Clerk  baptized  September  the  2nd  1678."  ^  The  Lowthion 
entries  are  numerous,  the  references  to  George  Lowthion 
being  particularly  frequent.  Sometimes  he  appears  as 
"  George    Lowthian  "  ;    then    "  Mr.    George  Lowthian  " ; 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  428. 

2.  I  am  inclined  to  modify  the  opinion  above  given  and  think  that 
John  Rumney  removed  to  Cross  Canonby  about  1712  (vide  p.  737).  His 
wife  "  Isabell  "  died  in  1723,  and  he  in  1728.  In  that  case  the  order 
would  be  the  one  given  by  Nicolson  and  Burn,  Wannop,  Milner  and 
Rumney,  the  latter  being  second  of  that  name  who  served  here. 

3.  Can  this  be  "the  Schoolmr  of  Ousby  (Tingate)  "  who  on  Saturday 
Dec.  18,  1708,  appeared  with  "a  Title  from  Mr.  Robinson,  for  Deacon's 
orders?"    (Nicolson's  Diary  Trans.   (N.S.),  vol.  iv,  p.  43.) 

4.  Vide  Al.  Ox.  Ulrick  was  educated  like  his  father  at  Queen's 
matriculating  March  29,  1698,  at  the  age  of  17,  and  becoming  Rector  of 
Whitfield,  Northumberland,  in  1703 ;  and  Bishop  Nicolson  says  :  "Sep. 
20.  1702.  Ord.  Priest  Uthred  Lowthian  formerly  (as  his  Father)  of  Qu. 
Coll.  Oxon.  design'd  by  his  Cousin  ye  Patron,  to  be  Rector  of  Whitfield." 
(Trans.  (N.S.),  vol.  ii,  p.  181.) 


The   Ejected   of  1662 

again  "  George  Lowthion  gent " ;  yet  again  as  "  George 
Lowthian  Clerk  " ;  and  under  date  1697  "  burialls  "  we 
have  the  following  :  — "  Ann  daughter  of  parson  Lowthion 
November  the  29."  If  these  all  relate  to  the  same 
individual,  as  they  probably  do,  it  would  appear  that 
George  Lowthion  had  ceased  to  be  in  active  service  as  a 
Minister,  being  resident  on  his  estate  at  Kirkoswald.^ 
There  are  several  references  also  to  "  Thomas  Lowthion 
Clerk."  A  person  of  this  name  ministered  some  time  to 
the  Penruddock  Nonconformist  congregation.  His  son, 
Samuel  Lowthion,  became  the  Minister  of  the  Newcastle 
congregation,  where  Dr.  Gilpin  formerly  laboured,  and 
he  was  a  leader  in  the  Arian  movement  of  the  18th  Century. 

1.  In  the  St.  Cuthbert's  Transcripts,  Carlisle,  is  the  following  : — 
"  1700  Bridgett  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Creorge  Lowthian  baptized  the  18th 
of   June." 


This  is  a  considerable  village  some  five  miles  east  of 
Lazonby,  away  in  the  hill  scenery  which  borders  upon 
Northumberland  and  Durham.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to 
All  Saints ;  and  in  the  days  of  Pope  Nicholas  it  was  rectorial. 
In  the  period  with  which  we  are  concerned  it  was  a  mere 
Chapelry,  served  by  a  Curate,  who  appears  to  have  had 
charge  of  Kirkoswald  as  well.  In  the  account  of  Kirkoswald^ 
therefore,  will  be  found  all  that  is  known  of  the  men  who 
held  this  living.  The  Historians  are  silent  in  reference  to 
them  and  the  Registers  supply  no  new  name.  The  earliest 
Register  Book  is  a  small  volume  containing  few  entries, 
and  these  are  scarcely  legible.  The  first  two  pages  appear 
to  be  occupied  with  miscellaneous  entries  of  late  date,  say 
about  1680  and  1690.  They  are  written  across  and  cannot 
be  deciphered.  The  first  page  on  the  second  leaf  gives  the 
following  :  — 

A  True  Account  of  the   Weddings  Births  and   Burials  within  the 
pish  of  Eenwick  since  the  Year  of  our  Lord  God  1649. 

The  entries  are  few,  only  two  for  1649,  one  for  1650;  and 
the  first  three  pages  lead  up  to  1681.  At  the  end  of  1666 
are  the  words  :  — 

Noe  Eegestr  for  Eight  years  following. 

Again  at  1675  :  — 

Noe  Regestr  again  for  5  years  following. 

I  suspect  this  to  be  a  copy  made  by  a  later  hand  from 
older  fragments  that  have  perished .  The  following  probably 
served  this  place  :  — John  Davis,  George  Nicholson ;  possibly 
the  Incumbents  of  Croglin  and  Ainstable,  more  or  less; 
and  certainly  John  Rumney  and  others  from  1681 
onwards.  In  the  Renwick  Registers  are  the  following 
respecting  Rumney's  family  :  — 

1681  Tabitha  daughter  of  John  Rumney  Clerk  Bap.  March  ye  6th. 
1683  Anne  daughter  of  John  Rumney  Clerk  bap.  Jany.  ye  18. 


The    Ejected    of  1662 

1686  Robert  son  of  John  Rumney  Clerk  Bap.  Octobr  ye  14. 
1691  Margarett  daughter  of    John  Rumney  Bap.  June  ye  10. 
1694  Isabell  daughtr  of  John  Rumney  Clerk  Bap.  Sep.  ye  2d. 
1697  John  son  of  John  Rumney  Clerk  Bapt.  June  the  6th. 

His  marriage  with  Isabell  Sanderson,  the  daughter  prob- 
ably of  his  predecessor,  George  Sanderson,  in  1681  appears 
in  the  Hesket  Registers.^  The  Rumneys  were  a  consider- 
able family  in  this  neighbourhood,  entries  relating  to  them 
occurring  frequently  in  the  Renwick,  Kirkoswald  and 
Ainstable  Registers.  Under  date  1701  is  the  following  :  — 
"Richard  Beckton,  Clark,  Buried  July  the  14th." 
Judging  from  the  significance  of  the  word  "  Clerk "  in 
these  Registers  it  is  almost  certain  that  this  was  a 
Minister;  but  where  he  laboured  is  not  known,  unless  he 
was  John  Rumney's  Curate. 

1.  Vide  p.  330. 


A  parish  of  considerable  extent,  including  Glassonby 
and  Gamblesby  or  Gamlesby,  which  lies  a  few  miles  south 
east  of  Lazonby.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Michael. 
The  first  volume  of  the  Registers,  which  is  of 
parchment,  is  much  wasted  by  damp.  The  earliest 
decipherable  date  is  March,  1603^.  Some  pages  have 
been  torn  away.  The  writing  is  fairly  legible,  but  the 
edges  in  many  places  have  been  worn  away.  The  follow- 
ing is  a  list  of  Incumbents  :  — 

Edward  Maplett,  M.A.,  1591. 

He  was  Kector  of  Clifton  in  1584,^  and  in  that  year 
became  also  a  Prebendary  of  Carlisle  Cathedral,  remaining 
such  until  his  death  in  1624.  He  founded  the  Free  School 
at  Maughanby.2     The  Registers  give  the  following  :  — 

Willyam  Maplett  the  sonne  of  Edward  Maplett  vicar  of  Addingham 
was  buried  the  xx  daie  of  October  1608. 

....  of  Mr.  Henry  Maeplett  the  Sonne  of  Mr.  .  .  .  [date  about 

There  was  a  Thomas  Maplett,  M.A.,  at  Edenhall  in  1609;* 
and  at  Little  Salkeld  in  1611. 

Thomas  Lambert,  1627. 

This  is  a  new  name  and  it  is  only  proper  to  say  that  the 
evidence  for  it  is  not  decisive.  It  is  supplied  by  the 
following  entry  in  the  Registers  :  — 

The    Chrestening    of    Thomas    Lambert    the    sone   of   Sir    Thomas 

Lambert  of  Glassonby  the  5th  daie  of  Julije  1627. 

The  prefix  "  Sir  "  was  the  usual  one  given  to  a  Minister 
about  this  time;  and  a  person  of  the  name  was  ordained 
Deacon  May  23,  1619,  and  Priest  June  11,  1620. 

Lewis  West,  M.A.,  1636—1646. 

I  He  belonged  to  the  elder  branch  of  the  Wests  of  Under- 

1.  Vide  p.   1239. 

2.  Jefferson's  Leath  Ward,  p.  330  note. 

3.  Vide  p.  440. 

350  The    Ejected   of  1662 

bank  in  Hunshelf,  near  Penistone.  Francis  West  of 
Denby,  in  the  same  district,  appears  to  have  been  a  member 
of  the  younger  branch  who  were  strong  Puritans,  whilst 
the  elder  were  equally  pronounced  Royalists.  Lewis 
West  married  Frances,  eldest  daughter  of  Richard  Marsh, 
D.D.,  Yicar  of  Halifax,  and  on  the  death  of  his  elder 
brother  he  succeeded  to  the  Underbank  estate.^  He  was 
instituted  to  Addingham  jSTov.  21,  1636,  on  a  Presentation 
by  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  becoming  a  Prebendary  of 
Carlisle  the  same  year.  Walker,  who  finds  him  a  place 
in  his  list,  says  :  ■ — 

He  was  a  Man  of  Worth  and  Learning,   Survived  the  Rebellion, 

enjoyed   his   Preferment   again,    and   was  the   Only    Member   of   the 

Chapter  who  outlived  the  Usurpation.  2 

He  appears  in  the  list  of  contributors  to  the  Carlisle 
garrison  in  1644,  the  amount  standing  against  his  name 
being  £1.  0.  0.^  His  Sequestration  took  place  about 
1646,  and  the  following  documents  deal  with  the  matter : 

Addingham.  ^Nlaij  30.  1646. 

Upon  the  humble  peticon  of  ffrances  the  wife  of  Lewes  West  from 
whom  the  vicarage  of  Addingham  in  the  Countie  of  Cumberland  is 
sequestred.  It  is  ordered  that  the  sd  Mrs.  West  shall  have  for  & 
towards  the  maintennce  of  her  and  her  children  the  full  cleere  5th  pte 
of  all  the  tithes  rents  glebe  lands  and  Easter  booke  of  the  sd  viccaridge 
all  taxes  and  charges  first  deducted  out  of  the  whole)  unlesse  good 
cause  be  shewn  to  the  contrarie  the  sd  Mr.  West  and  his  wife  yielding 
all  due  obedience  to  the  said  sequestracon  The  examinacon  of  wch 
cause  (if  there  be  any)  this  Comittee  doe  refer  to  the  Comittee  of 
Parliamt.  for  the  Countie  of  Ciunberland  who  are  desired  to  hear  the 
ptes  on  both  sides  therein  and  to  call  before  them  and  examine  the 
witnesses  that  shalbe  produced  as  well  for  proofe  of  the  sd  cause  as 
on  the  pte  and  behalfe  of  the  sd  Mrs.  West  for  the  satisfying  of  her 
and  of  the  sd  paymt  of  the  sd  5th  pte  &  to  determine  the  differences 
betweene  them  or  otherwise  to  certifie  the  same  to  this  Comittee.  4 

Addingham.  August  19.  1646. 

Upon  consideracon  had  of  the  peticon  of  Lancelott  Lowther  Minister 
of  Addingham  in  the  Countie  of  Cumberland  this  Cotee  doe  declare 

1.  Yorkshire  Diaries.     (Surtees  Soc,  vol.  65),  p.  37,  note  2. 

2.  Walker,  part  ii,  p.  10. 

3.  Vide  p.   134. 

4.  Add.   MSS.,  Brit.   Mus.,  15670. 

Addingham  351 

&  order  that  ffrances  the  wife  of  Lewis  West  from  whome  the  viccar- 
age  of  Addingham  aforsd  is  sequestred  shall  have  the  5th  pte  of  the 
»d  viccarage  from  the  tyme  that  the  sd  Mrs.  West  did  peticon  for 
the  sd  5th  pte  &  not  before  And  that  all  taxes  &  charges  be  first 
deducted  out  of  the  whole  And  that  the  same  be  paid  in  money  by  the 
said  Mr.  Lowther  and  not  in  specie  wch  the  Cotee  for  the  said 
Countie  are  desired  upon  examinacon  of  pties  on  both  sides  Concern- 
inge  the  valine  of  the  sd  living  to  ascertaine  to  see  paid  accordinglie.  i 

Addingham.  Maij  29.  1647. 

Upon  consideracon  had  of  the  Peticon  of  Lancelott  Lowther  to 
whom  the  vicarage  of  Addingham  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  is 
sequestred  This  Comittee  doe  referre  it  to  the  Comittee  of  Parliamt 
for  the  said  County  or  any  three  of  them  who  are  desired  to  examine 
what  cause  can  be  shewen  why  a  fift  pte  of  the  profitts  of  the  said 
vicarage  should  not  be  paid  to  the  wife  of  Mr.  West  from  whom  the 
same  is  sequestred  callinge  before  them  and  Examininge  pties  and 
witnesses  on  both  sides  therein  concerned  and  to  determine  the  same 
if  they  can  or  otherwise  to  certifie  the  whole  cause  to  this  Comittee 
togeather  with  the  valine  of  the  said  Liveinge.  2 
Addingham.  October  19.  1647. 

This  Comitee  doe  appoint  to  heare  the  Cause  betweene  Mr.  Lowther 
to  whom  the  Viccarage  of  Addingham  in  the  Countie  of  Cumberland 
is  sequestred  and  ffrances  the  wife  of  INIr.  West  from  whome  the  same 
is  sequestred  upon  the  exaicons  Certifi'd  from  the  Cotee  of  pliamt  for 
the  said  Countie  on  the  21st  daie  of  December  next  ensueinge  whereof 
the  said  Mrs.  West  is  given  Convenient  notice.  3 

Lancelot  Lowther,  M.A.,  1646. 

This  is  an  entirely  new  name,  neither  Jefferson  nor 
"Whellan,  nor  Nicolson  and  Burn  making  any  attempt  to 
fill  in  the  gap  between  Lewis  West  and  William  Sill. 
To  the  documents  already  given  the  following  may  be 
added  :  — 

Rect.  of  Addingham.  August  19,  1646. 

By  vertue  of  an  order  of  both  houses  of  pliamt  of  the  second  of  I\Iay 
last  It  is  ordered  that  the  further  sume  of  20li  be  paide  out  of  the 
Rent  reserved  to  the  Deane  &  Chapter  of  Carlile  out  of  the  Rectorie 
of  Addingham  in  the  Countie  of  Cumberland  to  &  for  increase  of  the 
maintenance  of  Lancelott  Lowther,  Minister  of  the  pish  Church  of 

1.  Add.  MSS.,  Brit.  Mus.,  15670. 

2.  Ibid.,  15671. 
3   Ibid. 

352  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Addingham  aforesaid  the  viccarage  whereof  is  worthe  but  60li  a  yeare 
And  the  Sequestrators  of  the  pmisses  are  required  to  paie  the  Same 
accordinglie  at  such  times  &  Seasons  of  the  yeare  as  the  said  Rent 
shall  grow  due  &  payable.' 

In  the  Commonwealth  Survey  for  1649  he  is  given  as 
"  Clarke  &  Viccar  "  of  Little  Salkeld,  which  is  the  same 
as  Addingham. 2  From  the  same  source  comes  the  follow- 

Little  Salkeld. 

There  is  pd  out  of  ye  Viccaridge  of  Mr.  Lancelott  Lowther  the 
present  Incumbent  by  ordinance  of  parliamt  unto  ye  wife  of  Lodwicke 
West  the  fformer  viccare  of  late  sequestred  and  put  out  for  his 
delinquencie  ye  one  ffifth  pt  of  the  pfitts  of  ye  sd  Viccaridge. 3 

This  same  document  also  states  that  Frances  West, 
daughter  of  Lewis  West,  in  1638,  had  leased  certain  fields 
&c.  in  Little  Salkeld. 

The  reader  is  referred  to  Kirkby  Thore  and  Long 
Marton,  *  for  a  discussion  of  the  difficulty  experienced  in 
relation  to  the  two  Lancelot  Lowthers,  who  appear  to 
have  been  settled  in  these  parts  at  the  same  time.  The 
theory  there  advanced  is  put  forth  with  some  diffidence, 
but  assuming  its  soundness  the  following  in  relation  to 
the  present  Lancelot  Lowther  may  be  accepted  as  correct. 
He  was  the  sixth  son  of  Sir  Christopher  Lowther,  who  was 
the  second  son  of  Sir  Eichard  Lowther,  grandfather  of 
Lancelot  Lowther  of  Kirkby  Thore.  The  two  Lancelots 
would,  therefore,  be  cousins.  Lancelot  Lowther  of  Adding- 
ham married  Esther  Pearce  of  Dublin.  The  difficulty  in 
the  case  of  the  Lowthers  has  been  largely  created  through 
Nicolson  and  Burn  assigning  the  Addingham  Lowther  to 
Long  Marton.  This  appears  to  be  quite  a  mistake.  It 
should  be  noted  that  the  statement  of  Nicolson  and  Burn 
is  halting  and  uncertain.  The  next  Incumbent  [at  Long 
Marton]  they  say  "  seems  to  have  been  Lancelot  Lowther." 
They  also  state  that  when  he  died  in  1661,  assuming  bim 

1.  Bodl.  MS.,  323. 

2.  Vide  p.  1299. 

3.  Lambeth  MSS. — Surveys,  vol.  ii. 

4.  Vide  pp.  1150,  1165. 

Addingham  353 

to  be  the  Long  Marton  Rector,  lie  was  very  old,  his  father 
having  died  54  years  previously  at  the  age  of  77  years. 
As  appears  later  it  was  the  other  Lancelot  who  died  in 
1661,  and  he  could  not  have  been  excessively  old  :  for  his 
widow  "  Sarah,"  not  "  Esther,"  states  in  her  petition  that 
he  had  left  her  with  "  7  young  children  all  unprovided 
for."  According  to  Foster  he  took  his  B.A.  degree  in 
1614,  and  where  he  had  been  previous  to  his  appointment 
to  Addingham  in  1646,  we  do  not  know.  It  is  extremely 
interesting  to  find  a  Lowther  replacing  Lewis  West;  and 
the  fact  shows  how  little  ground  there  is  for  the  statement 
frequently  made  that  the  policy  of  the  Commonwealth  was 
to  suppress  and  eject  the  Episcopalian  Minister  as  such. 
For  however  much  Lancelot  Lowther  may  have  modified 
his  position  there  is  no  reason  to  think  that  he  was  other 
than  an  Episcopalian. 

John  Billingsley,  M.A.,  1653. 

He  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Billingsley  of  Chatham, 
Kent,  matric.  July  8,  1642,  at  Exeter  Coll.  at  the  age  of 
17,  admitted  to  St.  John's  Coll.,  Cambridge,  Sept.  21, 
1644,  graduated  B.A.  1648,  was  incorporated  from  Corpus 
Christi,  Oxford,  April  24,  1649,  and  proceeded  M.A. 
April  28,  1649,  Fellow  by  the  Parliamentary  Visitors  in 
1648  (incorporated  at  Cambridge  1652).^  Calamy,  who 
says  that  he  was  born  Sept.  14,  1625,  states  that  "  he  was 
solemnly  ordain'd  to  the  Ministry  Sept.  26,  1649,  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Andrew,  Undershaft,  in  London.  While  he 
was  at  Oxford,  he  Preach'd  frequently  in  the  Adjacent 
Places,  and  at  length  had  a  Call  into  one  of  the  remote, 
and  dark  Corners  of  the  Land  to  Preach  the  Gospel,  which 
he  did  painfully  at  Addingham  in  Cumberland.  He 
found  the  People  very  Ignorant,  and  therefore  set  upon 
Catechizing  and  was  one  of  the  Association  for  reviving 
the  Scriptural  Discipline  of  particular  Churches,  of  which 
the  World  has  had  an  account  in  Print."  The  reference 
here  is,  of  course,  to  the  Association  of  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland  Ministers.  John  Billingsley  joins  in  the 
letter  of   1653  to  Richard   Baxter,   in  reference  to  this 

1.  Al.  Ox. 


354  I'he   Ejected   of  1662 

matter ;  and  is  there  described  as  "  Minister  of  Adding- 
ham."  1  When  he  left  Addingham  is  not  clear,  but  he 
removed  to  Chesterfield  in  Derbyshire,  whence  he  was 
ejected.  Possibly  the  foreshadowings  of  Ejection  are  to 
be  seen  in  the  following  from  the  Calendar  of  State 
Papers  :  for  at  this  time  all  over  the  country  the  men  who 
held  Commonwealth  appointments  in  the  Church  began 
to  feel  the  uncertainty  of  their  position. 

Sep.  17.  1659. 

John  Billingsley,  vicar  of  Chesterfield,  and  Mr.  Clud  [Child  ( ?)] 
Minister  of  Alfreton,  to  attend  Council  the  2nd  Wednesday  in  Oct. 
next  to  answer  Charges  of  misdemeanor  objected  against  them  and 
Mr.  Newton,  Mayor  of  Chesterfield,  to  send  them  a  copy  of  this  order 
at  least  10  days  before  that  time, 

Pres.  Salway  to  Wm.  Newton,  Mayor  of  Chesterfield, 
Council  has  received  your  letter  concerning  the  miscarriage  of  Mr. 
Billingsley  and  Mr.  Child,  Ministers,  and  approves  your  care.  They 
desire  you  to  see  that  both  are  summoned  to  attend  Council,  according 
to  the  inclosed  order,  and  if  you  have  power  as  a  J. P.,  you  are  to  take 
evidence  on  oath  about  their  affairs  from  any  that  know  them  (or  else 
.  some  Justices  of  the  Peace  that  have  the  power  are  to  do  it)  and  you 
are  to  report  to  us  speedily .2 

Calamy  gives  a  lengthy  account  of  John  Billingsley,^ 
and  states  that  a  son  of  the  same  name  was  Pastor  of  a 
Church  at  Hull  for  some  time,  and  afterwards  at  London, 
where  he  died  in  Charterhouse  Yard ;  and  that  a  grandson 
similarly  named  had  charge  of  a  congregation  at  Dover 
at  the  time  of  his  writing.  John  Billingsley,  senior,  died 
May  30,  1683. 

Daniel  Broadley,  1660. 

Respecting  this  person  Calamy  has  the  following  in  his 
1713  Edition,  the  one  used  throughout  this  work:  — 

Adingham  :  Mr.  Daniel  Broadley.     That  was  his  right  Name.     And 
whereas  I  before  had  mention'd  Mr.   Broadley  of  Glassenby  I  have 

1.  Eel.  Bax.,  p.  164. 

2.  Cal.,  S.  P.  for  1659—69,  pp.  204,  205. 

3.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  169 ;   vol.  iii,  p.  233. 


Addingham  355 

since  been  given  to  understand  that  Glassenby  is  a  Toun  in  Adingham 
Parish,  where  one  Mr.  Croxall  was  at  that  time,  who  Conform'd.' 

Palmer  in  his  1775  Edition,  omits  the  foregoing  and 
simply  has :  "Addingham.  Mr.  Daniel  Broadley."^  j^ 
his  1802  Edition,  Palmer  says:  — 

It   is   queried   whether  this  place   be   not   in  the   West  Riding   of 

Here,  as  frequently  elsewhere,  Calamy  is  correct  and  his 
reviser  at  fault.  There  is  no  room  for  even  the  faintest 
shadow  of  a  doubt  about  the  identity  of  the  place.  Un- 
fortunately we  know  little  of  Daniel  Broadley  beyond 
what  is  given  above.  The  Addingham  Registers,  how- 
ever, have  the  following  :  — 

The  Weding  of  Mr.  Robertt  Bartram  Minister  of  Croglen  and  Mistres 
Martha  Broadley  daughter  of  Mr.  Daniell  Broadley  Minister  of  this 
pish  Aprill  ye  23rd  1657. 

Levstis  West,  M.A.,  1661—1668. 

It  has  already  been  stated  that  the  Restoration  brought 
the  return  of  Lewis  West  to  Addingham.  He  was  also 
collated  to  Great  Salkeld,^  April  22nd,  1661,  and  still 
further  rewarded  with  the  Archdeaconry  of  the  Carlisle 
Diocese.  The  following  entries  relating  to  his  family 
appear  in  the  Addingham  Registers :  — 

Chresteninge  of  Thomasyne  West  daughter  of  Mr.  Lewis  West  of 
Salkeld  1642. 

.  .  .  1643  .  .  .  Weste  daughter  of  Mr.  Lewis  Weste  of  Salkeld 
Buried  ....  July. 

Baptism  (?)....  of  Mr.  Lewis  Weste  of  Salkeld  Maye  ye  5th 

Lewis  West  died  in  1668. 

William  Sill,  M.A.,  1668—1673. 

He  was  instituted  Sept.  26,  1668,  on  a  Presentation  by 
the  Dean  and  Chapter.  "  In  the  year  1678,"  write 
Nicolson  and  Burn,  "  he  commenced  a  suit  in  chancery 

1.  Calamy,  vol.  ii,  p.  159. 

2.  Non.  Mem.,  vol.  i,  p.  296 

3.  Ibid.    p.  377. 

4.  Vid§  pp.  177,  361 

356  The    Ejected   of  1662 

against  the  dean  and  chapter,  which  by  the  mediation  of 
bishop  Eainbow  was  compromised;  and  a  lease  of  the 
tithes  of  Little  Salkeld  was  granted  by  the  dean  and 
chapter  in  augmentation  of  the  vicarage."  i  This 
reads  as  if  William  Sill  were  still  at  Addingham,  but  he 
had  removed  to  Bromfield  in  1673.  ^  He  was  one  of  the 
Prebendaries  of  the  Cathedral  and  resigned  that  position 
in  1681  to  become  Prebendary  of  Westminster. 

Henry  Aglionby,  1674 — 1697, 

He  was  instituted  April  28,  1674,  and  was  the  second 
son  of  John  Aglionby  of  Carlisle,  and  younger  brother  of 
the  Recorder  of  the  City.  He  received  his  early  training 
at  Sedbergh,  whence  he  went  to  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, entering  there  in  1666,  at  the  age  of  17  years. 
He  added  to  his  Addingham  living,  in  1691,  that  of 
Bowness,  Cumberland,^  and  died  in  1697.  His  great 
uncle  Dr.  J.  Aglionby,  Principal  of  St.  Edmund  Hall, 
Oxford,  and  Chaplain  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  was  one  of  the 
translators  of  the  New  Testament.* 

Thomas  Ne Vinson,  B. A.,  1697. 

He  was  at  IJldale  in  1684,^  and  was  instituted  to 
Addingham  Oct.  18,  1697,  on  a  Presentation  by  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  Carlisle,  being  inducted  two  days  after- 
wards. The  Haile  Registers  contain  the  following  note 
of  his  marriage  :  — 

1690  Thomas  Nevinson  and  Grace  Nicolson  M[arried]. 

This  was  Bishop  Nicolson's  sister.  In  the  Wetheral 
Registers  we  have  the  marriage  entry,  of  possibly  a 
daughter,  or  sister,  of  Thomas  Nevinson  in  the  following 
terms  :  — 

1708  Mr.  William  Eobley  &  Margaret  Nevinson  Mar.  ffeb.  ye  17. 

The  Nevinsons  would  appear  to  have  been  a  prominent 
family  in  Carlisle  at  this  time.  The  following  occurs  in 
the  St.  Mary's  Church  Registers,  Carlisle:  — 

1.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  451. 

2.  Vide  p.  641. 

3.  Vide  p.  604. 

4.  Sedbergh  School  Register,  p.  88. 

5.  Vide  p.  557. 


Addingham  357 


Abbey  Street  Stanwix  ye  Son  of  Mr.   William  Nevinson  bapt.  ye 
25.     [Jany  1701-2.] 

Thomas  Nevinson  was  subsequently  at  Torpenhow.^ 

William  Nicoi^on,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1698—1702. 

He  was  previously  at  Torpenhow  and  Great  Salkeld,^ 
and  was  instituted  to  Addingham  on  February  2,  1698-9 
on  the  same  Presentation.  The  Addingham  Registers 
give  the  following  respecting  his  Induction  :  — 

^  Feby  11.  1698-9  Mr.  Wm.  Nicolson  Archdeacon  of  Carlisle  was  (by 
vertue  of  a  mandate  from  ye  Lord  Bishop  of  Carlisle)  inducted  into 
the  vicarage  of  Adingham  by  me 

Nath.   Spooner  vicar  of  Kirkland 
in  the  presence  of 

Cha.  Smalwood 
William  Clarke 
Mathew  Hodgson 
Mathew  Hodgson. 
William  Nicolson  resigned  Addingham  in  1702  to  become 
Bishop  of  Carlisle. 

John  Christopheesox,  M.A.,  B.D.,  1702 — 1758. 

He  was  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  taking  his 
B.A.  in  1695,  M.A.  1700,  S.T.B.  1708.  He  was  instituted 
July  10th,  1702,  and  inducted  the  following  day  by 
William  Lindsey,  Hector  of  Melmerby.^  Bishop  Xicolson 
in  1704,  speaks  of  his  "  worthy  Successor  "  in  terms  of 
high  praise,*     He  died  in  1758. 

1.  Vide  p.  582. 

2.  Vide  pp.  362,  582. 

3.  So  the  Addingham  Registers  :  vide  also  Nicolson's  Diaries,  Trans. 
<N.S.),  vol.  ii,  p.   170. 

4.  Miscel.,  p.  122. 


Great  Salkeld  is  a  village  about  four  miles  south  of 
Lazonby.  The  Church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Cuthbert.  The 
earliest  Register  Book  is  a  small,  long,  narrow  paper 
volume  in  which  the  following  appears  :  — 

A  full  and  perfect  Register  of  all  Births,  Weddings  and  Burials  in 

the  parish  of  Gt.  Salkeld  from  and  after  ye  30th  day  of  Aprill  A.D. 

1695.  In  pursuance  of  a  late  Act  of  Parliament. 
As  late  as  1831  there  was  an  earlier  volume  containing 
births,  marriages  and  burials  from  1583  to  1717;  but  this 
has  disappeared.  Of  the  earlier  Registers  only  a  mere 
fragment  remains,  a  single  parchment  leaf,  with 
promiscuous  entries  for  the  years  1571 — 1573.  The 
Churchwardens'  Accounts  consist  of  loose  papers,  dating- 
back,  in  some  cases,  to  1587.  From  the  earliest  times 
until  about  sixty  years  ago,  the  living  was  an  appendage 
to  the  Archdeaconry  of  Carlisle.  The  following  is  the  list 
of  Incumbents :  — 

Edwaed  Threlkeld,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  1567— 1588 (?). 

He  was  born  at  Burgh-by-Sauds  about  1526,  and 
admitted  a  Scholar  of  King's  College,  Cambridge,  Aug.  11, 
1544,  and  a  Fellow  Aug.  12,  1547.  He  graduated  B.A,  in 
1548,  M.A.  in  1552  and  LL.D.  in  1562.  On  March  11, 
1567-8,  he  was  collated  to  Great  Salkeld  and  the  Arch- 
deaconry of  Carlisle.  In  the  "Athense  Cantabrigienses  " 
it  is  stated  that  he  was  at  Greystoke  in  1571 ;  but  that 
would  appear  to  be  an  error.  He  compounded  for  the 
First  Fruits  of  Great  Salkeld  in  1568 :  for  the  Prebend 
of  Cublington  in  1571 ;  and  for  the  Yicarage  of  Tenbury, 
Hereford ,  1573.  About  1583  he  exercised  Episcopal 
jurisdiction  in  the  Diocese  of  Hereford,  the  Bishop,  John 
Scory,  being  superannuated.  Whether  Edward  Threlkeld 
was  non  resident  in  relation  to  his  Cumbrian  livings  is 
not  certain,  though  appearances  point  strongly  in  that 
direction.  Nor  is  it  known  whether  he  held  these  livings 
until   his   death,  which  took  place   in  1588.     His   Will, 

Great  Salkeld  359 

dated  June  22,  1588,  was  proved  Nov.  16,  1589.     In  it  he 

refers    to    "  Thomas    Threlkelde   bayliffe    of    Burghe    by 

Sandes" ;    also    to    "Sr.    Eichard    Thomas    my    curate    of 

Chewton."     Doubtless  he  belonged  to  the  Threlkelds  of 


Henry  Dethick,  M.A.,  D.C.L.,  1588—1597. 

He  was  the  son  of  Sir  Gilbert  Dethick,  Grarter  King  of 
Arms,  and  was  educated  at  Oxford  where  he  graduated 
B.A.  Feb.  16,  1568-9;  M.A.  June  14,  1572;  B.C.L.  July  2, 
1578;  and  Sup.D.C.L.  Dec.  6,  1581.  He  was  Master  of 
Greetham  Hospital,  Durham,  and  subsequently  became 
Archdeacon  and  Chancellor  of  Carlisle,  as  well  as  Rector 
of  Great  Salkeld.  He  retained  the  Chancellorship  after 
resigning  Great  Salkeld,  and  died  in  1613  at  the  age  of 
67  years.  2 
Richard  Pilkington,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1597—1599. 

Foster  instances  a  person  of  this  name  from  Emmanuel 
College,  Cambridge,  supplicating  for  incorporation  with 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  in  1599,  whom  he  supposes  to 
have  been  the  Rector  of  Great  Salkeld.  He  was  Rector 
of  Hambledon,  Bucks.,  in  1595;  Archdeacon  of  Leicester 
in  1625 ;  and  Treasurer  of  Lichfield  Cathedral,  1625-8. 
He  died  in  Sept.  1631,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
his  Church.  ^ 
Giles  Robinson,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1599—1602. 

He  was  brother  to  Henry  Robinson,  who  was  Bishop  of 
Carlisle,  and  who  collated  him  to  the  living.   Giles  Robinson 
resigned  in  1602,  and  became  Ticar  of  Crosthwaite,  Cum- 
Nicholas  Deane,  M.A.,  1602—1604. 

His   other  appointments  were  Warcop,   Bromfield   and 
Ousby,  &c.  ^ 
George  Warwick,  M.A.,  1604—1621. 

It  would  appear  that  he  held  Melmerby  as  well  as  Great 

1.  Ath.   Cant.,   vol.   ii,   pp.   42,   544;    Great  Salkeld,   its  Kectors  and 
History,  by  A.  G.  Loftie,  p.  40. 

2.  Al.  Ox. 

3.  Ibid. 

4.  Vide  p.  648. 

5.  Vide  pp.  387,  638,  1123. 


The   Ejected   of  1662 

Salkeld  and  the  Archdeaconsliip.  He  was  a  native  of 
Cumberland,  and  matriculated  at  Queen's  College,  Oxford, 
June  14,  1582,  at  the  age  of  16,  taking  his  B.A.  Dec.  8, 
1586,  and  M.A.  June  9,  1589.  He  became  Fellow  in 
1593,  and  was  Rector  of  Simondsburne  in  IS^orthumber- 
land  in  1597-9.  For  members  of  the  Warwick  family 
the  reader  is.  referred  to  the  accounts  of  Brampton,  Bow- 
ness,  Morland  and  Beaumont.^ 

Egbert  Wright,  1621. 

Almost  certainly  the  person  of  that  name  who  appears 
at  Stanwix  in  1616. ^  He  remained  at  Great  Salkeld  only 
about  a  year.  He  is  not  in  Jefferson's  list  of  Archdeacons 
of  Carlisle.^. 

Isaac  Sixgletox,  M.A.,  1622—1643. 

He  was  collated  by  Bishop  Milburn  Jan.  15,  1622,  the 
place  being  given  as  "  Silkelde  als  Salkelde  Maga."  For 
an  account  of  him  the  reader  is  referred  to  Crosthwaite, 
Cumberland.^  His  son,  Richard  Singleton,  was  at  Mel- 

Peter  Wextworth,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1645— 1660  (?). 

He  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Wentworth  of  Oxford,  and 
related  to  the  Earl  of  Strafford.  He  matriculated  at 
Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford,  March  13,  1617-18,  at  the  age  of 
16;  became  Fellow  of  Balliol  and  B.A.  June  8,  1621;  was 
incorporated  at  Cambridge  in  1623 ;  took  his  M.A.  Dec.  14, 
1624;  B.D.  Trinity  Term,  1631,  and  his  D.D.  July  16, 
1633.  He  became  Rector  of  Riseholme  in  Lincolnshire,  in 
1633,  and  was  Dean  of  Armagh  from  1637  to  1641.  The 
Ulster  Rebellion  in  1641  necessitated  his  flight  from 
Ireland;  and  his  appointment  to  the  Archdeaconry  of 
Carlisle  and  the  Great  Salkeld  living  followed.  Whether 
lie  was  resident  is  not  clear,  still  less  is  it  whether  he  held 
these  appointments  until  the  Restoration.     He  was,  how- 

1.  Vide  pp.  250,  &c. 

2.  Vide  p.  189. 

3.  Hist,  of  Carlisle,  p.  254;   Great  Salkeld,  &c.,  p.  57. 

4.  Vide  p.  649. 

5.  Vide  p.  384. 

Great  Salkeld  361 

ever,  in  charge  of  Buriton  in  Hampshire,  in  January, 
1658.  Mr.  Loftie  says: — "At  the  Restoration,  reinstate- 
ment in  his  former  deanery  or  an  Irish  Bishopric  was 
■offered  to  him,  but  he  declined  to  return  to  Ireland,  and 
accepted  only  the  rectory  of  Haseley,  in  Oxfordshire."  He 
died  at  Bath  July  22,  1661,  at  the  age  of  60;  and  was 
buried  in  the  Abbey  Church.  A  brass  plate  there  bears 
the  following  inscription  :  — 

Petrus   Wentworth   S.T.P.    Patriciorum   proles,    doctrinae   maritus. 
Summus  Hyberniae  decanus,  Angliae  praeconium  primns. 
Ob.  22  Jul.  1661.' 

Lewis  West,  M.A.,  1660—1667. 

He  compounded  for  his  First  Fruits  in  1660  and  held 
the  living  of  Addingham  as  well,  where  an  account  of  him 

John  Peachall,  D.D.,  1667-8. 

He  was  of  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge,  graduating 
S.T.B.  in  1661  and  S.T.P.  in  1680.  He  was  collated  to 
Oreat  Salkeld  Nov.  28,  1667,  and  was  also  Prebendary  of 
Carlisle.  He  resigned,  however,  the  following  year  and 
"  returned  to  Cambridge,  where  he  was  chosen  Master  of 
Magdalen  College,  and  yice-Chancellor  of  that  Univer- 
sity." 3 

Thomas  Musgrave,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1668—1682. 

He  was  granted  ''  letters  dismissory  on  February  25, 
1660-1,  being  then  B.A."  *  and  was  collated  to  the  dual 
position  Nov.  23,  1668.  He  was  the  sixth  son  of  Sir 
Philip  Musgrave,  and  entered  Queen's  College,  Oxford, 
as  Commoner,  Dec.  15,  1656,  matriculated  March  10, 
1656-7,  took  his  B.A.  July  26,  1659,  M.A.  May  5,  1662, 
and  was  created  B.D.  and  D.D.  Oct.  10,  1685.  He  was 
Rector  of  Whitburn  in  Durham,  in  1675,  being  also  Canon 
of  Durham  Cathedral,  and  of  Chichester  in  1681.  He 
was,   therefore,    a   very   considerable    Pluralist.     Thomas 

1.  Al.    Ox.  ;   Great  Salkeld,  &c.,  p.  62  . 

2.  Vide  p.  355. 

3.  Jefferson's  Hist,  of  Carlisle,  p.  264. 

4.  Episcopal  Eegister. 

362  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Musgrave's  first  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas 
Harrison  of  Allerthorp,  Yorkshire.  She  died  in  1677^ 
and  lies  in  the  Musgrave  burial  place  at  Edenhall.  His. 
second  wife  was  Anne,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Cradock  of 
Richmond,  Yorkshire.  Bishop  Nicolson,  writing  in  1704, 
says  that  the  parsonage  was  left  in  "  a  ruineous  and  Nasty 
Condition  by  Archdeacon  West"  ;  but  that  his  "immediate- 
predecessor  Mr.  Tho.  Musgrave  afterwards  D.D.  and  Dean 
of  Carlile,"  had  "  repair'd  it  handsomely,  and  at  a  Con- 
siderable Charge."^     Mr.  Loftie  says  :  — 

We  can  tell  the  exact  date  of  this  much-needed  restoration  from  a 
stone  door  lintel,  which  was  found  by  the  present  rector  [1900],  built 
into  an  outhouse  wall.  This  stone  has  now  been  inserted  into  the- 
front  wall  of  the  Rectory,  over  the  modern  entrance  door.  It  has 
carved  upon  it,  in  raised  letters,  the  initials  of  the  rector  and  his 
wife,  "T.  and  M.M."  with  the  figures  1674  below. =" 

In  1682  Thomas  Musgrave  resigned  his  Cumberland' 
appointments;  but  in  1684  he  returned  to  his  native- 
County  on  being  made  Dean  of  Carlisle.  He  died  March 
28,  1686,  and  was  buried  in  Durham  Cathedral.^ 

William  Nicolson,  M.A.,  D.D.,  1682—1702. 

He  was  the  son  of  Joseph  Nicolson,  for  some  while- 
Rector  of  Plumbland,  his  grandfather  being  Joseph 
Nicolson  of  Averas  Holme,  near  Carlisle,  and  his  grand- 
mother Radigunda  Scott  of  Stanwix.  He  appears  to  have 
been  of  Scotch  descent.*  William  Nicolson's  mother  was 
Mary,  fourth  daughter  of  John  Brisco  of  Crofton;  and  it 
was  Susannah  Brisco,  sister  to  John,  whom  Richard  Gilpin 
had  married.  Dr.  Gilpin's  son,  William,  a  distinguishei 
lawyer,  and  for  some  years  Recorder  of  the  City  of  Carlisle,, 
would  therefore  be  closely  related  to  Bishop  Nicolson ;  and 
in  reference  to  the  latter  Mr.  Jackson  says  :  "  He  thought 
it  not  unbecoming  to  manifest  to  one  so  much  respected  as 
Gilpin  his  usual  dictatorial,  if  not  acrimonious  humour."  ^' 

1.  Miscel.,  p.  124. 

2.  Great  Salkeld,  &c.,  p.  68. 

3.  Al.  Ox. 

4.  Vide  p.  371.  A  pedigree  of  the  family  appears  in  vol.  i,  p.  48,  of 
the   Trans.    (N.S.). 

5.  Gilpin  Memoirs,  edited  by  Wm.  Jackson,  F.S.A.,  p.  15,  note. 

Great  Salkeld  ^,6^ 

Mr.  Loftie  states  that  William  Nicolson  was  "  born  June 
3rd,  1655,  but  it  is  not  known  for  certain  where,  most 
likely  at  Plumbland,  his  father,  Joseph  Isicolson,  having 
been  rector  there  till  his  death  in  1686.  We  cannot  find 
the  register  of  his  son,  William's  birth,  as  the  registers 
of  that  parish,  unfortunately,  do  not  go  back  so  far.  The 
*  History  '  of  Xicolson  and  Burn  is  plainly  wrong  when  it 
says  that  he  was  born  at  Orton,  as  his  father  was  never 
rector  there,  nor  does  his  name  occur  in  the  registers  which 
are  in  existence  from  1568."  ^  Two  or  three  errors  appear 
in  that  passage.  Joseph  Xicolson,  for  example,  was  not 
continuous  Rector  of  Plumbland  until  his  death.  That 
living  was  in  other  possession  from  about  1648  to  the 
Restoration.  Nor  is  Mr.  Loftie  correct  in  saying  that 
Joseph  Nicolson  was  never  at  Great  Orton.  He  certainly 
was  there  in  1657  ;2  and  Nicolson  and  Burn  are  right 
in  claiming  that  as  William  Nicolson's  birthplace.  It  is 
no  surprise  that  his  name  cannot  be  found  in  the  Registers 
of  Great  Orton,  because  a  gap  occurs  in  them  from  1627 
to  1665,  occupied  only  by  two  bits  of  parchment,  very 
imperfectly  kept.  Hutchinson  also  correctly  gives  Orton 
as  the  place  of  his  birth  and  states  that  he  was  "  the  son 
of  the  rector  of  that  parish."  ^  William  Nicolson's  early 
education  was  obtained  at  Dovenby  School,  near  Bride- 
kirk,  whence  he  went  to  Queen's  College,  where  he  matri- 
culated, July  1,  1670,  at  the  age  of  15.  He  graduated 
B.A.  Feb.  23,  1675-6,  was  Fellow  and  M.A.  in  1679,  and 
became  D.D.,  by  Diploma,  June  25,  1702.  He  was  fortu- 
nate in  the  friendship  of  Sir  Joseph  Williamson,  who, 
early  in  Nicolson's  career,  proved  also  to  be  a  generous 
patron.     In  1671  Nicolson's  father  writes  as  follows:  — 

Honoured  Sr. 

As  it  hath  pleased  God  to  advance  yu  to  an  eminent  trust  in  the 
management  of  the  publiq  affaires  of  this  nation,  so  it  hath  pleased 
him  also  to  give  yu  (which  is  the  greater  mercy)  a  large  heart,  which 
inclines  yu  to  lay  out  yor  interest  for  the  advancement  of  piety  and 

1.  Great  Salkeld,  &c.,  p.  73. 

2.  Vide  p.  230. 

3.  Hutchinson,  vol.  ii,  p.  634. 


The   Ejected    of  1662 

learning,  especially  in  those  places,  to  which  yu  have  had  any  fornrr 
relation,  whereof  as  I  have  had  frequent  &  credible  reports,  so  I  have 
now  comfortable  experience,  by  your  late  bounty  to  my  sonne,  once  a 
scholar  at  Dovenby,  now  a  student  in  Queen's  Colledge.  For  which 
undeserved  kindnesse,  I  desire  and  shall  allwayes,  indeavor  to  expresse 
my  gratefullnesse.  And  though  I  cannott  requite,  God  will  reward 
your  charity.  But  if  eyther  yor  selfe  or  any  of  your  relations  in  these 
parts  have  any  occasion  or  opportunity  to  make  use  of  mee,  I  shall  bee 
ready  to  expresse  my  Selfe,  as  I  am  obliged  to  bee  (Sr) 

Yor  very  gratefull,  affectionate 

Plumland  Jun. 

13.  1671. 

plumbland  13th 
June.     E.  17th  71. 

Jos.  Nicholson.' 

&  humble  Servant 

Jos.  Nicholson. 

For  his  Honoured  friend 
Joseph  Williamson  Esq. 
At  Whitehall 
London  these. 

In  1678  Sir  Joseph  sent  him  "  to  Leipsick  in  order  to 
get  acquainted  with  the  high  Dutch  and  other  septen- 
trional languages.  Here  he  translated  an  essay  of  Mr. 
Hook's  towards  a  proof  of  the  motion  of  the  earth  from 
the  sun's  parallax,  out  of  English  into  Latin,  which  was 
there  printed  by  the  professor  who  put  him  upon  it."  ^ 
His  first  living  was  at  Torpenhow,  in  Nov.  1681,  when  he 
became  at  the  same  time  a  Prebendary  of  the  Cathedral; 
and  the  following  year  he  received  in  addition  the  Great 
Salkeld  living  along  with  the  Archdeaconship.  In  1698 
he  relinquished  Torpenhow  and  obtained  Addingham.^ 
"  In  1702,"  write  Nicolson  and  Burn,  "  on  the  eve  of 
Ascension  day  he  was  elected  bishop  of  Carlisle,  confirmed 
June  3,  and  consecrated  June  14  at  Lambeth;  which 
promotion  was  obtained  by  the  interest  of  the  house  of 
Edenhall."  * 

Among  his  friends  he  numbered  Thoresby,  the  anti- 
quarian, who  thus  writes  of  him  :  — 

This  year  1690,  also  began  my  correspondence  with  the  Rev.   Mr. 

Nicholson,   then   archdeacon,   and   since   Bishop   of   Carlisle,    a   most 

1.  S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  ii,  vol.  290,  No.  202. 

2.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  293. 

3.  Vide  p.  582. 

4.  Nicolson  and  Burn,  vol.  ii,  p.  294. 


Great  Salkeld  365 

learned  and  ingenious  antiquary,  from  whom  I  have  received  many 
instructive  letters  upon  those  subjects,  and  in  return  communicated 
some  matters  that  were  not  unacceptable  to  his  Lordship.i 

As  intimated  by  Thoresby,  Bishop  Nicolson  was  as  keen 
an  antiquarian  as  bimself,  and  the  letters  which  passed 
between  them  kept  well  to  this  domain.  Rarely  did  they 
touch  upon  Church  matters,  though  Thoresby,  as  a  IS'on- 
conformist,  was  a  very  moderate  one.  In  one  letter, 
however,  dated  from  Westminster,  Dec.  22,  1702,  Nicolson 
has  one  or  two  personal  items  of  interest.  Referring  to 
Thoresby's  letter,  which  evidently  was  dated  June  3,  he 
says : — 

This  date  is  of  more  Concern  to  me  than  perhaps  any  other  man. 
I  was  born  on  June  3.  1655,  married  the  very  day  this  letter  was 
penned,  June,  3.  1636,  and  confirmed  Bishop  June  3.  1702.  2 

Thoresby's  letters  and  diaries  tell  also  a  very  interesting 
story  of  an  attempted  love  match  in  which  Nicolson 
played  a  prominent  part.  "A  Cumberland  gentleman 
Esquire  Salkeild,"  of  Torpenhow,  wished  to  arrange  a 
marriage  with  Thoresby's  sister  in  law,  the  daughter  of 
Mrs.  Sykes.  The  two  chief  difficulties  seem  to  have  been 
religion  and  the  impoverished  condition  of  the  Squire's 
estate.  Thoresby  was  commissioned  to  go  peregrinating 
through  Cumberland  with  a  view  to  enquiries,  and  among 
those  whom  he  visited  was  George  Larkham.  Under  date 
Sept.  20,  1694,  he  says:  — 

[At  Whitehaven] 

Honest    ilr.   Atkinson,    the   ship    master,    who   wrote    an   obliging 
letter,   to  recommend  us   to   Mr.   Larkham,   for   further   instructions 
about  Mr.  Salkeld,  though  little  expectations  of  success. 
Sept.  21. 

We  rode  to  Tallentire  to  consult  Mr.  Larkham,  the  Nonconformist 
Minister,  to  whom  Mr.  Atkinson  recommended  us,  (son  to  a  good  old 
Puritan,  some  of  whose  works  are  in  print)  about  Mr.  S.  but  received 
the  strongest  reasons  imaginable  against  it,  and  not  fit  to  be  com- 
municated but  to  very  choice  friends  concerned ;  he  walked  with  us  to 
Mr.  Fletcher's,  Copper  Grove,  where  they  are  beginning  to  mine  for 

1.  Thoresby's  Diaries,  vol.  i,  p.  196. 
2-  Thoresby's  Letters,  vol.  i,  p.  428. 

366  The   Ejected    of  1662 

the   mineral  ore    which    abounds   in   this    County ;    thence,    after   a 
consultation,  we  rode  over  the  Moors  directly,  to  Esquire  Salkeild's, 
who  being  all  abroad  at  Bothal  &c  about  the  harvest,  we  were  under 
a    necessity    to    comply  with    them    and  thankfully  accept  a    night's 
lodging,  though  against  my  inclination,  because  foreseeing  a  rupture 
He   speaks   about  "  honest  Parson  Robinson   of   Plumb- 
land  "  who  "  prayed  and  preached  very  affectedly  and  well 
from  Luke  x.  42."      At  dinner  he  "  enjoyed  the  modest 
parson's  good  company,"  and  tells  about  an  affecting  leave 
taking  with  him  "  Parson  Holmes  "  and  others. 

Nicolson  who  was  then  Archdeacon,  and  who  had  the 
living  of  Torpenhow,  was  a  warm  advocate  of  this  match. 
He  says  he  hopes  to  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  Thoresby 
at  Leeds  when  he  accompanies  his  "  honest  parishioner 
on  so  good  an  errand;"  and  throughout  writes  with  the 
strength  and  passion  of  a  man  greatly  interested  in  the 
case.  In  reference  to  the  religious  difficulty,  Nicolson 
has  one  or  two  passages,  which  are  an  interesting  index 
to  his  character,  and  their  naivete  is  quite  charming.  He 
says : — 

I  must  do  the  young  lady  and  her  mother  the  justice  as  to  own  that 
the  whole  family  [Salkeld]  are  Conformists.  The  old  gentleman  is  as 
zealous  a  Protestant  in  opposition  to  Popery,  as  your  mother-in-law 
can  wish  for ;  and  I  dare  undertake  for  him  that  neither  she  nor  her 
daughter  shall  find  any  reason  to  complain  of  his  bigotry  any  farther. 
Only,  she  must  give  me  leave  to  hope  that  I  may  be  allowed  to 
endeavour  to  bring  both  her  and  her  daughter  to  their  parish  church 
(together  with  the  rest  of  their  relations)  where  I  shall  be  so  happy 
as  to  have  them  within  the  verge  of  my  Cure.  [He  was  then  at 
Torpenhow.]  I  do  faithfully  promise  them  that  they  shall  not  be 
railed  at,  neither  in  the  church  nor  at  home,  if  I  cannot  fairly  prevail 
with  them.  The  women  I  am  sensible  must  be  tenderly  dealt  with  as 
weaker  vessels,  notwithstanding  the  passionate  Concern  that  you  and 
I,  as  antiquaries  may  have  for  the  primitive  discipline  of  our  Church. 

Later  he  says  that  he  has  had :  — 

Occasion  to  discourse  the  old  gentleman  himself  and  can  now  peremp- 
torily engage  for  him  that  in  case  this  treaty  goes  forward,  he  shall 
not  press  either  your  mother-in-law  or  her  daughter  to  any  compliance 
in  religious  worship.  But  still  I  must  be  allowed  to  prevail  with  them, 
if  I  can  do  it  fairly. 

1.  Diaries,  vol.  i,  pp.  270,  273. 

Great  Salkeld  367 

All  this  notwithstanding  Thoresby  enters  in  his  Diary 
under  date  Sep.  29,  1694,  that  after  discoursing  with 
relations  and  others  in  reference  to  the  concern  he  is 
■"  writing  to  Esquire  S.  to  prevent  any  further  proceeds."  ^ 
Bishop  Nicolson  and  Dr.  Todd  were  the  two  men  upon 
whom  Walker  mainly  depended  for  information,  in 
reference  to  Cumberland  when  compiling  his  "  Sufferings 
■of  the  Clergy."  Their  communications,  which  were  some- 
what lengthy,  are  among  the  Walker  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian 
Library,  and,  as  they  are  most  illuminating  in  many  ways, 
they  are  printed  here  in  extenso  :  — 

Sr  Jan.  27.  1704/5. 

In  the  beginning  of  this  week,  I  had  your  Letter  in  one  from  Mr. 
Clavel ;  who  is  now  confined  with  the  gowt.  I  have  assur'd  him, 
that,  as  soon  as  I  return  to  my  Diocese,  I  will  endeavour  to  procure 
Such  Answers  to  your  Queries  as  may  be  to  your  Satesfaction.  My 
Father  was  one  of  those  that  were  ejected  by  the  Rump- Visiters,  his 
Crime  being  his  Serving  the  King  (before  he  was  in  Orders)  under  the 
Command  of  Sr  Philip  Musgrave.  When,  on  the  Restoration  of  K. 
Charles  the  Second,  he  recover'd  his  parsonage,  the  Usurper  (who  had 
«njoyd  the  Liveing  about  a  dozen  years,  complain'd  of  persecution ; 
and  may  now,  for  anything  I  know,  make  one  of  Mr.  Calamy's 
Confessors ;  His  name  was  Gawin  Eglesfield ;  an  illiterate  fellow, 
that  had  not  so  much  Learneing  as  would  honestly  qualify  him  to  be 
an  Usher  in  a  Country-Schole.2 

A  friend  of  mine  is  about  to  publish  a  short  List  of  our  English 
Deans  with  the  Date  of  their  Several  Instalments,  Removals,  or 
Obits  :  And  wants  such  a  Catalogue  of  those  of  Exeter.  If  you  can 
speedily  furnish  me  with  such  an  one  'twill  be  very  obliging.  I 
suppose  this  Session  of  Parliament  may  continue  about  three  weeks ; 
and  so  long  a  Letter  directed  to  Mrs.  Real's  in  the  Old  Palace-yard 
at  Westminster  will  come  safe  to  Sr 

Your  affectionate  Brother 
W.  Carliol. 

Since  I  wrote  my  Letter  Mr.  Clavel  has  sent  me  a  bundle  of  your 
Queries ;  of  wch  I  will  take  effectual  Care ;  if  God  continues  my  Life, 
Health  and  peace  in  the  Borders — I  have  also  another  of  your  Letters 
from  Mr.  Dean  of  Exeter.  3 

1.  See  Thoresby's  Diaries  in  two  vols ;   also  Letters  in  two  vols. 

2.  Yet  he  was  an  Oxford  graduate,  vide  p.  587. 

3.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  2,  No.  109. 


The   Ejected   of  1662 

Aug.  6, 
Sr  1705 

I  had  your  Letter  by  the  last  post ;  and,  in  answer  to  it,  can  assure 
you  that  I  have  been  far  fro  being  unmindful  of  Mr.  Walker's 
Queries.  I  got  'em  despers'd  by  Mr.  Chancr.  at  his  Visitation;  And 
I  have  had  several  considerable  Returns  (one  particularly,  very  home 
upon  Mr.  Calamy)  which  I  design,  God  willing,  to  bring  up  with  me 
at  ye  next  Session  of  Parliament.  My  Diocese  is  but  of  a  small 
extent,  not  exceeding  a  hundred  parishes ;  and  perhaps  this  Comer 
of  Our  Kingdome  was  not  so  nicely  sifted  as  ye  rest.  If  there  be  need 
for  hastening  our  Contributions  (small  as  they  are)  upon  the  first 
notice  they  shall  be  speeded  by  Yr  humble  Sert. 

W.  Carliol.i 

[This  was  sent  to  Clavel,  Walker's  publisher,  who  was  collecting 
the  information.] 

Rose,  Aug. 
Sr  20,  1705. 

The  Account  you  are  pleas'd  to  give  me  of  Mr.  Fulman's  Collec- 
tions is  very  obligeing.  If  there  be  any  Notes  in  these  that  relate 
to  the  Diocese  of  Carlile,  or  that  either  Correct  or  enlarge  upon  what 
Goodwin  has  said  of  the  Bishops  of  this  See  I  shall  be  thankful  for 
any  short  Abstract  of  'em. 

Upon  consulting  of  A.  Wood's  Catalogue  of  the  Priors,  Deanes  &c. 
of  my  own  Cathedral  (in  Fol.  262  of  ye  Collection  to  which  you 
kindly  refer  me  amongst  the  Oxford  MSS)  I  found  his  Lists  so  very 
lame  and  defective  that  I  durst  not  depend  upon  what  Reports  he 
made  from  other  Churches.  I  am  sure,  my  friend  (for  whose  use  I 
gave  you  and  others  the  trouble  of  makeing  your  late  Searches)  will 
rectify  a  great  many  Mistakes  in  the  Athenae  Oxonienses;  which 
must  be  suppos'd  to  agree  with  these  MS.  Catalogues. 

I  took  care  (in  performance  of  my  promise  to  have  your  Queries 
despers'd  by  my  Chancellour  at  his  last  Summer's  Visitation  :  And 
there  are  some  Returns  made  which  I  shall  (God  willing)  bring  with 
me  to  London  at  the  next  Session  of  Parliament.  There's  one  of 
these  which  very  particularly  confutes  the  false  Account  which  Mr. 
Calamy  has  given  to  the  pretended  hardships  that  were  put  upon 
the  ejected  Rector  of  Greystock,  who  was  indeed  an  Intruder,  and 
on  Another  who  (before  ye  Restoration)  never  pretended  to  handle  a 
Text,  tho.  that  Author  makes  him  likewise  one  of  his  Confessors. 
You  may  also  expect  a  List  of  those  Dignitaries  of  this  Church  that 
SufTer'd  (as  some  of  'em  did  very  severely)  in  the  generall  Overthrow. 

I  am 
For  the   Revd    Mr.    Walker  Sr 

Rector  of  St.   Mary's  Your  very  affectionate 

in  Exeter.  Bro.  W.   Carliol.2 

1.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  2,  No.  111. 

2.  Ihid.,  C.  2,  No.  113. 


Great  Salkeld  369 

Rose,  Sep. 
Sr  20,  1705. 

I  am  oblig'd  to  you  for  the  kind  care  you  are  pleas'd  to  take  in 
procureing  for  me  those  helps  that  may  be  had  from  Mr.  Fulman's 
papers,  towards  the  illustrateing  ye  History  of  this  Diocese ;  which 
has  long  been  part  of  my  Study,  and  is  like  to  continue  so  as  long 
as  I  live. 

By  God's  Assistance,  I  hope  to  be  in  London  about  the  opening  of 
the  Parliament ;  and  I  shall  bring  with  me  such  Accounts  as  my 
Clergy  have  return'd,  in  Answer  to  your  Queries.  They  are  not 
many.  But  some  of  'em  will  be  thought  very  pertinent.  In  forty 
years  time  the  Eemembrance  of  those  Oppressions  is  (in  many  places) 
quite  vanish'd ;  and  I  wish  ^Ir.  Calamy  had  given  no  occasion  for 
rakeing  together  out  of  ye  Ashes  those  few  Shreds  that  remain. 

I  have  this  day  put  (my  good  friend)  Dr.  Gibson  in  mind  of  the 
promise  he  made  you  in  relation  to  the  Dignitaries  &c  of  Chichester. 
I  wonder  he  should  never  carry  me  into  that  Room  at  Lambeth, 
wherein  (you  tell  me)  there  are  so  many  Surveys  of  Parishes.  I  doubt 
they  have  been  all  taken  within  the  province  of  Canterbury.  Our 
Dean  and  Chapter  have  such  Surveys,  taken  by  the  Commissioners 
of  those  powers  yt  were  in  ye  late  dayes  of  Rebellion  of  all  the  Lands 
Rents  &  Tenemts)  in  the  several  Mannours  belonging  to  their  own 
Body,  and  there  is  likewise  (here,  in  my  Custody)  an  imperfect 
Collection  of  such  Terriers  of  ye  Bishop's  Lands  :  But  I  have  not 
heard  of  any  Remains  of  their  Surveys  of  the  parishes  in  this  Diocese. 
The  meeting  with  these,  at  Lambeth  or  elsewhere,  would  be  a  great 
pleasure  to  me. 

I  heartily  beseech  God  to  strengthen  you  in  all  your  Labours  for  the 
Service   of  his   Church.     And   am  ever 

Your  affectionate  Brother 
and  humble  Servant 
W.  Carliol. 
[This  was  sent  to  Mr.  Walker.]' 

The  following  in  response  to  tlie  Bishop's  enquiries  was 
sent  from  Thos.  Gibbon  of  Greystoke  :  — 

Graystcck.  Val.  Near  3001i  p  ann 
William  Morland  A.M.  of  Jesus  College  in  Cambridge  ejected 
Septr  1650  as  by  a  memr  under  his  own  hand  Dat.  Septr  17,  1650. 
After  his  ejectmt  it  lay  void  some  time  &  then  succeeded  one  ]Mr. 
West,  of  whom  I  can  learn  no  more,  but  yt  abt  2  years  end  He  died 
here,  then  came  Dr.   Gilpin,  who  staid  here  till  Mr.   Morland  came 

1.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  2,  No.  115. 

370  The   Ejected    of   1662 

agn  to  claim  his  own.  So  yt  I  cant  see  how  ]Mr.  Calamy  can  say 
he  left  a  good  living  for  his  Nonconformity,  besides  if  I  have  not 
been  wrong  informed  ye  Dr.  was  not  so  willing  to  leave  Gr.  but  if 
he  cd  ha'  perswaded  Mr.  M.  to  ha  quit  claim  to  it,  he  wd  ha  ventur'd 
to  stay  there.  Perhaps  (as  Mr.  Cal.  says)  he  did  not  repent  ye 
exchange,  but  I  must  beleive  Mr.  C.  is  but  guesseing  at  ye  reason  & 
2  to  one  whether  our  guesses  meet.  I'm  sure  I  ha'  reason  to  Repent 
he  ever  was  there ;  for  besides  suffering  ye  houses  to  goe  to  decay, 
he  entirely  demolished  &  pulled  down  47  yds  of  building  in  length 
{as  I  have  it  to  shew  under  Dr.  Smallwoods  own  hand)  :  viz. 

a  byer  or  cowhouse  -  20  yds 

a  pt  of  ye  fratry    -  -      7 

pt  of  ye  oxhouse    -  -      5 
pt  of  ye  browhouse  6 

pt  of  ye  Great  barn  -      9 

and  as  I  have  been  47 

imformed   ye   timber 
was  all  Sold. 

Mr.  Calamy  likewise  reckons  Mr.  Anthony  Sleigh  as  ejected,  but 
wisely  leaves  his  reader  to  guess  fro  whence.  Whilst  Dr.  Gilpin  held 
Gr.  he  was  his  Servt.  (&  as  I  have  been  told,  in  no  very  high  Station) 
'tis  true,  he  gather'd  a  Congregation  at  Penruddock  in  ye  Parish  of 
Gr.  wch  He  kept  up  till  his  Death  (wch  happend  abt  3  or  4  years 
ago)  So  yt  I  think  we  may  make  a  fair  queeri  fro  whence  he  was 

My  Lord 

These  are  ye  best  Memrdums  I  can  get  concerning  things  wch 
happend  soe  long  since,  &  in  a  Country  to  wch  yr  Ldship  knows  I 
was  born  a  Stranger,  if  they  are  not  put  into  ye  method  they  shd  in 
order  to  an  Answer  to  Queeries,  if  yor  Ldship  pleases  to  give  me 
directions  I  shall  do  my  best  to  observe  them,  being 

My  Ld. 

Yr  Lordship's 
In  all  Duty 
Tho  :  Gibbon. 
Graystock,  June  30,   1707. 

This  letter  was  sent  to  the  Bishop,  who  pens  the  following 
on  one  side  :  — 

Neither  Mr.  Morland  nor  any  of  the  other  five  mentiond  in  these 
papers,  had  either  a  Fifth  (or  any  other  share)  of  the  profits  of  their 
Benefices ;  dureing  their  Sequestration.  Mr.  West  was  the  onely 
Surviveing  Member  of  ye  Chapter  at  the  Restoration  of  K.  Ch.  2. 


Great  Salkeld  371 

This  is  followed  thus  :  — 

Besides  the  enclosed  [Gibbon's  letter]  (wch  is  most  home  on  Mr. 
Calamy)  I  had  little  return'd  worth  sending  fro  ye  Diocese  of  Carlile. 
The  other  Clergy-men  of  note,  who  lived  to  be  restor'd  to  yir  Liveings 
in  1660  were  : 

1.  Lewis  West  M.A.    Prebendary  &   Vicar  of  Addingham  in  Cum- 


2.  Bernard  Eobinson  M.A.  Vicar  of  Torpenhow  in  Cumberland. 

3.  Joseph  Nicolson  M.A.  Rector  of  Plumbland  in  Cumberland. 

4.  Will  :    Curwen  M.A.   Vicar  of   Crosby-Eavensworth  in  Westmer- 


5.  Arthur  Savage  M.A.   Rector  of  Brougham  in  Westmerland.' 

To  this  may  be  appended  the  following  extract  from  a 
letter  dated  "  Ap.  6,  1706,  Hacknes,"  signed  by  "  Phi, 
Sydenham,"  who  was  one  of  Walker's  largest  corres- 
pondents :  — 

Of  Carlile  I  hav  onely  Mr.  West  who  survived  wm  I  gav  yu  an 
Acct  of  before  ye  Same  I  suppose  yt  ye  prest  Bp.  hav  giv  yu  he  told 
me  he  cold  detect  sevl  gross  mistakes  wch  I  suppose  he  hav  sent  yu 
unless  he  is  afraid  to  desplease  Cant.  &  Godolphin.  I  beleiv  his  own 
ffather  was  a  temporizer  Vicar  of  Plumbtree  [Plumbland]  in  Cumberld 
&  I  am  afraid  ye  son  has  an  itch  of  it  too  but  yt  is  not  Strang  or 
unusual  wth  Scots  nay  a  desease  yt  reigns  &  rages  too  much  wth  us 
God  preserve  me  fro  it.2 

Dr.  Todd's  communications  are  as  follow :  — 

I  am  much  obliged  to  you  for  many  favours.  I  had  my  Brother's 
Letter  inclosed  by  you ;  &  sent  it  to  Him  to  Chatham,  where  he 
then  was.  He  is  now  (as  He  tells  me)  for  the  West  Indies  again; 
And  hopes  to  Return,  with  better  success.  If  he  owe  you  anything 
lett  me  know  :  &  I  will  doe  what  I  can ;  that  you  may  have  what  is 
due  to  you. 

I  see  in  ye  Gazet  that  you  are  about  printing  an  Acct  of  Sufferers 
in  ye  late  Rebellion  Lett  me  know,  who  undertakes  the  Work  -.  &  if 
you  have  no  particular  Accounts  from  the  North  I  shall  be  ready  to 
give  you  the  best  Information  I  can.  Such  a  Work,  should  be  as 
Compleat  as  possible,   that  None   Complain  of  omissions.     With  my 

1.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  2,  No.  489. 

2.  Ibid.,  C.  3,  No.  107. 

372  The   Ejected   of  1662 

Service  to  Mrs.  Clavell ;  and  your  son  Tully  &  all  friends.     I  am  with 
Great  Trueth 

Your  very  assured  frd  [friend]  to  Serve 
Penrith  Apr.   1,   1704.  you 

Hugh  Todd.^ 

You  are  pleased  to  desire  of  me  an  Account  of  the  Sufferings  of  the 
Clergy  of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle  during  the  time  of  the  great  Rebellion 
and  Usurpation.  The  Diocese  of  Carlisle,  as  it  lyes  next  to  Scotland, 
so  upon  the  Invasion  of  the  Scots  in  ye  begining  of  ye  Civil  Warrs, 
it  suffer'd  extremely  in  Taxes  and  Impositions  for  the  Subsistance  of 
their  Army  :  and  the  Clergy  more  then  any  others.  Upon  the  death 
of  Barnaby  Potter  Bp  of  Carlisle  1641  :  The  most  Reverend  Dr. 
Jamfes  Ussher  ABp  of  Armaugh  who  had  then  fled  into  England  upon 
acct  of  the  Rebellion  &  Massacre  in  Ireland,  had  the  Bprick  bestowd 
upon  Him  in  Comendam  by  the  King.  The  Recomendamus  bears 
Date  the  16th  of  Febr.  Regn  17  (1642)  By  Vertue  of  it,  He  Comis- 
sions  Isaac  Singleton  Archdeacon  &  Chancellor  Lane  Dawes  D.D. 
and  the  rest  of  the  Prebendaries  of  Carlisle  &  Others,  to  grant 
Institutions  and  Exercise  Episcopal  Juresdiction  in  his  absence.  The 
Sufferings  of  that  Great  Prelate,  are  well  known ;  but  whether  they 
were  any  way  alleviated  by  any  Revenues  from  Carlisle  is  somewhat 
uncertain  for  the  Confusions  came  on  so  fast,  that  the  Stewards  and 
Agents  whom  He  employ'd  were  either  unable  to  gett  up  wt  might 
be  due  to  ye  Bprick,  or  what  they  did  receive,  was  not  paid  to  Him, 
as  it  ought  to  have  been.  When  the  Rebells  had  got  Power,  all 
Arrears  and  growing  Rents,  were  collected  for  their  Use,  by  one 
Barker  their  Agent,  who  destroy'd  the  Woods,  pillaged  the  Castle  of 
Rose,  the  Bps  Residence,  and  carry 'd  off  many  of  the  Stones  to 
build  his  own  House  &  barns.  He  did  not  live  long  after  the 
Restoracon ;  and  now  his  son  and  Posterity  are  gone,  &  The  Houses 
&  Land  sold.  About  ye  year  1645,  One  Mr.  Lowther,  who  had  been 
Constable  of  ye  Castle  of  Rose,  got  some  Provisions  and  Arms  and 
about  20  or  30  of  the  Tenants  into  ye  Castle,  and  thought  to  have  kept 
it  for  the  right  Power.  This  attempt  soon  allarmed  some  of  Coll 
Heveninghams  Regiment,  who  then  lay  in  ye  County,  who  imediately 
came  &  beat  out  ye  poor  Garreson  &  sett  fire  to  ye  Place,  wch  burnt 
down  the  best  &  greatest  part  of  it,  wch  remains  unrepaird  to  this 
day.  Heveningham,  Sykes  &  some  other  officers  of  the  Rebeil  Army 
had  the  woods.  Lands,  &  Revenues  both  of  ye  Bp.  &  Dean  &  chapter, 
for  their  Debentures ;  who  sold  them  at  easy  Rates  to  gentm  and 
Others  of  ye  County,  who  were  of  their  Interest.  In  the  begining 
of  ye  Civil  Warrs  Thomas  Comber  D.D.  and  Master  of  Trinity  Coll. 
Cambr  was  Dean  of  Carlisle.  He  was  promoted  to  that  character 
by  K.  C.  1,  reg.  5.     He  seldom  came  at  Carlisle  so  nothing  is  known 

1.  Walker  MSS.,  C.  1,  fol.  33. 

Great  Salkeld  i^y^ 

particularly  of  Him  or  his  Sufferings  in  that  Place.     He  was  a  very 
Learned  man,  &  a  great  Sufferer ;  being  Ejected  out  of  his  Deanery 
and  all  other  his  Prefermts.     He  dy'd  about  ye  Time  of  ye  Resteraon. 
The  Canons  or  Prebendaries  of  Carlisle  A.D.   1641  were  Lancelot 
Dawes  D.D.    Lewes   West   M.A.   Richard   Smith  B.D.'    &   Frederick 
Tonstall    A.M.    four   being   their   Number.     They   were  All    men   of 
Marck  and  Learning  and  All  suffer'd  togeather  in  the  Cause  of  the 
King  and  Church.     In  ye  year,  1643,  upon  the  Death  of  Mr.  Smith 
Mr.  Henry  Hutton,  a  very  Learned  and  Reverend  Person,  son  to  the 
Eminent  Judge  Hutton  and  R«ctor  of  Long  Marton,  in  ye  Diocese, 
was  Collated  to  ye  4th  Prebend,  by  the  ArchBp.,  but  the  Confusions 
of  the  Times,  were  so  great,  that  he  never  enjoy'd  any  Benefit  by 
the  Promotion ;  nor  did  he  live  till  the  Reestablishmt  of  the  Church. 
The  City  of   Carlisle,   with  ye  Walls  of  wch  the  Cathedral   Church 
stands  tho  separated  from  ye  Town  by  an  Inclosure,  in  ye  year  1644 
&  1645  endur'd  a  Seige  and  Blockade  of  16  or  18  months,  and,  was 
One  of  the  last  Garrisons  that  surrender'd  to  the  Rebell  Party  Upon 
Articles  of  Surrendry  to  David  Lesley  Lieutennt  Genii  of  the  Scotch 
Cavalry,   the    Fairish    &    Windows    of   the    Cathedral,    were    to   be 
preserv'd  entire  and  ye  Members  of  the  College  then  Resident  were 
to  remain  unmolested.     But  shortly  after,  other  Soldiers  being  sent  to 
Garrison  the  Fort,   and  the  King's  Interest  declining  all  manner  of 
Sacrilegious  violence  was  Comitted.     The  Books,  Records,  and  Muni- 
ments of  the  Cathedral  were  burnt,  torn,  dispersed  or  embessel'd  (?). 
The  Chapter  wch  was  a  very  elegant  Building,  the  Houses  of 
ye    Canons    &     ^Minor-Canons ;     the    Dormitory,    the    Cloisters    and 
almost   the    whole   Fairish   of   the    College,    was    demolishd,   and    the 
Stones,  Timber  and  Lead  converted  to  the  private  use  of  those,  who 
had   Usurped  the  Place  &   Power  of  their  Lawfull   Superiors.     And 
wch  was  the  greatest  Violance  of  all,  the  .prevailing  Rebells,  order'd 
the  Soldiers  to  pull  down  the  Porch,  wch  was  very  magnificent,  and 
the  Body,  of  the  Parochiall  Church  of  St.   Maries,  wch  joins  to  the 
Cathedrall  and  to  blow  up  the  Pillars  with  Gunpowder  :   And  em- 
ploy'd  the  Materials  to  build  a  Main  Guard  in  ye  Market  Place,  and 
three  Guard  Chambers,  at  the  three  Gates  of  the  City,  wch  remain 
to  this  day,  both  a  Blemish  to  ye  Cathedral,  and  a  Reflexion  on  ye 
.  Piety  of  better  Times.     About  ye  year  1657  the  Cathedral  growing 
ruinous  by  ye  neglect  of  its  Reparacons ;  a  Contract  was  made  by  ye 
Usurpers  for  the  Sale  of  the  Lead  and  Materials;  and  Soldiers  were 
order'd  to  pull  it  down.     They   were   got  upon  the   Roof,   and  had 
certainly   executed  their   Comands,  had   not  the  then   :Mayor   of  the 

1.  Under  date  April  20,  1642,  Doctor  Dawes  and  "]Mr.  Richard 
Smyth"  are  given  as  "Divines  fit  to  be  consulted  in  relation  to  Church 
matters"  in  Cumberland  (C.  J.,  vol.  ii,  p.  535). 

374  The    Ejected   of  1662 

City  Mr.  Tullie  prevaild  with  ye  Comandant,  to  stay  the  Execution 
of  his  Orders  till  he  might  heare  from  ye  Governmt  wt  their  Inten- 
tions were.  In  the  mean  time  Cromwell  sickens  &  dyes ;  and  ye 
Cathedral  stands,  as  a  Monument  of  that  fortunate  Period. 

The  Sufferings  of  the  Parochial  Clergy  of  ye  Diocess  of  Carlisle, 
were  as  great,  considering  the  paucity  of  their  numbers,  and  the 
meanness  of  their  Prefermts  as  of  any  Diocess  in  ye  Kingdom.  Their 
Persecutors  had  several  Comittees  composed  chiefly  of  Tradesmen  and 
Inferior  Persons.  These  were  Ambulatory,  and  remov'd  from  Place 
to  place  as  they  saw  occasion ;  the  Chief  Residence  was  at  New 
Castle  upon  Tine.  Some  of  their  Ministers  were  mix'd  with  these 
Comittee-men ;  but  alwaies  of  a  lesser  number  then  their  Justices  of 
Peace  and  Tradesmen.  The  Episcopal  Clergy,  when  they  were  con- 
ven'd  before  these  Judges  to  answer  for  themselves  &  their  Doctrines 
could  not  but  observe,  that  the  Men  of  Trade,  who  were  got  upon  ye 
Bench,  such  as  Caister  Studholme  Langhorn  &c  were  alwaies  most 
busy,  and  asked  them  the  most  Questions  whereas  some  gentlemen 
who  were  misledd  into  their  Interests ;  and  some  Military  Officers 
who  had  more  breeding  &  generosity  treated  them  with  Civility  & 
Respect  and  were  ready  on  all  occasions  to  doe  them  all  ye  good 
offices  they  could  or  durst  doe. 

The  Questions  they  asked  them  were,  generally  about  ye  Justice 
of  their  own  Proceedings,  the  Divine  Right  of  their  Church  Governmt ; 
about  Grace  and  Election  &c.  And  to  one  who  was  willing  to  submit 
his  gifts  to  their  Tryall,  they  gave  a  Text  out  of  ye  7th  to  ye  Rom. 
I  find  amongst  the  Papers  of  one  who  was  a  Sufferer  [Mr.  Thomas 
Todd  Rector  of  Hutton  my  Father]  in  those  Times  that  when  he  was 
convend  before  the  Comittee  he  was  ask'd  by  a  Shop  Keeper  one  of 
his  Judges,  who  was  the  best  Interpreter  of  Scripture.  And  when 
he  had  given  a  good  &  proper  answer  to  such  a  wild  Question  the 
next  Interrogation  was,  Do  you  ever  use  the  Lord's  Prayr.  And  in 
a  short  time  He  was  Ejected  out  of  his  Living,  and  One  Jackson,  a 
bawling.  Illiterate  Man  put  in  his  Place,  who  held  it  and  another 
Parish,  during  the  whole  time  of  the  Usurpation.  When  this  Person 
and  Others  of  the  same  Judgmt  were  sent  for  under  Custody  to 
Carlisle  and  there  kept  as  Prisoners  for  some  time,  all  that  was  laid 
to  their  charge  was  that  they  Baptiz'd  Children,  Visited  ye  Sick,  and 
sometimes  preach 'd  privately,  to  their  Parishoners  &  Others.  They 
were  very  Inquisitive  into  ye  Lives  &  Convsacons  of  the  Regular 
Clergy,  and  if  they  could  find  the  least  fault  there,  they  proclaim'd 
it  with  all  possible  aggravations,  and  declar'd  them  to  be  Ejected  as 
Scandalous  Ministers,  One  was  Ejected  avowedly  for  hunting  and 
going  to  a  Publick  House  :  Another's  Crime  was  that  he  worked  in 
his  Garden  on  ye  Sabbath  day  in  ye  Evening ;  and  to  another  waa 
imputed  the  Errors  of  his  Servants,  wch  he  could  not  prevent. 

Great  Salkeld  375 

The  most  Opulent  Liveing  in  ye  Diocess  is  the  Rectory  or  Collegiate 
Church  of  Graystock,  Mr.  Willm  Morland  A.M.  who  had  been 
Presented  to  it,  by  Thomas  Earl  of  Arundel  was  ejected  out  of  it ; 
&  the  Tiths  &  Glebe  lett  to  Farmers  :  and  one  Mr.  Rich  Gilpin,  who 
(as  I  have  heard)  was  bred  a  Queristier  at  Durham,  and  afterwards 
was  Usher  or  Master  of  the  Free  School  there,  and  who  following 
the  Interests  of  the  prevailing  Party  at  Durham  and  those  Parts ; 
was  appointed  to  supply  the  Place  and  take  Possession  of  ye  Par- 
sonage house  and  Revenues.  This  Mr.  Gilpin  was  a  Leading  Man 
of  the  Party.  He  comonly  Presided  as  Moderator  in  Private  Assem- 
blies ;  Printed  a  Sermon,  wch  he  preach'd  at  Keswick  with  a  Creed 
or  Confession  of  their  Faith,  wch  was  Licensed  by  Mr.  Tim.  Tullie, 
who  was  Moderator  pro  tempore ;  and  Published  some  Discourses  or 
Sermons  wch  he  had  Preach'd  at  Greystock  upon  Gal.  3,  1  and  was 
deservedly  esteem'd  a  Person  of  the  best  Learning  and  most  Modera- 
tion of  any  of  the  Presbyterian  Party  in  these  Parts.  After  the 
Restoration  of  Episcopacy  1660  He  practised  Physick  &  took  Degree 
in  that  Faculty  at  Leyden  and  tho'  he  came  in  to  ye  Measures  of 
King  James  1686  and  Addressd  that  Prince  from  the  Liberty  of 
Conscience  wch  he  graunted  and  kept  a  Meeting  house  at  New  Castle 
yet  he  was  so  well  satesfy'd  with  ye  Conduct  of  ye  Episcopall  Clergy 
during  that  Reign  that  he  frequently  came  to  Comon  Prayer  &  desir'd 
at  his  death  (as  I  have  been  told)  that  he  n~ight  be  bury'd  According 
to  the  Order  &  Rites  of  the  Establi-shed  Church. 

Mr.  Frederick  Tonstall  a  Person  of  Quality  and  Learning  was 
Ejected  out  of  ye  Rectory  of  Caldbeck ;  and  a  farr  less  deserving 
person  putt  in  his  Place,  Mr.  John  Haisty  lost  his  Vicaridge  of 
Penreth  &  one  Baldwin  a  stranger,  had  it  from  ye  Comittee.  Mr. 
Leonard  Milburn  Son  to  ye  Bp.  of  Carlisle  of  yt  Name  was  depriv'd 
of  the  Rectory  of  Skelton ;  Mr.  Arthur  Savage  of  the  Rectory  of  St. 
Ninians ;  Mr.  Thomas  Todd  of  ye  Rectory  of  Hutton  and  Mr.  Lewes 
West  of  the  Vicaridge  of  Adingham.  And  not  to  insist  upon 
Particulars  All  the  clergy  of  the  Diocess  were  Ejected  except  a  very 
few  :  and  in  their  Persons  &  Families  exposed  to  all  the  miseries  and 
Calamities  in  ye  World.  Their  Revenues  and  Glebes  were  sett  to 
Farme  by  Persons  Employ'd  for  that  purpose ;  and  the  Money  that 
arose  from  them,  was  paid  in  by  the  Farmers  to  the  Comittee,  who 
destributed  it  amo